By the beginning of the 1930s, German naval aviation did not have at its disposal an aircraft capable of carrying out the tasks of patrolling and reconnaissance of large areas. Nor did she have torpedo bombers. In 1930, the command of the German Navy and aviation headquarters formulated the technical requirements for such an aircraft. Tasks for its design were given to Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke GmbH, located in the town of Warnemünde.
Ernst Heinkel company, founded in 1922, was one of the most successful German aviation companies. With the advent of Hitler to power and the adoption of the program for the development of the German Air Force, seven types of aircraft for various purposes were designed and put into mass production.
The most interesting development of the company in the early 1930s was the seaplane Ne-59, the lead designer of which was Reinhold Mévez. Although the aircraft did not differ in originality – it outwardly resembled many float-like counterparts created in France, Great Britain and the USA — but for Heinkel this machine became the largest of all previously built aircraft.
Based on the dual purpose of the Non-59 (it was created both for patrolling and for launching bombing and torpedo attacks on sea and land targets), the company intended to produce this aircraft in wheeled and float versions.
Two prototypes were built at once: the non-59A (D-2215) with a wheeled chassis and the double-float non-59B (D-2214). Armament for prototypes of the aircraft was not installed. The first in September 1931 took off the Non-59A with a conventional chassis. And in January 1932, the non-59B float flew into the air. In addition to the differences in the landing devices, these machines had their own characteristics and design. If on the Non-59A all fuel was housed in the fuselage, on the Non-59B a portion of the internal space of the floats was used as tanks, and the released volume of the fuselage was intended for payload.
Both Non-59s underwent a full flight test program, and in 1933 the newly formed Ministry of Aviation Industry adopted the aircraft as a standard vehicle for general-purpose squadrons of naval air groups.
The production of aircraft pilots was organized at a plant located in Warnemunde. The company received an order for the production of 21 cars and had to complete their delivery before September 30, 1935.
In early 1935, the first 14 serial non-59B-1 entered the German commercial aviation school on the island of List. It was, in fact, a military flight school, which soon came under the control of the naval command of the flight schools.
To increase the rate of production of hydroplanes, the ministry organized the licensed production of Non-59 at the plant of the German company Arado Flugzeugwerke GmbH; over time, the entire issue of Non-59 was concentrated on this plant.
For the first serial He-59V-1, they began to produce the He-59V-2, which differed from the previous one by the modified composition of the onboard equipment, and the He-59B-3, with additional fuel tanks and reinforced armament. Before the beginning of the war, another modification went into the series – C It was intended for long-range reconnaissance and rescue operations at sea.
During 1935, the Germans formed the first combat squadron, armed with non-59B float seaplanes and Do 15 flying boats, called List.
With the creation of coastal aviation air groups in July 1936, two squadrons in Liszt and Borkume received a non-59 aircraft for service. A few weeks later, the AS / 88 special marine reconnaissance squadron received the Non-59B and was incorporated into the Legion "Condor" for shipping to Spain
In September 1936, a merchant ship arrived at the port of Cadiz. "Wiger" Hamburg-Vremena-Afrika Line company with a load of various military equipment and materials. On board the ship were also boxes with disassembled seaplanes He-59B-2 and He-60E. On October 14, two more non-59B-2 aircraft were delivered to Cadiz by the Nord Eusenach company Nord Deutsche Lloyd. The following two cars of the same type unloaded in Cadiz. The same vehicles arrived technical staff and squadron commander Captain Karl-Heinz Wolf. A month later, two more He-59B-2s with their pilots, Lieutenants Klumper and Lecht, were delivered to Spain.
After all the seaplanes were assembled and flown, the unit immediately began combat work. The main task of Wolf became the exploration of coastal areas in the interests of the navy of the Franco. Flights were carried out from the naval base of Cadiz Puntales. At the end of December 1936, the aircraft flew to the base of the hydroaviation, located near the city of Melilla, on the northern coast of Africa. Here is a merchant ship "Capri" of the company "Broken
January 10, 1937, Chief Lieutenant Klumper discovered the Republican ship "Dolphin"heading to the port of Malaga, and attacked him with a single torpedo. Although it was not possible to hit the ship with a torpedo bomber, the attack was the first case of combat use of aircraft torpedoes after the end of the First World War. Disappointed Klumper decided to return to the base, hang bombs and continue pursuing the Republican ship. "Dolphin" and dropped bombs on him. This time the strike was quite accurate: two bombs exploded in the immediate vicinity of the ship’s side and seriously damaged its hull. To save the ship, the captain threw it into the shallow water. At the same time, most of the cargo for the Republican government was damaged.
February 1, 1937 Klumper. searching southwest of the republican naval base of Cartagena, found a freighter "Nuria Ramon" with a displacement of 2,783 tons, from the port of Algeria to Barcelona. After several machine-gun bursts fired from the aircraft on the bow of the ship, the captain of the ship was given an order to take a course on Melilla. At the same time, the cruiser of the Franco fighters put on transport "Canarias", which escorted the Republican ship to Melilla. Three days later, the seaplanes from AS / 88 supported the ground forces of Franco, which attacked Malaga, and covered the cruiser from the air. "Canarias"who fired on Republican positions. At this time the republican I-15 fighters appeared in the air and suddenly seaplanes attacked. In the German order, panic began. Dodging Republican attacks, they collided and fell into the water Н-59В-2 and Not-BOE. The non-59 pilot, Lieutenant Lieutenant Dieter Lecht, drowned, while the remaining crew members of both aircraft were able to board the cruiser, where they received medical assistance. This was the first loss in AS / 88. The victory over the non-59 Republicans recorded at the expense of the American pilot volunteer Charles Koch.
After the fall of Malaga, the squadron AS / 88 relocated to the port of the captured city. At the end of May, her command was replaced: instead of Captain Wolf, who had left for Germany, Captain Küder was appointed.
By mid-1937, the Franco-led command realized that the most convenient location for the main part of the hydroaviation should be the Poles naval base on the island of Majorca, where AS / 88 aircraft flew in early July. Polensa remained the base of the Franco hydroplanes until the end of the war.
Since 1937, the non-59 aircraft have specialized in performing two main tasks. The first of these consisted in breaking the night rail and road transport on the Republican coast of Spain. For this, the Germans developed a special tactical device. The planes approached the coast at a high altitude, after which they muffled the engines, picked up speed as they went down and silently attacked the targets that were found. Moreover, in most cases, Republican air defense weapons did not have time to react.
The second task, which was assigned to Non-59, was to violate the shipping of Republicans. The search for ships heading to the republican ports was carried out by Cant aircraft.
On July 31, 1937, a transport ship sailed from Marseilles to the republican coast, intercepting which flew several Non-59B-2s (by this time the nickname Zapatones (Spanish), during the attack, the planes stumbled upon heavy fire from escort warships, and one of the flying boats, having serious damage, made an emergency landing. In time the rescue cruiser "Canarias" took the air crew, which included the wounded, and the auxiliary vessel towed a seaplane to Polensa.
August 13 AS / 88 bombers attacked the Danish steamer "Edith" with a displacement of 1566 tons, owned by the shipowner
On August 24, a pair of Non-59B-2 sailed to two republican cargo ships. The pilots observed several direct hits. During the second approach to the target, the seaplanes were attacked by I-15 fighters, but were able to dodge the battle and returned without losses to their base.
On September 16, the seaplanes carried out a night bombing of the railway station in Port Bow, where, according to intelligence data, two trains from France with military equipment and materials were unloading. When departing from the target, the pilots observed several fires. All vehicles returned safely to Polensa. On the night of September 4, 22 and 25, the group’s planes attacked the CAMPSA oil refineries located in Cartagena and Barcelona. During the bombardments, the pilots managed to burn as far as fuel tanks.
September 30 Not-59 attacked the port of Grao in Valencia, where the transport sank "Gur-cho" with a displacement of 3225 tons of military cargo, which has just arrived from the Soviet port of Feodosia. On October 6, an AS-88 combat sortie recorded a non-59B-2 sortie on the bombardment of Republican ships marching to attack Majorca. Air attacks forced Republicans to abandon the planned attack on Majorca.
On October 30, in violation of all international norms, the Francoists attacked an English ship. "Jane weems" with a displacement of 2349 tons. According to the Franco, transport constantly made regular flights between the republican ports and Cyprus, Malta and Gibraltar. The ship went from Marseille to Barcelona with a load of military equipment.
The following entry was made in the journal AS / 88: "At 6 o’clock 30 min. a ship is found at a distance of 15 miles east of Cape Bagur "Jane weems". On the draft it was clear that the transport has a full load. On the deck were fixed eight trucks in a gray-green color. The attack took place at Cape San Sebastián and proceeded in the following order. At first, the signal was repeatedly transmitted to the transport. "Ship to stop", however, that began to maneuver, making a U-turn. Further, from the nose gun mount of the Non-59B-2, warning fire was opened across the ship. Serious damage to the bow of the vehicle forced it to stop; the crew landed on the lifeboats, and the transport itself was fired from guns and machine guns. At the same time the ship got hit in the bow and stern at the waterline level. After the departure of the lifeboats with the crew, a bomb strike was struck at a safe distance. One of the bombs struck his nose, and after ten minutes it sank. The crew of the transport remained in the boats and was lost sight of due to poor visibility.".
On November 4, at 8 hours and 45 minutes in the north-east of Barcelona, the Non-59B-2 discovered a steamer "Corsica" a displacement of 643 tons, marching from Marseille to Barcelona. After several cannon shots, the ship was damaged and asked for help from the ground. After some time, the I-15 appeared in the air, attacking a seaplane, but was damaged in one of the attacks and was forced to withdraw to the coast. Left without cover, the steamer was forced to follow the course of Palma de Mallorca, where he was captured by the Francoists.
The last combat sortie in 1937, the Non-59B-2, was made on December 21, when a pair of seaplanes bombed a convoy of trucks that followed the road north of Castellon. One of the aircraft was seriously damaged by the fire of 20-mm anti-aircraft installations, and he had to make an emergency landing several miles east of Benicarlo. The second seaplane splashed down next to the damaged one and was taken by its crew, and after takeoff, the abandoned Non-59B-2 was flooded, firing at it from a cannon.
1938 began badly for AS / 88. On January 13, the squadron lost one Non-59B-2. Once in a thick fog, the seaplane attempted to land. However, he broke the float and received great damage. As a result, Sergeant Harald Kahl died, and the rest of the crew were seriously injured.
On January 19, the command of AS / 88 was taken over by Major Martin Harlinhusen, who remained in that post until the end of the war. Nine days later, the Non-59C, which made a reconnaissance flight near the port of Manon, received a direct hit by an anti-aircraft projectile. The damage turned out to be very significant – a float and one engine were torn off on the plane. The pilot reported this to the base and made an emergency landing at sea on one float and with one engine. When landing the seaplane collapsed completely, and the crew was in the water. A strong storm did not allow the hydroplanes to come down and pick up the crew, but soon a rescue ship from Polensa arrived to help them.
Combat activities for AS / 88 in February 1938 began on the 4th, when a pair of Non-59В-2 discovered a ship at the exit of the port of Barcelona "Electra" displacing 1,387 tons of the British company J Bruce and Co. Attacked from the air, the transport turned back to the port, under the protection of anti-aircraft batteries, but after several bomb hits at 7 am sank. Part of the crew was able to immerse themselves in the lifeboats.
On February 11, a strong hurricane swept through the island of Majorca. As a result, many seaplanes that were in the bay of the Polena hydroaviation base were seriously damaged. Of the No-59, only one aircraft was damaged, which was on the water and moored to the buoy.
The damage inflicted on AS / 88 by Republican hydroplanes forced them to increase the air defense of ports, coastal areas and transport ships on their way to the coast. Several new anti-aircraft units were formed, the armament of which consisted of 76.2 mm Soviet-made guns and the Oeriikon 20-mm guns.
On February 27, 1938, the non-59S, which had made a reconnaissance flight along the republican coast, attacked a pair of fighters. At the end of February 1938, during the night attack on the Port Bow railway hub, another Non-59 was seriously damaged
On March 14, at the latitude of Cape Cambrils, the non-59V-2 aircraft used to detect and attack transport "Menorca" with a displacement of 1022 tons. As a result, the vessel got leaked and sank quickly. The next morning, returning from a night search, the Not-59B-2 fired at a convoy of trucks near the city of Vinaros. However, he himself was attacked by Republican fighter Dewoitine D 510 Sergeant Jose Sar-Ria Calateuda. Having received great damage, the Non-59B-2 landed on the ground. The full crew was captured by Republicans.
On the same day, non-59 seaplanes attacked the port of Tarragon, where they managed to sink a vessel with a displacement of 2,246 tons. On the night of March 21-22, the AS / 88 squadron lost another aircraft — the Non-59 was hit by anti-aircraft artillery during a raid on the railway station and the port in Tor-tos; the entire crew of the seaplane died. April 7 at 20 o’clock 45 min. in the harbor of the port of Rosas, a 50-kg non-59 bomb sank a towing ship "Rio Urumea" displacing 275 tons, turned Republicans into a patrol ship.
Another successful departure of the Non-59 took place on May 10th. This time, the seaplanes managed to sink two Republican patrol vessels. Four days later, in the port of Alicante, a single Non-59 with two 500-kg bombs dropped from a height of 80 meters sank the transport unloaded at the pier. Another success came on the night of May 18-19. During a raid on the port of Alicante, three Non-59B-2s bombed fuel tanks.
In response to the attacks of the Francoists, the Republicans, on the night of May 20/21, attacked the hydroaviation base in Polenya with the help of three SB bombers. According to the statement of the Franco, the damage from the bombardment was minimal. The Pole╨a bombing did not affect the activity of the Francoist hydroaviation. Already on May 24, she again reminded herself of having raided the port in Valencia. Two 500-kg bombs dropped by a Non-59 from a height of 50 meters sent the British ship Westcliff to the bottom
On May 27, five Non-59s under the command of Senior Lieutenant Bray attacked a Greek tanker. "Nausika" displacement of 5,000 tons, which went under the Panamanian flag. On the ship several 250 kg and 50 kg bombs were dropped from a height of 100 meters. From the damage received, the tanker sank; most of his crew was able to escape. On June 4, the Republican port of Alicante was attacked, on the roads of which an English steamer with a displacement of 1,300 tons and a Spanish ship were set on fire. "Fruthero" with a displacement of 341 tons. One of the seaplanes was damaged from anti-aircraft fire, but the pilot managed to bring the car to the base. At the end of the day the raid on Alicante was repeated. One of the Not-59 successfully managed to drop four 250-kg bombs that set fire to the Republican tanker, flying the English flag, but owned by the Spanish company CAMPSA. At 23 o’clock 20 minutes. the ship exploded and sank.
At night, part of the non-59B-2 attacked the port of Dénia, where an English ship with a displacement of 4,000 tons stood under unloading. As a result of the bombing, it received significant damage, five crew members were killed and three wounded. On the evening of the following day, AS / 88 seaplanes made a raid on the port of Grao de Castellon, where, according to intelligence data, the English steamer was unloading "Isadora"arrived from Marseille. Two of the four bombs dropped from the non-59B-2. severely damaged the ship, and in the evening it sank. June 21 Not-59B-2, armed with a torpedo, patrolled the sector of the sea between Barcelona and Valencia. Not finding the republican ships, the seaplane turned towards Polens and, on the way back, noticed English transport in the Gulf of Valencia. The commander dropped the torpedo that landed right in the middle of the ship. The explosion split it, and it quickly sank. It is characteristic that this was the first case after the end of the First World War when a ship was sank by a torpedo dropped from an airplane.
On June 22, the crew of the Non-59 discovered English transport at the anchorage in the Gulf of Valencia "Salton" displacement of 3,000 tons. The plane dropped four 250-kg bombs, from the explosion of which they detonated ammunition in the hold on June 25. Not-59 covered the landing of Francoists on the Columbretes archipelago.
On July 7, three new non-59B-2 arrived in Polensa to replace the planes lost in the battles. During this month, the crews carried anti-submarine duty, hunting Republican submarines, which sought to attack the Franco cruisers. "Canarias" and "Baleares" in the waters of Mallorca. July 21, two 250-kg bombs Franco flooded transport "Bodil", delivering a batch of aircraft and other military equipment for Republicans.
On July 24, AS / 88 airplanes attacked the port of Gandia, dropping four 250-kg bombs on ships at the pier. In this case, damage was received by one Republican vessel. The next day, the strike was repeated. At this time, two 500-kg bombs sank the British cargo ship.
On August 2, several Non-59B-2s were attacked by the Republican I-15 fighter with the registration number CA-058, taking off from the La Cénère airfield on the outskirts of Valencia. Squadron commander Lt. José Falco Sanmartin flew the plane. As a result of the attack, one seaplane was damaged and made an emergency landing; his crew was captured.
August 6th aerial reconnaissance detected cargo ship "Lake Lugano" displacement of 2120 tons, which went under the Estonian flag. Transport entered the port of Palamos and got under unloading. At night, the Non-59B-2 dropped four 250-kg bombs on it. After some time, three more He-59s appeared over the port water area and finished off the damaged ship with a bombing strike. August 15th Non-59B-2 raided Valencia and sank the tanker "Campomanes".
On November 2, AS / 88 suffered another loss: in the Santa Cristinade Aro area, Republican anti-aircraft gunners shot down Non-59. The crew survived, but was captured. And on November 18, José Falco, taking off from the Sabadell airfield at I-15 with registration number CA-036, attacked Ne-59 and shot it down.
The largest air operation, AS / 88, conducted with the participation of Non-59, took place on November 25 and 26, 1938. During these two days, 15 sorties were flown at the Republican port of Barcelona and 15 tons of bombs were dropped. However, the nationalists failed to achieve significant success (Besides, José Falco again won another night victory, knocking down Not-59. His I-15 (side number CA-230) successfully returned to the airfield, and Not-59 fell in the vicinity of the town of Blanes The crew of the aircraft as lieutenants Karl-Friedrich Prints, Otto Schmidt and Walter Willing and Corporal Ludwig Miller died).
Despite the losses, by the beginning of 1939, AS-88 had eight He-59s. This is the largest number of seaplanes of this type since the beginning of their appearance in Spain.
On January 7, Republican fighters intercepted one of the Non-59. After several attacks, the plane was shot down and fell into the sea. And on January 26, the Francoists occupied Barcelona, and two weeks later they managed to take
control almost the entire coast of Spain to the border with France. Aircraft from AS / 88 carried out a blockade of republican ports.
In some cities, which were still under the control of the Republicans, anti-government demonstrations began. The first of these occurred on February 8 in Minorca. In order to support the insurgents, the non-59B-2 seaplanes flew over several days to bombard roads in the area of the rebellious city. On March 5, the uprising seized several small artillery forts of Cartagena. One of the Not-59 was attacked by the I-15 from the 2nd Squadron from the airfield of Aparecida. A heavily damaged seaplane made an emergency landing 5 miles from the coast. The landing site of the car was identified by the Cant Z-501 from Grupo 2-G-62 and brought the cruiser to it. "Mar cantabrico". The sailors rescued the crew, and the seaplane was flooded.
Until the end of the war, AS / 88 squadron suffered another loss. On March 22, an engine failed on one of the He-59s in flight – and the plane landed, during which the car left the float and the wing console. Crew members left the plane using a rescue boat.
Throughout the conflict, AS / 88 was supported by constant deliveries from Germany of new aircraft to replace lost vehicles. All Non-59s were staffed by German crews, which included a Spaniard as an observer for better orienteering.
After the end of the war, AS / 88 remained on the basis of hydroaviation in Polena until April 30, 1939. The squadron consisted of three Not-59, three Not-60 and three newly arrived Ag-95A-0, which managed to make only a couple of sorties.
On September 1, 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, the Spanish hydro-aviation, based in Polena, was reorganized. The planes were brought together into a single unit, called Grupo Mixto de Hidros. It consisted of the 52nd Squadron with non-59 and Non-60 aircraft, the 53rd Squadron, which was armed with Italian CANT
In early 1940, separate squadrons and groups in the Spanish Air Force were transformed into regiments. By the end of this year, the shortage of spare parts began to affect, the Non-59 was less and less often flying up. On November 2, 1941, in the area of the hydroelectric station in Polens, there was a strong hurricane, as a result of which several aircraft moored to the parking buoys were seriously damaged. One car was written off, and the other two continued to be used until 1945, until they were scrapped.
All Not-59, Not-59B-2 and Not-59C shipped to Spain had a monochromatic gray-green (RLM 02) coating with hastily painted Luftwaffe identifying marks, on the spot of which others were applied – Frankist aviation. The black diagonal cross of St. Andrew was depicted on the rudder, and black circles and registration numbers on both sides of the fuselage on both sides. On the wing – above and below – black circles, white crosses of St. Andrew and two black stripes were depicted.
After arriving in Spain, the Non-59 received three-digit onboard registration numbers (for example, 512, 513 and
After the AS / 88 squadron has adopted its own emblem "Ace of spades" it began to be applied to the front of the fuselage, slightly below the cockpit. After 1941 "Ace of spades" migrated to the keel of the aircraft, and on the lower and upper surfaces of the wing inflicted a new, red-yellow cockade of the Spanish Air Force.
The licensed production of non-59V in the Arado company ceased in 1938, after the release of 140 cars. The rather rapid obsolescence of these seaplanes forced the Germans to transfer them to the category of rescue and training. At the same time, Walter Bach-mann Flugzeugbau, located near Magdeburg, completed all the necessary improvements. Defensive armament was removed from training aircraft and additional navigation equipment was installed.
Upgraded cars received the designation Non-59C-1. They were used to train naval aviation navigators and were delivered to the LN – Schule 6 (See) flight school in Dive Nova. The rescue modification of the aircraft (Seentfugzeug), which received the designation Non-59C-2, had on board six inflatable boats and equipment for the provision of emergency medical care. In addition, in the bottom of the fuselage equipped hatch with a ladder. An even deeper modification of the aircraft was the He-59D-1, which was used both for the training of navigators and for performing rescue operations. The car received a new nasal section of the fuselage with the navigator’s open cockpit (with a visor and without glazing). A number of non-59C-1s were eventually converted into torpedo bombers and photo reconnaissance bombers with three cameras. The aircraft received the designation He-59E-1 and He-59E-2.
In 1939, the first rescue maritime aviation group (Seenotgruppe) was formed, consisting of two squadrons (Seenotstaffeln) from the He-59C-2 and He-59D-1 aircraft. By the beginning of the Second World War, four squadrons of coastal aviation still counted 43 Non-59V-2 According to September 2
1939, the aircraft were distributed as follows:
Since September 3, planes from the composition have started combat sorties.
After the announcement on September 4 of France and England of the war of Germany 3. /
September 26, 1939 four seaplanes from the composition of 3. /
In November and December 1939, German non-59 seaplanes together with Non-115 exhibited magnetic mines off the east coast of England and at the mouth of the Thames. In this case, not-59B took on board two 500-kg aviation mines of the type LMA or one 1000-kg LMB. The efforts of the Germans brought the result. Polish mines exploded on exposed mines "Pilsudski", damage received the newest English cruiser "Belfast" and sank a few more auxiliary vessels. One of the Germans dropped magnetic mines fell on the swampy bank of the Thames. The British managed to neutralize it and study what subsequently helped them fight this weapon.
November 28, 1939 the British launched a raid on the German naval hydroaviation base in Borkume. Bristol Blenheim aircraft take part in the attack
On the night of December 6, 1939, the Non-59B again took part in the mining of the English coast. During the operation, the Germans lost two seaplanes. During takeoff, he crashed a Non-59V from
In the winter of 1939/40, non-59B seaplanes did not actively participate in the battles. Single combat sorties of these obsolete vehicles were carried out mainly to control the ships of neutral countries in the Baltic and the North Sea.
In April 1940, the Non-59 were incorporated into the new transport squadron.
On April 20, 1940, 78 Ju-52 / 3T aircraft and 4 seaplanes He-59D delivered to Trondheim the personnel of the 1st battalion of the 388th infantry regiment and 4 batteries of the 112th mountain artillery regiment.
As of May 10, 1940 in the composition
On May 15, 1940, the Germans attacked British ships in the Narvik area. At the same time, the Non-111 (III7KG26) received combat damage and made an emergency landing. The non-59C-1 D-AKUK flew out of the 2. Seenotstaffel to rescue the crew, but the seaplane did not reach its destination – due to engine failure, he had to make an emergency landing near Sandneson. In this case, the seaplane was damaged, and the crew was captured.
Non-59B biplanes were also used during the occupation of Holland. For the Germans
it was vital to quickly seize the bridges across the Meuse before the Dutch destroyed them. Early in the morning of May 10, 12 Not-59 rose from the Zvyshenahn Lake near Oldenburg. On board the aircraft were soldiers of the 16th Infantry Regiment and 22 sapper battalion. AT
Subsequently, the Non-59 became known in the activities of another kind. Whites with large red crosses Non-59C-2 and D-1 from rescue squadrons operated during the Battle of England over the English Channel, Bay of Biscay and the North Sea. The British believed that the seaplanes were engaged in the delivery of agents and mining the mouth of the Thames. Following the protest of the British government, several such aircraft were shot down by British fighters. British suspicions were confirmed on July 1, 1940, the year the English fighter Spitfire
On July 9, 1940, Lieutenant Allen from the RAF 54th Fighter Squadron in the Goodwin Sands area forced the landing of the non-59B-2 seaplane (D-ASUO) of the same 3. Seenotstaffel. The crew was captured, and the aircraft was towed to the port of Ramsgat.
July 14, 1940 Fighter Command of the United Kingdom (Fighter Command) issued instructions, which instructed to attack any rescue aircraft of the Germans. Six days later, the RAF fighters shot down two, and in August – seven non-59 rescue.
In September, German losses amounted to five cars. According to German data, the crews of seaplanes in August and September managed to save 73 pilots. The lack of rescue Not-59 forced the Germans to use for these purposes the aircraft Do-18, and then the Do-24. The remaining Non-59s continued to be used in rescue units on the Mediterranean and Black Seas. On the Black Sea, three He-59s were based in the Konstanz region. In 1943, non-59 seaplanes were removed from service.
The non-59 was a twin-engine four-seater float-mounted multi-purpose biplane seaplane of mixed design. The crew of the seaplane consisted of a pilot – crew commander, navigator, scorer, gunner-radio operator and gunner.
The fuselage consisted of three sections – the bow, center and tail. The frame of the aircraft fuselage is welded from steel pipes. Covering the fuselage with the exception of the nasal section, linen. Sheathing of the nasal section, which housed the cabin of the navigator-scorer, of sheet duralumin. In front it had a large glass area, the top was opened and a machine gun turret was mounted in the doorway. In the cockpit, depending on the modification, the navigation equipment of various configuration was installed. In the lower part of the nose compartment, an LDPE was installed on the elongated rod, and the Pitot tube was mounted on the right and left sides of the fuselage.
In the central part of the fuselage was an open cockpit with a triangular visor made of plexiglass. The cabin was equipped with flight and navigation instruments, as well as engine control instruments. The pilot’s seat was height adjustable. The free space in the fuselage behind the cockpit occupied the bomb bay, which, if necessary, could be used to transport people or goods. The modification of the Non-59V-3 in this compartment provided for the installation of two additional fuel tanks with a capacity of 487 liters each.
In the central part of the fuselage, from below, the bomb racks or holders and supports for the suspension of the torpedo could be fixed. The lower wing sections and racks of floats were attached to the middle part of the fuselage.
In the rear part of the fuselage there were two more cabins: the upper open arrow with a turret mount and the lower closed arrow-radio operator with a pivot machine-gun mount. The duties of the arrow also included climbing aboard the people rescued from the water. On the tail section there was a keel with a rudder and a stabilizer with a rudder. Inside the section held wiring control steering surfaces.
The upper and lower wings of the biplane aircraft had a wooden two-spar construction. Spars are box-shaped, the tips are rounded, the trim is linen. Structurally, each of the wings consisted of three sections – the center section and a pair of consoles. At the same time, the center planes had a smaller chord than consoles.
Wing ribs – truss structure. In places of fastening of racks of floats and racks of engines install-
There were reinforced ribs. The ailerons occupied half the span of the trailing edge of each of the consoles. Trimmers were installed only on the lower wing ailerons. Between themselves and with the fuselage, the upper and lower wings were connected by a system of braces and braces.
The wing struts were profiled. Braces – steel, cable. At the ends of the upper wing were mounted ANO. On the lower wing engines were installed.
Tail plumage – the classical scheme. The power set was made of steel pipes. The covering of all surfaces is linen. Kiel-dvuhlonzhe-ronnoy design. A controlled trimmer was located along the entire trailing edge of the rudder. At the top of the keel was installed antenna mount station radio.
By design, the stabilizer is practically the same as the keel – it is also two-spar. To ensure the required stiffness, each section of the stabilizer was supported by two struts. Handlebars are equipped with adjustable trimmers. Steering wheel and elevator steering – flexible, cable.
The aircraft landing gear consists of two all-wood single-float floats of increased deadrise. Each float was divided into eight waterproof compartments-cameras. To control the tightness of these compartments on the surface of the floats, covered with a special water-repellent composition, there were necks, closed with lids. At the top of each of the floats, two power duralumin plates were fastened with rivets.
In the front of the floats, mooring rings were installed, and along the entire length – a rescue rope. The floats were located fuel tanks with a capacity of 854 liters each – two in each float. When driving on water, the aircraft was controlled by an aerodynamic rudder and engines (there were no water wheels).
The power plant of the aircraft consisted of two 12-cylinder V-shaped water-cooled engines BMW 6.0 ZU with an take-off power of 660
The oil radiator was installed in front of the engine; the engine hoods were easily removable; they provided a good approach both to the engine and the oil tank, and to the fuel automation units. The screws of the power plant are four-bladed, wooden, with a diameter of 3700 mm.
The engines worked on gasoline with an octane number of 87. The fuel supply was provided by motor-pumps. In addition to fuel tanks, each of 854 liters, located in the floats, to increase the flight distance in the bomb bay, two additional tanks with a capacity of 487 liters could be installed.
Electricity consumers were powered by two 12-volt batteries installed in the fuselage.
Aircraft equipment included navigation equipment, flight instruments and instruments for monitoring the operation of the power plant. On all modifications of the aircraft was installed onboard radio station FuG VIII. The cable antenna of the radio station was located between the racks located on the tips of the upper wing and the top of the keel. The radio antenna of the radio compass was installed on top of the fuselage, in front of the cockpit of the gunner-radio operator.
The first-aid kit was located in the cockpit of the radio operator. In the cockpit of the lower shooter there were three rescue rubber boats.
Small arms consisted of three 7.92-mm machine guns Rheinmetall-Borsig MG15 – each had a mass of 8.1 kg and a length of 1090 mm; machine gun fire rate – 1250 shots / min. Machine guns in the cabins of the navigator and gunner-radio operator were mounted on turrets of the type "BUT" and had 975 rounds of ammunition (in 13 disks, 75 in each). The machine gun in the lower gunner’s cab was mounted on a type D 15 pivot mount and had 600 rounds of ammunition. On non-59B-1 aircraft used in AS / 88 squadron "Condor Legion", in the cockpit of the navigator was installed aviation 20-mm gun Rheinmetall – Borsig (Oerlikon) MG-FF with a stock of 75 shells. On seaplanes Not-59B-3 small arms were limited to two machine guns in the cabins of the navigator and gunner-radio operator.
Offensive weapons (weighing up to 1000 kg) were located in the bomb compartment of the fuselage or on removable bomb racks under the fuselage. Bomb weapons – 20×50-kg SC 50 bombs, 4×250-kg SC 250 or 2×500-kg SC 500 bombs. Instead of He-59 bombs, he could take two LMA mines with a mass of 500 kg or one LMB with a mass of 1000 kg. Mines could be equipped with contact or magnetic fuses. Non-59V-1 aircraft could also be armed with a 533-mm LF 5f aerial torpedo weighing 743 kg.