Women’s work backpack

On topographic maps, terrain objects (rivers, settlements, roads, relief, factories, etc.) are depicted by conventional signs. Symbols are divided into scale (contour), out-of-scale and explanatory.

Large conventional signs depict terrain objects that are expressed at the scale of the map; dimensions of such objects (length, width, area) can be measured by the map, for example: the area of ​​forest, swamps, lakes, settlement. Non-scale conventional signs show terrain objects that are not expressed on the map scale, for example: a stand-alone tree, a kilometer pole, a house, a geodetic point, etc. Such objects are depicted in an exaggerated form, and their exact position on the map is determined by the main point of the conventional symbol. So, for example, the exact position of a state geodetic network point is in the geometric center of the figure of its symbol. The position of the main point of out-of-scale conventional symbols is shown on page 17 of the reference book. Explanatory symbols and signatures are used to further characterize terrain objects and display their varieties. For example, a fig tree of a coniferous or deciduous tree on the image of a forest shows the species of trees prevailing in it, the cross strokes on the railway symbol indicate the number of paths, and the numbers and letters on the highway symbol show the width and cover material. Explanatory symbols and signatures allow you to more fully explore the character of the area on the map. It should be borne in mind that when depicting individual objects of a terrain, a number of conventions are allowed on the map, for example: – when depicting settlements, only their outer contour, main streets and the closest buildings to intersections are plotted; the number of buildings shown does not usually reflect their real number, but only characterizes the density of buildings; – with a dense arrangement of homogeneous objects of the terrain (buildings, wells, burial mounds, etc.), concentrated on a small area, while maintaining the exact position, only the outermost of them are shown; – the middle between two lines representing highways corresponds to the middle of roads on the ground; the lines of conventional signs themselves do not correspond to the edges of roads in most cases; – the conventional sign of the factory, factory is located on the site corresponding to the location on the site of the factory pipe or, in its absence, the main building. Proper reading of the map is provided by good knowledge of conventional symbols. The conventional signs of topographic maps of all scales are the same in their overwhelming majority, and therefore the knowledge of conventional symbols of maps of scales 1: 25000, 1: 50,000 and 1: 100,000 makes it possible to read topographic maps of smaller scales. Symbols of maps of scales 1: 200000, 1: 500000 and 1: 1,000,000, differing from symbols of topographic maps of larger scales, are given in separate tables of the directory (pp. 43-55). This reference book contains conventional signs of topographic maps, established in 1963. Since the maps printed in the conventional signs of 1959 are still in use, the old reference signs that differ from the 1963 conventional signs are also included in the reference book (see pages 13, 19, 20 and 21). The size of most conventional symbols for clarity increased by two to three times compared with their actual size. Conventional signs of individual objects, which are good landmarks, are accompanied by perspective drawings for the greatest clarity. Explanations for the design of the frames of maps are given on page 77 of the reference book. For information on the nomenclature of map sheets, diagrams of graffiti sheets of various scales and samples of topographic maps, see pp. 71 – 93.

LIST OF CONDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS APPLIED ON TOPOGRAPHIC CARDS

A A asphalt, asphalt concrete (road covering material) aut. car factory alb. alabaster plant ang. hangar anil. anilino-colorful plant JSC autonomous region apat. apatite development ar. aryk (canal or ditch in Central Asia) art. K. Artesian well arch. archipelago asb. asbestos factory, quarry, mine ASSR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic asters. astronomical item asf. asphalt plant aird. airfield aerp. airport

BB cobble (road covering material) b., Ball. beam B., Bol. Big th th, th (part of the proper name) bar. hut bass. pool ber. birch (wood species) Bet. concrete (dam material) biol. Art. biological station bl.-p. checkpoint (railway) bol. Marsh Br cobblestone (road covering material) br. ford br. could mass grave b. tr. booth transformer bulg. Bulgunyakh (separate mound of natural education) boom. paper industry (factory, plant) drill. drilling rig, borehole. bay

In the viscous (soil of the bottom of the river) vag. car-repair, car-building plant vdkch. pumping station waterfall Art. waterworks vdhr. reservoir Great, th, th, th (part of his own name) slow. veterinary point of wine. wine-making, distillery vkz. station vlk. volcano waters. water tower Vys. Vyselki (part of its own name)

Г Г gravel (road covering material) gv. harbor gas. gas plant, gas tower, well gazg. gasholder (large gas tank) gal. haberdashery industry (factory, factory) pebble. pebble (product extraction) gar. garage hydrol. Art. hydrological station Ch. The main (part of its own name) clay. clay (product mining) clay. alumina hound plant. pottery factory mountains. hot spring guest. hotel g. mountain pass mud. mud volcano fuels and lubricants fuel (warehouse) g.-Sol. bitter-salty water (in lakes, springs, wells) gsp. hospital hydroelectric power station

D D wooden (bridge material, dam) courtyard det. D. Orphanage jute. jute factory D. O. rest house domostr. house-building factory wood industry (factory, factory) corner charcoal (product of burning) wood. wood warehouse trembled. yeast plant

E er. Erik (narrow deep channel connecting the river bed with a small lake)

ZhZB reinforced concrete (bridge material, dam) went. a glandular source, an iron ore mining site, a iron-dressing plant, yellowed. iron source Zap. Western, th, th, s (part of a proper name) zap. Zapan (backwater, river bay) zapov. Reserve backfill. covered well c. the backwater (bay on the river used for wintering and repairing ships) is a beast. Fur farm state farm, nursery Zem. earth (dam material)

3 land dugout mirror. mirror plant grain. grain farm winters. wintering, wintering evil. gold (mine, deposit) gold-plat. gold-platinum development

And games. toy factory izv. lime pit, lime (product of burning) emeg. emerald mines inst. institute claim fiber. artificial fiber (factory) ist. a source

K K stony (soil of the bottom of the river), crushed stone (road covering material), stone (bridge material, dams) K., k. Well kaz. barracks quarry, stone kam.-fractions. Stone Crushing Plant stb stone pillar cam. corner coal (product of extraction) can. channel rope. rope factory. kaol kaolin (product of extraction), karain karain concentration plant Karakul. Karakul farm svkhoz karant. quarantine ca. rubber plant, a plantation of rubber caeram. ceramic factory kin. cinematographic industry (factory, factory) brick. brick factory Cl clinker (road covering material) klh. collective farm leather. tannery coke. Coke Chemical Plant. feed mill compres. Art. compressor station con. horse farm, horse farm cond. confectionery factory hemp. hemp farm cannery boiler. hollow basin nomad camp Koshara Kr., Red. Red, -th, -th, -s (part of the proper name of the fort. Fortress of a large. Groats factory, a koroporushka cum. Idol of a chicken. Resort

Lag lagoon lacocr. paint factory Lev. Left, th, th, th (part of a proper name) forest. House Forester Forester. Forestry Lesp. sawmill years. Letnik, Letovka Lech. hospital LZS forest station lim. liman foliage. larch (wood species) flax. flax processing plant

M M metal (bridge material) m. Cape Mac. Pasta factory M., Mal. Small, th, th, s (part of a proper name) margar. margarine butter factory. oil mill maslodelny plant mash. engineering plant meb. furniture factory medl. copper smelter, combine copper. copper development met. metallurgical plant, metal products plant met. – arr. metal processing plant met. Art. meteorological station mech. fur factory OLS machine-livestock station min. mineral source MMS machine-reclamation station could. grave, grave mol. milk factory mol.-butcher. milk and meat state farm mon. monastery marble marble (product of extraction) MTM machine-tractor workshop MTF dairy products muses. instr. musical instruments (factory) torments. milling mill soaps. soap factory

Women's work backpack

H obs observation tower filled fullness nat env national district inactive oil oil production, oil refinery, oil storage, oil rig Nizh. Lower, -way, -ee, -th (part of a proper name) bottom. lowland nickname. nickel (product mining) New. New, -th, -th, -th (part of own name) About., Island, island, oaz island. oasis observ. observatory gatherer ravine sheep sheep farm smelter. refractory products (plant) oz. Lake Oct. October, th, th, th (part of its own name) op. conservatory ostr. n. stopping point (railway) dep. TSW Department of State Farm OTF farm factory willingly. hunting hut

Sandy (ground of the river bottom), arable land, pos. settlement pam. monument to couples. steam parf. perfumery and cosmetic factory pas. apiary per. pass (mountain), carriage dog. sand (product of extraction) caves. cave beers brewery pit. nursery food conc. food concentrates (plant) pl. platform (railway) plastic plastics (plant) boards. platinum (product of mining) of the tribes. breeding livestock farm Fruits Grape Farm. fruit and vegetable sovkhoz fruit. Fruit and Berry State Farm peninsula pog. stasis border post pogr. kmd Border commandant’s office pogruz. loading and unloading platform fire tower (depot, shed) polygr. printing industry (plant, factory) floor. Art. field camp threshold thresholds pos. square landing pad post. dv inn pr pond, strait, passage (under the overpass) Rights. Right, th, th, s (part of your own name) priest. marina prov. province provol. wire factory prot. duct strand. spinning factory PS Village Council PTF poultry farms put. n. travel post

R glad radio factory radio. radio station times. departure razv. ruins razr. shattered cut rubber products (factory, factory) rice. rice-breeding farm r. P. The working village PC District Council of ores. mine hands. sleeve of fish. fishery (factory, factory) fish. pos. fishing village

With san. sanatorium cap. barn sah. sugar factory sakh. reed. sugar cane (plantation) NE North-Eastern St. Holy, th, th, th (part of its own name) of St. over beets beet state farm pigs. Pig-breeding State Farm Lead. lead mine TSW. State Farm Sev. Northern, th, th, s (part of its own name) villages. Art. breeding station seed. seed farm sowing sulfur source, sulfur mine NW North-West Forces. silo tower silik. silicate industry (factory, factory) sk. rock skip rocks. turpentine plant skl. slate warehouse shale development resins. tar factory Sov. Soviet, th, th, th (part of a proper name) soy. state farm sol. salt water, salt, salt development, save SOP. sopka grade. Art. sorting station saved. Art. rescue station speech match factory Wed., Wed. Medium, -by, -s, -s (part of his own name) SS Village Council Art., Star. Old, -an, -oe, s (part of the proper name) of the stud. the stadium has become. steel mill mill. camp, camp stb. glass pillar glass factory art. transfer pumping station pages under construction materials materials plant STF pig farm court. ship repair, shipyard bitches. cloth factory dry. dry well sushi. drying s.-kh. agricultural s.-kh. mash agricultural engineering (plant)

Women's work backpack

T T solid (bottom of the river bed) tab. tobacco farm, a tobacco factory there. custom text. textile industry (plant, factory) ter. heap (waste dump of mines) tech. technical school comrade. Art. freight station tol. peat production plant. peat development tract. tractor factory trick. knitting factory tun. CHP tunnel combined heat and power plant

At the corner brown coal, stone (product of extraction) of a corner. – acid. carbon source ukr. strengthening ur. tract gr. gorge

F f. fort fact. trading post (trade settlement) fan. plywood factory farf. Porcelain and faience factory fer. farm fz. fanza firn. firn field (snow field of granular snow in high mountainous regions) phos. phosphate rock ft. fountain

X x., Hut. hut farm chemical hut chemical plant chem.-farm. Chemical-Pharmaceutical Plant bread factory clap. cotton farm, cotton ginning plant cold. refrigerator hr. chrome ridge. chrome mine crunch. crystal factory

C C cement concrete (road covering material) Ts., Center. Central, th, th, s (part of a proper name) color. non-ferrous metallurgy (plant) cement. cement factory

H teas. Tea-growing State Farm, Chayn. tea factory, met. ferrous metallurgy (plant) chug. iron foundry

Women's work backpack

Shah mine shiv. Shiver (rapids on the rivers of Siberia) cipher. slate plant w. school Shl slag (road covering material) shl. sluice gateway. twine factory pcs. gallery

Shch crushed stone (road covering material) ly. alkaline source

Uh ale. Elevator email Sub. electrical substation el.-st. power plant el. -techn. Electrotechnical plant ef.-masl. essential oil crops state farm, plant for the processing of essential oils

SE South-East South. Southern, th, th, th (part of own name) SW South-West legal entity. yurt

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