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An article about the most famous and beautiful estates and estates of Russia!
Russian manor is a separate settlement, an architectural complex of residential, commercial, landscape gardening and other buildings, as well as a manor park.
As a rule, the term “manor” refers to the possessions of Russian noblemen and wealthy representatives of other classes of 17–20 centuries. Manors are divided into the following main types. Classical manor manor usually consists of a manor house, several outbuildings, stables, greenhouses, buildings for servants, etc.
The manor is adjacent to the park, which has a landscape character, often with a pond. Alleyways are being laid in the park, arbors, grottoes, etc. are being built. Large estates have a temple on their territory.
The urban noble estate, characteristic primarily for Moscow, to a lesser extent for St. Petersburg, includes a manor house, a stable, barns, servants’ rooms, a small garden. The estates owned by famous collectors and collectors often concentrated significant cultural values, collections of works of art and decorative and applied art.
Manor “Arkhangelsk” in the Krasnogorsk district of the Moscow region was recognized as the most popular among tourists outside the capital.
The company’s experts analyzed the data of booking hotels and apartments from their site in 2016 on the famous tourist route “Russian estates”.
Based on this, they made a rating of 10 positions. In the second place in popularity among travelers is the estate of Leo Tolstoy “Yasnaya Polyana” in the Tula region. Closes the top three estate “Spasskoe-Lutovinovo” in the Oryol region, where he lived, Ivan Turgenev. On the fourth place is the Anton Chekhov Museum in the Moscow region “Melikhovo”, on the fifth line is the estate of the artist Vasily Polenov in the Tula region. The top-10 rating also includes the museum of the poet Fyodor Tyutchev “Ovstug” near Bryansk.
Two estates in the list are associated with the name of Alexander Pushkin – these are “Yaropolets” and “Vyazemy. Both objects are located in the suburbs. The list also included the Alexander Blok’s Shakhmatovo Museum-Reserve (Moscow Region). Closes the rating “Vasilevo” – architectural and artistic ensemble of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, located in the Tver region. According to
Manor Museum "Arkhangelsk" located in the Krasnogorsk district of the Moscow region, 20 kilometers west of Moscow. This manor is a unique monument of Russian artistic culture. The world-wide fame of Arkhangelsk was brought both by the majestic beauty of the estate itself, and by the variety of unique museum collections.
Here, according to A.I. Herzen, "man met with nature under a different condition than usual. He demanded a change of scenery from her in order to make artistic beauty of natural beauty, to humanize her". And this man most often was a free or serf Russian master who was able to create here one of the masterpieces of palace and park art.
The manor was first mentioned in the 30s of the XVI century, as "Selsots Upolozy on the river in Moscow". The wooden church in honor of the Archangel Michael, built in the same century, gave the second name to this small suburban estate. In the middle of the 17th century, instead of a wooden one, a stone church was built, which picturesquely stands on the high bank of the old riverbed of the Moskva River.
Odoevskys, Cherkasskys and, finally, since 1703, the Golitsyns are all former owners of Arkhangelsk. D. M. Golitsyn (1665 – 1737) – associate of Peter I, senator and president of the Chamber of Collegiums was one of the educations of his time, who dreamed of a parliamentary monarchy in Russia. His attempt, together with several other grandees, to limit the power of the new Empress Anna Ivanovna ended in disgrace, and later on imprisonment and death in Shlisselburg. For 6 years, prince Dmitry Mikhailovich who was removed from public affairs builds a new wooden palace in Arkhangelsk and smashes "french garden". Here he transports his famous library. It was then that this suburban patrimony begins to acquire the character of a ceremonial estate for balls, assemblies and other holidays intended.
His grandson, Prince Nikolai Alekseevich (1751–1809), who received a brilliant European education, at the end of the 18th century began a grandiose construction in Arkhangelsk. According to the project of the French architect Charles Guern, a palace of strict architecture was erected here on the side of a hill, at the same time a regular park was created located on the terraces, the author of which is the Italian architect Giacomo Trombaro. In addition to the palace, the ensemble included two large greenhouses with residential outbuildings, a small palace "Caprice", playpen, obelisks and more than 50 plaster and marble sculptures.
The real flowering of the estate began after it passed into the possession of one of the richest people in Russia, a connoisseur of the arts and patron of arts Prince N. Yusupov. Under the new owner, Arkhangelskoye became one of the most popular centers of social life in Moscow. The estate was visited by Russian emperors, noble nobles, political figures, famous poets and publicists.
Yasnaya Polyana – a unique Russian manor, ancestral estate of the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy. Here he was born, lived most of his life, here he is buried. Here was his only favorite home, the nest of his family and family. It is in Yasnaya Polyana that one can truly “plunge” into the world of Tolstoy and his works – every year this famous museum is visited by a huge number of people from all over the world. The first information about Yasnaya Polyana dates back to 1652. From the middle of the 18th century, the manor belonged to the ancestors of the maternal writer to the princes Volkonsky. During the 18th and 19th centuries, a unique estate landscape was created here – parks, gardens, picturesque alleys, ponds, a rich greenhouse, an architectural ensemble was created, which included a large manor house and two outbuildings.
Together with the architectural ensemble, this landscape has been preserved for more than a hundred years – modeled on 1910, the last year of Tolstoy’s life. Over time, one of the farmsteads became home to the writer and his family. Here Tolstoy lived more than 50 years, here he created masterpieces of world literature. All interior and works of art are authentic and preserve the atmosphere of life of Lev Nikolayevich and his relatives. The museum collection includes more than fifty thousand exhibits, the most unique of which are the furnishings of the House
The centuries-old trees and young shoots, picturesque alleys of parks and secluded forest paths, the smooth surface of ponds and the bottomless sky – all this is Yasnaya Polyana, an amazing world that inspired Leo Tolstoy. The writer did not leave this world even after death – his grave is in the forest Old Order, on the edge of the ravine. Tolstoy indicated the place of his burial himself, linking him with the memory of his elder brother and his story about the “green stick”, on which the secret of universal happiness is written.
Fate was favorable to the Tolstoy family nest throughout the 20th century. The manor was not damaged during the Civil War – out of respect for the memory of Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana peasants saved her from pogrom. Eleven years after the writer’s death, in 1921, through the efforts of his youngest daughter, Alexandra Lvovna, a museum was opened in Yasnaya Polyana. The descendants of Lev Nikolaevich and later took part in the fate of the museum. In 1941, when the threat of occupation loomed over Yasnaya, the writer’s granddaughter Sofia Andreyevna Tolstaya-Yesenina, who led the museum, organized the evacuation of most of the exhibits of the Tolstoy House to Tomsk.
“If you have an atlas, find in it a map of Russia and slide your finger from Moscow towards the Black Sea; On your way – just north of the Eagle – you will find the city of Mtsensk.
So! My village is located 10 kilometers from this place with a rather difficult to pronounce, as you see, name. This is a perfect wilderness – quiet, green, sad. ” TURGENEV Ivan Sergeevich
Museum of Turgenev – Spasskoe-Lutovinovo By father Turgenev belonged to an old noble family, mother, nee Lutovinova, a rich landowner; In her estate Spasskoe-Lutovinovo (Mtsensk District, Oryol Province), the future years of the future writer who learned to have a delicate feel of nature
Russian manor is a whole world, a whole epoch, the cradle of Russian poets, artists, writers, scientists. It was the Russian estate that inspired, nursed, inspired Pushkin, Turgenev, Repin. All estates were arranged differently, but there is something that unites them. The symbol of any Russian manor became linden alleys, ancient oaks, open space. The house was usually built on a glade. On the example of the Turgenev manor, it was not even in the center. In the center there is a linden alley, it was there that the concentration of the spirit, thoughts, thoughts of the writer was located, judging by the kind of tenderness in his works this subject was touched upon them. It was necessary to have ponds, stables, hozblok besides the house itself, an orchard.
MANOR’S PLAN Spasskoe-Lutovinovo 1. Church lodge 10. Oak 2. Church 11. Stable 3. Poofhouse 12. Carriage house 4. Museum house 13. Well 5. Upper garden 14. Blacksmith’s pond 6. Lower garden 15. Zahara pond 7 Cellar 16. Dam
Melikhovo (State Literary-Memorial Museum-Reserve of A.P. Chekhov) – One of the main Chekhov museums in Russia. Located in the vicinity of the city of Chekhov, Moscow region. Here, from 1892 to 1899, the writer lived with his parents and closest relatives. Before leaving for Crimea, Chekhov sold this estate, and after the revolution it fell into neglect. The decision to establish the museum as a branch of the Serpukhov Regional Museum was made in 1939. In 1941, the museum opened to visitors, its first director was Peter Nikolayevich Solovyov. The sister of the writer, M.P. Chekhov and his nephew S.M. Chekhov, took an active part in recreating the atmosphere of Chekhov’s house.
Chekhov’s estate in Melikhovo The museum reflects the activities of Chekhov as a writer, doctor, public figure. The museum collection in Melikhovo has more than 20 thousand exhibits. The museum houses pictures of artists – friends of the writer: I. Levitan, V. Polenov, N. Chekhov, P. Seryogin and others. Melikhovo – a venue for concerts, theater and music festivals, exhibitions, Christmas trees. On the territory of the museum in 1951, one of the first monuments to the writer in the USSR was installed (sculptor G. I. Motovilov, architect L. M. Polyakov) Chekhovsky Melikhovo is one of the best pages in the history of Russian literature. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov lived here for seven years, from 1892 to 1899. The flow of the Melikhovo life is interesting because not only a writer lived here, but also a doctor who took a huge number of patients for free, who fought cholera; public figure, school builder.
A large number of acquaintances, events in the villages and the “district town of S.” are all plots of Chekhov’s works of Melikhovo time. During this time, he created 42 masterpieces: plays “Uncle Vanya” and “The Seagull”, stories and stories “Ward No. 6”, “Sakhalin Island”, “House with Mezzanine”, “My Life”, “Man in a Case”, “Gooseberry”, “About Love”, “Men” and others.
In 1899, for health reasons, Anton Pavlovich leaves for Yalta. Melikhovo was sold.
For a long time there was no museum here, but the Melikhov estate always attracted admirers of Chekhov’s talent.
The museum in Melikhovo began its life in 1940. From this memorial buildings, one outbuilding has been preserved;
“Polanovo” – State Memorial Historical-Art and Natural Museum-Reserve artist Vasily Polenov in Zaoksky district of the Tula region, on the right bank of the Oka, in the former Borok manor. The distance to Moscow is about 130 km, to Tula – 70 km.
According to the projects of V.D. Polenov, the main house, the artist’s studio “Abbey”, wings, services, and the Trinity Church located 2 km from Polenov in the village of Byokhovo were built in the estate. In 1931, a house-museum was opened. Museum area plan 1 Big house 2 Abbey (workshop) 3 Fakhverk 4 Admiralty 5 Children’s lodge 6 Carriage shed 7 Stable 8 Pogrebitsa 9 Hay barn 10 Cowshed 11 Chicken coop 12 Bathhouse, Prokofiev’s House 13 Greek Theater 14 Tourist Center 15 “City masters ”16 School of V.D. Polenov (p. Strakhovo) 17 Church of the Holy Trinity (p. Bekhovo) 18 Grave of V.D. Polenov and his family (p. Bekhovo) 19 Source of the Icon of the Kazan Mother of God (“ Loud ”) 20 Quay
In 1887, on his way to the Crimea, from the carriage window Polenov saw the Oka, and once and for all came under the spell of this marvelous river. “Beautiful places on the Oka near Serpukhov and beyond,” the artist wrote to his wife. “This is where we would live.” And, a few days later, he returns to this topic: “I dreamed of a house on the bank of the Oka, how we would arrange it, how we would live there, make a big room with a museum, gallery and library. Nearby there will be a carpentry workshop, an admiralty, fishing and a terrace, and above this will be my painting workshop and your small office … Wonderful dreams, perhaps, come true … ”.
The idea of building a house in these places that struck with beauty, did not leave the artist. Returning to Moscow, V. D. Polenov, despite the dull autumn time, went to the Oka, which he liked so much during his summer trip. In the Chronicle of Bekhova and Bork, written by his hand, it was noted on October 12, 1887: “I was traveling on the steamer along the Oka from the Rochefort estate near Aleksin and saw places near Tarusa and Bekhov”.
Centuries are born, and disappear again, One century is erased by another; What can escape from the wrath of the evil Crohn? What can stand before the terrible god sim? F. I. Tyutchev – 1816. The lines are written by a 13-year-old thinker who was born and grew up among nature in the Ovstug estate. What books, conversations, reflections, could give such a philosophical attitude? From what source did the poet draw such insights? As if something incomprehensible, inexplicable, unspoken in a word, dissolved in the atmosphere, earth and plants of this region, found fertile ground in the vulnerable soul of a teenage boy. It is genetically related to these places. Two centuries have passed since the birth of the poet, philosopher, patriot, wit, journalist and thinker Tyutchev, but today, in our pragmatic, hasty time, it is necessary to come to Ovstug, to stand still for a moment at the entrance to the estate and immediate problems, resentment, anxiety move away, turn pale .
. Our soul-grateful dies, The past will embrace and embrace And a terrible burden will raise you in a minute … Homestead on the picturesque bank of the river, shady avenues of the park, the classical architecture of the manor house and a picturesque pond with a pergola on the island. Here is the poet’s small homeland. Ovstug! Between low flat hills, surrounded by wooded ravines, the Ovstuzhenka River flows in low banks, a small tributary of the Desna River. Meadows are interspersed with thickets of alder, aspen, willow and give a variety of perspectives – the noble beauty of the surrounding landscape. Ovstug! In archival materials, it is mentioned from the 16th century, but excavations by archaeologists clarify that as far back as the 2nd century. Before
"Stug" – parking, settlement. "Ovstug" – familiar, old parking. And in the neighborhood, five kilometers from the village – the land of the ancient principality of Vschizhsky. Paganism, Orthodoxy and modernity – intricately and uniquely intertwined on this earth. Old truth – the more ancient a monument of culture, art, archeology, the brighter the fire of creative deep wisdom burns in it. And on the earth that gave birth to it, not only illuminates, but also warms the soul of the creator, endowing with a new triumph of discovery – words, colors, forms, melodies. So they rush to the places of Tyutchevskys – artists, poets, sculptors and thinkers. A spark of God of inspiration, awareness, illumination descends into souls sensitive, vulnerable, implicated in the trials of our century. Manor of the poet never ceases to be spiritual "Mecca" creative intelligentsia. In modern cultural consciousness, the State Memorial Historical and Literary Museum-Reserve "Ovstug" inextricably linked with the personality and creativity of the great poet, philosopher, lyric poet, thinker – Fedor Ivanovich Tyutchev.
Memorial Museum-Reserve of A.S. Pushkin “Mikhailovskoye” is a museum-reserve in the Pushkinogorsk District of the Pskov Region. The full name is the State Memorial Historical-Literary and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve of A.S. Pushkin “Mikhailovskoye”. The total area of the reserve is 9800 hectares.
The reserve includes: One of the bridges in the Mikhailovsky Park, the Tomb of A.S. Pushkin, and the necropolis of the Hannibal-Pushkins in the Svyatogorsk Holy Dormition Monastery of the Mikhailovskoye, Trigorskoye, and Petrovskoye estates, and the memorial parks of the site Velia, Voronich, Vrev, Savkino (Savkina Gorka) Lakes: Beloguli, Velha, Kuchane, Malenets, Chernoye Flooded meadows of the river Soroti Museum “Mill in the village of Bugrovo” Scientific and cultural center of Pushkin reserve in the village of Pushkin Mountains, (NCC) Names of relatives, friends and neighbors of the poet – Resurrection something, Golubov, Deriglazova, Bald Mountain The historic part of the village merchant Vella, XIV-XX centuries.
About the stay of A.S. Pushkin in Mikhailovsky For the first time the young poet visited here in the summer of 1817 and, as he himself wrote in one of his autobiographies, he was fascinated by “rural life, the Russian bath, strawberries, etc., but I did not like all this for long “. Next time Pushkin visits Mikhailovskoye in 1819. From August 1824 to September 1826, Pushkin lived here in exile. In 1824, Pushkin’s letter was opened by the police in Moscow, where he wrote about his enthusiasm for “atheistic teachings.” This was the reason for the resignation of the poet July 8, 1824 from the service. He was exiled to the estate of his mother, and spent two years there – this is the longest stay of Pushkin in Mikhailovsky. Soon after Pushkin’s arrival at Mikhailovskoye, he had a major altercation with his father, who in fact consented to the unspoken supervision of his own son.
In late autumn, all of Pushkin’s relatives left Mikhailovsky. Contrary to the fears of friends, the solitude in the village did not become disastrous for Pushkin. Despite the painful experiences, the first Mikhailovsky Autumn was fruitful for the poet, he read a lot, pondered, worked. Pushkin often visited P.A. Osipov’s neighbor in Trigorsk and used her library (Osipova’s father, a freemason, N.I. Novikov’s associate, left a large collection of books). From the mikhailovskaya exile until the end of his life he had friendly relations with Osipova and members of her large family. In Trigorsky in 1826, Pushkin met Yazykov, whose poems had been known to him since 1824. Pushkin completes the poems “Conversation of a Bookseller with a Poet” begun in Odessa, where he formulates his professional credo, “By the Sea” – a lyrical reflection on the fate of a man of Napoleon and Byron, on the brutal power of historical circumstances over a person, the poem “Gypsies” (1827), continues to write a novel in verse. In the autumn of 1824, he resumes work on autobiographical notes left at the very beginning in Chisinau, and ponders the plot of the folk drama Boris Godunov (finished November 7 (19), 1825, published in 1831), writes the comic poem Graf Nulin. In total, Mikhailovsky poet created about a hundred works.
Boldino is one of those “talking” places., which tells about the life of a famous person more than the volume of his biographies. Here time is reversed, and you find yourself in the era of Pushkin. The village Bolshoe Boldino is an ancient patrimony of the Pushkin family. Already in 1585 it was owned by Evstafy Mikhailovich Pushkin, a voivode and diplomat under Ivan the Terrible. Since 1619, the “patrimony in the Arzamas district in Zalesny camp outside the Shedkovo gate, the village of Boldino, which was the village of Zavorotniki, under a large Mordovian black forest …” was considered
A direct acquaintance with the life and lifestyle of a serf village was reflected in a number of works, most deeply – in the “History of the Village of Goryukhina”. The months spent here, especially the autumn of 1830 in Bolda, became unusually fruitful for the poet. During this time, more than thirty lyric poems were written, “Little Tragedies”, “Belkin’s Stories”, “House in Kolomna”, the last chapters of “Eugene Onegin”, “The Bronze Horseman”, “The Queen of Spades”, fairy tales and much more. Pushkin’s stay in Boldin undoubtedly had a great influence on his subsequent work.
The museum dedicated to the Boldin period of the poet’s life and work is housed in the former Pushkins ’lordly house. After the death of Sergey Lvovich (in 1849) the estate passed to Lev Sergeevich, the brother of the poet. In 1911 the estate was acquired by the treasury. Since 1949 this land has been a reserve museum.
In the 1980-1990s, the estate complex was completely recreated. The lordly kitchen, bathhouse, human, stable with a cartwright and a barn reappeared at the same places. Here are open expositions and ethnographic exhibitions. By the 200th anniversary of the poet’s birth, the stone church of the Dormition of the 18th century was restored in Boldin. In 1997, a children’s museum of Pushkin’s fairy tales was opened in the houses of the church parish. In 2005, the restoration of the manor house in Lvivka was completed. It houses the exposition “In the World of Belkin’s Stories”, dedicated to Pushkin heroes.
Since 1969, the Pushkin scientific conference “Boldin Readings” has been held in Boldin. Since 1976, following the results of the conference, the annual Boldin Readings is published. Since 2003, the museum began to annually hold a regional school conference “Under the Sign of Pushkin.” The best works are also published in the same collection. In 1973, Boldino was included in the route of the annual All-Union Pushkin poetry festival. The Museum-Reserve annually takes part in the preparation and holding of the All-Russian festival of opera and ballet art “Bolda Autumn”.
The origin and development of the palace and park ensemble in Tsarskoye Selo are connected with the liberation of the old Novgorod possessions off the Neva coast from the power of the Swedish kingdom, the construction of St. Petersburg and the establishment of the capital of the Russian state in it.
This territory has long been part of the ancient lands. In the 12th century, the region was called the “Izhora land of the Lord of Novgorod the Great”; in the 17th century, the “Izhora land” was occupied by the Swedes. The return of these territories to Russia began in 1702 with the victory of our country in the Northern War.
At the site of the future Tsarskoye Selo there was a small estate “Saris hoff”, or “Saaris moisio” (translated from Finnish – “manor on an elevated place”), and in Russian – Sarskaya manor, marked on Swedish maps of the XVII century. Immediately after the end of the Northern War, the manor was donated to A. D. Menshikov, appointed by the Governor-General of the liberated region, and on June 24, 1710, by order of Peter I, was “unsubscribed” to his future wife, Ekaterina Alekseevna (the official marriage of Peter I to Catherine took place in February 1712 ) and included in the category of palace lands.
In 1710-1720, the country royal residence began to be created on the estate site, around which villages appeared, as well as the settlement of palace servants. Gradually, the layout of the ensemble is streamlined. Soon, the Sarsky manor became known as Sarskoye Selo, and with the beginning of palace construction, she received the high title of Tsarskoye Selo.
For two centuries, Tsarskoye Selo was the summer parade of the imperial residence, the construction of which was of state importance and was carried out with the participation of government departments.
After the October Revolution, the palace and park ensemble was turned into a museum, and the new authorities transferred the best buildings of the city to educational and health institutions for children. In connection with this, in 1918 the city was renamed Detskoe Selo. On June 9 of the same year, the Catherine Palace was opened as a museum. In 1937, in commemoration of the centenary anniversary of the tragic death of A.S. Pushkin, the city where the future poet was brought up in the Imperial Lyceum began to be called by his name. And, finally, in January 1983, the palaces and parks of the city of Pushkin were given the status of a reserve, which in 1990 received its present name: State Museum-Reserve “Tsarskoye Selo”. The Tsarskoye Selo palace and park ensemble is a brilliant monument of world architecture and landscape architecture of the 18th – early 20th century. A whole constellation of outstanding architects, sculptors, painters embodied here the plans of the crowned customers. The best examples of Baroque and Classicism architecture are concentrated in Tsarskoye Selo; It was here that the first interiors in the Russian capital appeared in the modern style.
The composition center of the ensemble is the Bolshoi Tsarskoye Selo (Catherine) Palace – a magnificent example of Russian baroque. The Grand Hall and the Golden Enfilade of ceremonial rooms, among which are the world-famous Amber Room, revived to a new life, delight with the luxury of decoration. Today, entering the palace, we can feel the spirit of the Elizabethan and Catherine eras and get acquainted with the unique works of visual and applied art.
In Tsarskoye Selo there is one of the best creations of classicism architecture – the Alexander Palace. Passing through the rooms of its residential half, open to the public, you can get an idea of the artistic preferences of the last representatives of the Romanov dynasty, and see the Emperor’s Parade, decorated in modern style.
More than a hundred monuments are spread over the territory of Yekaterininsky and Alexandrovsky parks with a total area of 300 hectares: these are majestic palaces and intimate pavilions, bridges and marble monuments, as well as exotic structures in the style of Gothic, Turkish, Chinese architecture, telling the corners of the park a romantic atmosphere.
The palaces and parks of the unique Tsarskoye Selo ensemble suffered greatly during the years of the Great Patriotic War. The Catherine Palace, which had been in the occupied territory for twenty-eight months, turned into burnt ruins by 1944. Some park pavilions were partially or completely destroyed; other buildings of the complex were also seriously damaged. In the parks of Tsarskoye Selo, dug in with trenches and dugouts, 25 bridges, about 50 dams, dams and cascades were destroyed.
Now, more than half a century after the war, the restoration and restoration work in the reserve, which began in the 1950s, can be called exaggerated without exaggeration in international practice. To this day, architects and restorers recreate the priceless heritage of the past, using traditional materials and technologies of gilding, stone-cutting, stucco and other works by masters of the 18th – 19th centuries, whose secrets are rediscovered from documentary sources.
Pushkin’s poetic birthplace called near Moscow manor Zakharovo and Vyazemy – after all, he spent his childhood here. It was in these places, in the grandmother’s estate near Moscow, that Pushkin first saw the beauty of Russian nature, peasant dances, heard folk songs, saw the life of the rich and provincial nobility, his views on life were formed here, he began to write his first poems, here he was formed as great national poet.
Pushkin came here in the most difficult periods of his life.
Now, on the territory of two estates, the State Historical and Literary Museum-Reserve of A.S. Pushkin (GILMZ, A.S. Pushkin) is located.
Arriving in these places, you can not only wander along the paths of old parks, where the great poet walked, and breathe this magical air, but also touch the silent witnesses of the poet’s childhood – magnificent architectural monuments that are combined into a whole palace and park ensemble of the XVI — XIX centuries : Church of the Transfiguration, belfry of the end of the XVI century, the palace and two outbuildings of the XVIII century, farm buildings, parks, ponds of the XVI-XIX centuries. There are more than 20 historical and cultural monuments on the territory of Vyazem. These places are associated with key events in the history of Russia: “Time of Troubles”, Petrovsky transformations, the Patriotic War of 1812, the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. Here were Boris Godunov, Lzhedmitry I, Peter I, Pavel I, Kutuzov, Napoleon, Bagration, N.V. Gogol, L.N. Tolstoy, M.Tsvetaeva, A.Akhmatova and many others whose world history is proud of.
A pond, part of the park, sung by Pushkin, has survived in Zakharov. In 1999, the estate house of Maria Alekseevny Hannibal, the grandmother of A. Pushkin on the maternal line, where the museum of the childhood of the great poet was located, was restored.
Excursions are held in the Pushkin Museum-Reserve, expositions and exhibitions are open. On the territory of the reserve there are three museums. Every Sunday, from September to April, musical evenings and concerts are held in the chimney hall of the palace. The museum does a lot of work with children: here you can become a member of Pushkin’s balls, competitions of young poets, and a school Pushkin conference. The received status of the international drawing competition “Pushkin through the eyes of children” is very popular. Pushkin’s childhood games are being revived, classes are held with children, the opening of a school for a young guide and a young ranger is planned.
The museum holds a large research work. Four major scientific conferences are held annually, to which scientists from all over the country gather; lectures are given, scientific collections and advertising booklets are published.
The funds of the Pushkin Museum-Reserve contain unique objects of the estate culture of the 17th — 19th centuries.
The estate is located in the Solnechnogorsky district of the Moscow region, near the village of Tarakanovo, 22 km north of Solnechnogorsk along the Tarakanovsky highway.
The museum-reserve was created in 1981, the reserve area is 307 hectares, it includes the territory of the Shakhmatovo estate and the village of Tarakanovo, where Alexander Blok was crowned with Lyubov Mendeleeva in the church of Michael the Archangel.
The estate of Shakhmatovo was acquired by Blok’s grandfather – A.N. Beketov in 1874. In Shakhmatovo, the poet spent every summer from 1881 to 1916 and in his works “On the railroad”, “All this was, was, was” – mentioned the Shakhmatovo neighborhood. The wooden manor house was rebuilt by Blok according to his own design in 1910. In 1921, the estate was burned by peasants.
In Soviet times, and before the creation of the museum, the ruined manor served as a place of pilgrimage for fans of the poet. The main house was restored only in 2001, since then there are guided tours and mass events.
Museum of Blok and Mendeleev State Memorial Museum-Reserve
Address: 141500, Moscow region, Solnechnogorsk, ul. Embankment, 11 (hide map)
Wednesday-Sunday – from
Manor Vasilyovo – architectural and artistic ensemble Late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The manor is located in the Tver region, on the bank of the Tvertsa River, about 3–4 km upstream of the river north of the city of Torzhok (Torzhok district, Bolshesvyattsovsky rural settlement). On the basis of the estate is a museum of wooden architecture. Next to the estate is a village with the same name. The estate belonged to the Tver nobleman D. Lvov, for whom at the end of the 18th century, his distant relative, the famous architect, N. T. Lvov, born in the Tver province, built the main house. Currently, the main house of the estate has not been preserved (burned down), but on the ground one can determine the contours of the former building from the remaining remnants of the foundation of the house. To our time, preserved two-storey outbuilding of the estate, rebuilt from the greenhouse.
The famous linden avenue, which led to the main house of the manor, has been preserved on the territory of the manor. This alley is the remainder of the regular park part of the estate. The uniqueness of the linden alley is that the branches of the trees were cut so that the treetops formed a solid green tent above the carriageway of the alley.
Map-scheme of the ethnographic museum Vasilyovo 1 – Entrance to the museum complex Vasilyovo; 2 – Stones-boulders with crosses of the XI century; 3 – Linden Alley; 4 – An old linden tree with a hollow of the “wish fulfillment”; 5 – Manor Outhouse (end of XVII century), former greenhouse; 6 – location and remnants of the foundation of the main house of the estate; 7 – Chapel of the Dormition of the Mother of God; 8 – Large arched boulder bridge – “Devil’s Bridge” (end of the XVIII century); 9 – Dam with a grotto; 10 – Znamenskaya Church (1742); 11 – Riga with the threshing floor; 12 – Rural house-tavern (beginning of XIX century); 13 – Two-storey barn (XIX century); 14 – Fire Station (1912); 15 – Chapel of the Holy Archangel Michael (XVIII century); 16 – Church of the Transfiguration (Ascension) on a high basement (1732); 17 – Water mill with a dam; 18 – Karelian House (second half of the XIX century); 19 – Two-storey barn with a shed.
Boulder arched bridge On the estate there is a cascade of three ponds, on a stream, descending to the river Tvertsa. The creek and the famous 100-meter arched boulder bridge with grottoes, made in the technique of archivolt, which is a real masterpiece of architectural thought – the “magnificent stone symphony” as it is called by the architect’s admirers, were made on the creek by architect N. A. Lvov. Currently, the bridge has become widely known under the name “Devil’s Bridge”, which he received from a light hand local historian, who in the 60s of the XX century described the estate in the tourist guide and mentioned the name of the island on the creek – “Devil’s Island”.
Among the vast fields, forests and groves, along the banks of winding rivers in the north-west of the Penza region lies the ancient village of Tarkhany. Here, in the estate of Arsenyev Elizabeth Alekseevna and Mikhail Vasilyevich – grandfather and grandmother of the poet, spent his childhood and adolescent years, Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov. Here he learned about life, people, himself. Here he first picked up a pencil, first touched the keys of the piano, began to learn the exact sciences. He returned here more than once, and here he dreamed of being buried. Now in the former Tarkhans, now Lermontovo, there is the State Museum-Reserve of the great Russian poet. This is a unique historical and cultural monument of federal significance.
Tarkhany, a monument to Lermontov The main and most significant part of the reserve is a picturesque lordly estate with a complex of memorial monuments of the early 19th century. The base of the estate was laid in the bend of the ravine, formed by a small river Milorayka. In its bed and in the ravine, the Arsenyevs made a cascade of ponds that surrounded the estate from three sides. On the east bank of Milorayka, two gardens were laid out – Middle and Far. On the west bank there is a Round Garden, which is connected with an oak grove by a linden alley.
The manor house is a house with a mezzanine, painted in the yellow color that was fashionable at that time. This house was restored with the maximum approximation to the appearance of the house of Lermontov time. The huge hall preserved the atmosphere of the noble life of the first quarter of the 19th century. Family portraits convey to visitors the character traits of its inhabitants. The central figure among these portraits is the three-year-old Misha Lermontov. On the attic there are two rooms of Lermontov. The first room contains personal items that characterize the poet in those times when, as an officer, he came to his grandmother on vacation. The second room is furnished as a poet’s study.
Ten kilometers east of the Root Hermitage is the village of 1st Vorobievka, and in the past the village of Vorobievka, known as the estate of the Russian lyric poet Afanasy Afanasyevich Fet (1820-1892), in which the poet spent the best years of his work. In the early 19th century, Vorobievka belonged to the collegiate assessor Peter Mikhailovich Rtishchiv. In 1877, for more than 100 thousand rubles, the estate was acquired by A. Fet from his heirs. Vorobevka – the poet called this beautiful manor’s estate “our microscopic Switzerland”. Immediately, he began to adapt it for housing in accordance with his tastes. On the first floor of the main house of the time of Feta were: the front rooms – a living room, a dining room; residential – the poet’s study, bedroom, room of the poet’s wife; as well as the corridor and the corridor, which divided the building into two halves – the front and the living.
Afanasy Fet The upper part of the house, which at the Rtishchevs was a mezzanine and the attic was completely renovated, the height of the floor was increased. In the southern part of the second floor, above the living room, there was a billiard room, next to it was the poet’s “upper” study and a number of guest rooms. The furniture for the house – furniture, dishes, cacti were brought from Stepanovka (the estate in Oryol province, which Fet sold to buy Sparrow). Finishing materials were ordered in Moscow. With the onset of spring, plants from the greenhouse were transferred to the house. “… They inflicted oleanders in bloom, cypresses, philodendrons and many flowers,” writes Fet in his Memoirs.
Despite the fact that Fet considered the Vorobyevka estate to be an insignificant farm, unlike, as he himself said, from the “more powerful” farm in his Voronezh Graivaronka, all the main branches of the economy were represented in it.
In Vorobevka, pigs were bred and the ham was delivered to Moscow. By 1881, the estate had up to one hundred sheep. From the farm buildings, a barn for storing grain, a stable, and a human have survived to our time.
Being a practical landowner, on the opposite side of the Tuscari, south of the manor, Fet built an economic farm, to which he attached great importance.
He loved the poet and his park, his poplars, and fake avenues — all this quiet beautiful corner, where he could not reach “neither the cry of the fools, nor the mean-hearted rampant of them”. Under his influence, he immersed himself in poetry.
The summer evening is quiet and clear; See how willows slumber; The west of the sky is pale red, And the rivers gleam the twists.
In Vorobevsky park there were several ponds, one of which in the central part has survived to the present day. Old-timers of the village call this pond a fish planter. To the south of the pond on the round island was a flooded rotunda, which was not preserved. To the west of the main house was a garden in which they grew apples and cherries. Behind the garden was a greenhouse, where they grew exotic plants for those times: watermelons, melons, Crimean grapes, etc. In May, lilac blossomed in Vorobyevsky Park and honeysuckle, acacia, chestnuts and roses bloomed …
State literary-memorial museum-reserve N. A. Nekrasov “Karabiha” located in the village of Karabiha of the Yaroslavl District of the Yaroslavl Region, 15 km south of the geographical center of Yaroslavl (on the old Moscow Highway), near the urban village of Krasnye Tkachi. On its territory there is an old manor, a number of outbuildings and two parks. Until the beginning of the XVIII century: in the vicinity of the modern Karabikha located village Bogorodskoe. 1711: The princely family of the Golitsyn became the owner of the village of Bogorodskoye and the adjacent lands.
Karabiha Manor, Nekrasov Museum 40th year of the 18th century: by order of Nikolai Sergeevich Golitsyn, an unknown architect began the construction of a manor on Karabite Mountain. The manor is called Karabiha, and the village becomes the same name. 1785: the estate passes to his son Mikhail Nikolayevich Golitsyn, appointed in 1801 by the Yaroslavl civil governor, A. N. Golitsyn’s brother, a famous favorite of Alexander I. The beginning of the 19th century: M. Golitsyn began the reconstruction of the family estate, which resulted in the estate ensemble takes the form of a ceremonial residence corresponding to the status of the owner. Practically in this form the manor complex has survived to this day. After the death of M. N. Golitsyn, the manor remains without a master and decays. The son of Mikhail Nikolayevich Valerian, who received her as an inheritance, was arrested for participating in the Decembrist movement and sentenced to exile in Siberia, then to service in the Caucasus, and when he returned, he preferred other estates. After his death in 1859, his wife Daria Andreyevna sold the estate. “Nekrasovsky” period 1861: N. A. Nekrasov acquires a manor for summer holidays. The brother of Fyodor Nekrasov, who settled with N. A. Nekrasov, takes over the household business. 1861-1875: here the poet lives ten summer seasons, and writes poems “Frost, Red Nose” (a poem dedicated to the poet to his sister Anna), “Russian Women”, works on “Who Lives Well in Russia.” He writes poems “Orina, Soldier’s Mother”, “Kalistrat” and others. 1875: Nekrasov visits his estate for the last time. Visits the mother’s grave in Abbakumtsevo, examines the village school he founded. I visited Greshnevo, where on the ashes of an old Nekrasov house, burnt down shortly before his brother opened a tavern.
In 2017, it marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding writer Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy, a descendant of the glorious Count families of Tolstoy and Razumovsky, who left a noticeable mark on the history of the Fatherland. Graph
Red Horn, manor
Nature in the estate The buildings of the estate are surrounded by a magnificent park that has preserved ancient avenues and charming lime bosque arbors. Maple and linden grow in the groves and landscape groups; dark ash, marshy poplar, black alder, spruce, pine, hawk, larch, elm, bird cherry, mountain ash, elder, hazelnut, wild rose are also found, and in the floodplain – blacktail and willow.
Poetry Day in the village of Krasny Rog In the village of Krasny Rog, every year, on the first Saturday of September, Poetry Day is celebrated, dedicated to the memory of the poet Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy. Every year in the Red Horn on the first Saturday or Sunday of September the All-Russian festival of poetry takes place. Various events, contests, poems of poets of the Bryansk region, guests from Moscow and neighboring regions, Belarus and Ukraine are played. Every two years, the Silver Lyre Prize is awarded, which awards Tolstoy’s scholars, poets, writers, and actors.
The museum is located 30 km from Moscow, near Zvenigorod, on the picturesque bank of the Moscow River, and is of interest as a historical and cultural monument and natural reserve. “The house is a mixed two-storey house covered with iron, the bottom of which is a brick wall three arshins, and the top is timbered. The internal walls are capital, the eaves and platbands with carved decorations are painted, the walls outside are primed, the floors and ceilings are planked with black nakatom, the doors and window frames are winter and summer pine, painted with oil paint and lacquerware. Below are two living rooms and basements, and at the top are three rooms, a front room and a kitchen. Adjacent: an octagonal two-story covered terrace covered in iron, on stone pillars with wooden floors and ceilings and Italian windows. Wooden canopy covered with iron with an external porch “.
This is how the house of Maria Yulyevna Oswald was described in the insurance certificate issued by the Moscow Insurance Company on April 29, 1901 from a fire by a consumer society of Concordia Vasilyevna Kritskaya. It is known that the house of a “Finnish native” owner of a Moscow pharmacy
City of Kyko jerry the papaver The interior of the church was reunited in the 18th century by Peter the Great of the Seventh. He partly called the land, which he was able to reach from the rest, “kicked” from the distance and received the name of the land. Kyoto has another nickname – Submarine Airplane.
manor Kuskovo Already from the entrance there are opened up the wondrous species on the yogurt, the accreted stockpiles and the enclosed archives. The operating security system of the survivor is functioning. The spire of the adjacent column of the building reminds the architects of the decisions of the Petrochemical Admiralty and the Truthfulness of Fortress.
GENERAL INFORMATION The Cusco Estate is a former estate of the Sheremetev Counts, where the architectural and artistic ensemble of the 18th century is preserved. Located in the east of Moscow in the district Veshnyaki.
The ensemble includes: a palace built in the second half of the 18th century in the style of classicism; a regular, sculpture-decorated park with pavilions: the Grotto, the Orangery (projects of the serf architect F. S. Argunov, second half of the 18th century), the Hermitage (second half of the 18th century), and Italian (18th century). ) and “Dutch” (XVIII century) houses; Church of the All-Merciful Savior (XVIII century); Ceramics Museum. The estate consisted of three parts: the dam with the menagerie, the French regular park with the main architectural ensemble and the English park “Guy”. The architectural and park complex of the central front part has been preserved to the fullest extent.
The center of the ensemble is the palace, in which the layout and decoration of the interiors with works of Russian and Western European fine art have been preserved; donative portraits of Russian emperors and several generations of the owners of the estate – the Sheremetevs.
Ryabovo – a beautiful and amazing rural place in Zuevsky district. Recently, it is called one of the favorite places of landscape painters in Russia. Since 1981, a memorial house-museum has been opened in the rural hinterland, which is firmly connected with the history of the family of the artists Viktor and Apollinaris Vasnetsov. Over the 20 years of its existence, the museum flourished and expanded, and in 2010 it was renamed the Historical, Memorial and Landscape Museum-Reserve of Artists
It is not just a house where children who once became famous artists lived long ago. There is a nature reserve with a large territory, in the heart of which is the historical part of the village with a house and a manor, “Vasnetsov linden”, the foundation of the stone church, the grave of the maternal grandfather and parents of artists, the wooden church of St. John the Forerunner and an artificially restored pond. The church has been consecrated and services are held in it for significant dates for the Vasnetsov family. And on the adjacent territory, various mass events are held – “Vasnetsov’s readings”, “Shrovetide festivities”, “Christmas nativity scene”, Easter celebrations and many others. For several years, an interesting event has been held here that is of great importance for the prosperity of the modern artistic life of the region and for the cultural development of future generations – the Vasnetsky Plein Air. 16 artists from different regions of the country, Syktyvkar and Moscow, St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod, Murmansk, Veliky Ustyug and others took part in the first plein air. Since then, the open-airs have become traditional and the geography and the number of participants in the event has been growing every year. This place is loved not only by landscape painters, but also by many caring connoisseurs of the cultural heritage of their country, and simply lovers of quiet, peaceful and spiritual rest. It is nice to be here – in the summer you can visit the house-museum on any day, at other times of the year – Monday and Tuesday – weekends, you should definitely order an interesting excursion in the museum and the surroundings of the reserve, and learn about the life of a simple priest family and the childhood of talented children. The life of the village began in the middle of the 18th century with the signing of a certificate on the construction of a wooden church in honor of the Nativity of John the Forerunner at the village of Chugaevskaya. The temple was cut down and consecrated in 1757, houses of church servants grew around the church, and the village of Ryabovo was born near the Ryabovka river. After years, instead of the dilapidated wooden church, petitions of parish people sign the construction of a new stone church. The project of the new temple was prepared by the architect
Palace of Eugenia Maximilianovna Oldenburg, nee Romanovskaya, is a visiting card of Ramoni and one of the most famous tourist attractions in the Voronezh region.
It is also included in the list of objects of historical and cultural heritage protected by the state and of federal importance. Locals proudly call the manor house “castle”, and the former outbuildings and the suite building are still used as residential properties.
Castle Princess Oldenburg The history of the palace and the estate that was established in the Ramon estate is connected, first of all, with the activities of its owner, Eugenia Maximilianovna, for the representative of her time, the lady is active, advanced and even slightly extravagant. By the way, the Princess of Oldenburg, and her spouse are the real representatives of the Russian imperial family: Evgenia Maximilianovna – the granddaughter of Nicholas I, Alexander Petrovich – Paul I’s great-grandson. The palace enjoys special demand among the newlyweds: its appearance gives a special entourage to wedding photo shoots. The construction of the palace, suitable for imperial highnesses, lasted from 1883 to 1887. The building is built in Old English style and looks quite simple, but at the same time elegant. In its design, according to some sources, the Petersburg architect Nikolai Benoit received. The palace had a fireplace, a library with a wooden ceiling, which the princess, by the way, adorned herself by burning out, a living room, a dining room, classrooms, a dance hall, a bedroom, spouses’ rooms, a bathroom with a shower and several other rooms. The interior was chic: stairs, doors, window frames with bronze handles, ceiling beams of stained oak (they are perfectly preserved until now), Italian tiles on the fireplaces – in each room are different, decorated with silk walls.
Bunin was born in Voronezh, on Dvoryanskaya Street. Here is what the writer himself writes: I was born in Voronezh, lived in it for three whole years, and besides I spent the whole night once, but I don’t know Voronezh, because that night I spent in it I could not see it: invited was a Voronezh student community reading at a charity evening in favor of this community, arrived in the dark winter twilight, in a blizzard, was met with champagne at the station, had a good drink at the evening and before the rassevet was taken again to the station to the Moscow train already completely intoxicated. And those three years that I lived in Voronezh, were my infancy.
Monument to Bunin in Yelets He spent his childhood in the village of Butyrka in the last estate of the family, located in the Yelets district of the Oryol province, where Bunins moved in 1874. On this farm, lost in the vastness of Oryol land, the personality of Ivan Alekseevich is being formed. In the village of the mother and the double little Vanya "have heard a lot" songs and tales. Memories of childhood – from the age of seven, as Bunin wrote, are related to him "with a field, with peasant huts" and their inhabitants. He spent the whole day dropping through the nearest trees, grazing cattle with his peasant children, went to the night, with some of them was friendly. In the eleventh year, he entered the Elets gymnasium. He studied well at first, everything was easy; could, with one reading, remember a poem in the whole page, if it interested him. But from year to year the teaching went worse, in the third class remained for the second year. The teachers were mostly gray and insignificant people. In the gymnasium, he wrote poems, subject to Dermontov, Pushkin. He was not attracted by what is usually read in this age, but by reading, as he said, "horrible". He did not graduate from the gymnasium, then he studied independently under the guidance of his eldest brother Yuli Alekseevich, a university candidate.
Eagle Monument Bunin in Orel. Author
Efremov House Bunin in Efremov For the first time Bunin came to Efremov at the age of 17. Overcome by a youthful impulse, he decided to go on a visit to Count L.N. Tolstoy, whom he idolized as a writer, in Yasnaya Polyana. Jumped on a horse – and it was this. But she had the courage to go as far as Efremov, because the horse was tired and she had to give her rest. After walking around Efremov, he wandered into the city garden. Tired, he lay down on the bench, and he fell asleep. Waking up early in the morning and frightened by his own courage, he also unexpectedly returned to his home. In the house of his brother, Yevgeny Alekseevich, Turgenev 47 was repeatedly from 1906 to 1917, Ivan Alekseevich Bunin. Here, in an old red brick mansion, Lyudmila Alexandrovna, the mother of the Bunin family, spent the last years of her life. In the old cemetery near the city grove, its ashes, and Evgeny Alekseevich and his wife Anastasia Karlovna, rest.
Moscow House in which he lived
Yazykovo – the estate of the noble family of Yazykov, which was located on the territory of the modern village of Yazykovo, Karsunsky District, Ulyanovsk Region.
Most known as the “refuge of poetry” of the early 1830s, where Decembrist V.P. Ivashev, poet-partisan D.V. Davydov visited the host, the poet N.M. Yazykov and his learned brother P.M. Yazykov. , thinker A. S. Khomyakov. In September 1833, A. Pushkin traveled here to Orenburg and back. In 1831, together with P. V. Kireevsky, the Languages organized a collection of folklore materials in the district.
The manor house in Yazykovo with Pushkin’s room, like many other Russian estates, burned down in the early 1920s. The branch of the Ulyanovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore since 1993 has been located in one of the wooden farm buildings left over from the estate.
In addition to the story about the Yazykov brothers, the museum exposition gives an idea of the last owner of the estate, M. F. Stepanov, and the stage activity of his spouse Natalia Osipovna. In the park with a pond and elm avenue (1804) spruce, planted by Pushkin, grows.
When I first got into Yurino, from the castle was a desolation. On the broken main staircase I made my way into the Oak Study, from there the Eastern Room was visible. Suddenly a chill on the back: in the window frame, as in the picture frame, a ghostly female silhouette appeared. Iconographic head tilt, yellow face circle in a white wreath. They warned me that the castle was haunting, sort of like a ghost in the form of a serf Palachi. She was supposedly immured in "stone bag" for refusing the count his right "the first night".
There are no castles without dark legends. Especially in the harsh land, called peasants "Sheremetev Siberia".
In the southwestern part of Mari El on the left bank of the Volga between the ancient cities of Kozmodemyansky and Vasilsursky stretched P. Yurino.
The great beauty Volga flows widely and freely here. In the depths of the Volga shore you will see a semi-fantastic medieval castle with jagged towers, with colored stained glass windows and a dome of the winter garden. The castle successfully fits into the surrounding landscape – an ever-green park with slender pines and curly birches. Covered with legends, unknown mystery and peculiar beauty, it leads to the deep antiquity.
In the past Yurino village called the village of Arkhangelsk. History has not kept the date of occurrence Yurino. It is not excluded that Yurino was formed by Russian peasants. Already in the 17th century, as historical documents confirm, the village passed from one owner to another. Count Golovin sold Yurino with the neighboring villages to the factory owner of the Iron Urals, Nikita Demidov, a well-known factory in Petrovsky times. He gave Yurino his son-heir, Nicholas. Nikolay did not want to go to this wilderness. Yurinsky lands passed to the chamberlain Alexander Zherebtsov. And only in a difficult year, when the Russian people defended their land from the Napoleonic invasion, the village with the adjacent lands bought from the widow Zherebtsova Olga
In the 18th century, the village of Dolgaya Polyana emerged here, which became the estate of the noble family of the Molostvovs. This name is well known in Russian history. According to the ancient Russian chronicles, the beginning of the family dates back to Veliky Novgorod, where in the second half of the 15th century representatives of the Molostvovs owned lands. For service before the Sovereign and the Fatherland, representatives of the clan in the male line were awarded important positions and large land plots, including in the Volga region.
In the second half of the XVII – XYIII centuries, the Molostvies were among the respected landowners of the Kazan province. Dmitry Ivanovich Molostvov from 1697 was a steward and voivod in Ufa, from 1703 – a steward in Kazan. Vladimir Porfirievich Molostvov (1794-1863) began to study at Kazan University, but left him for military service, rose to the rank of lieutenant general, participant and hero of the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Russian-Turkish War of 1828-1829, was governor of the Voronezh province, in 1847-1857 he was a trustee of the Kazan school district, then a senator. He was a well-educated, gifted person, prone to literature, poetry, music, languages. He was an honorary member of the Kazan Society of Lovers of Russian Literature and Honorary Trustee of Kazan University. Was familiar with
"He is not a great Russian master,
Fool he was not forever
He is a Tatar, he is a Tatar,
Not a Russian person",
thus hinting at the spiritual connection of our prominent countryman with Kazan, the Volga region, with Tataria.
Molostvovs were rightfully among the prominent aristocratic circles of Kazan province. They were related and maintained friendship with prominent representatives of Russia’s intellectual elite: the poet
Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy’s life and creative work is well known for his attraction and youthful love for Vladimir Porfirievich Molostvov’s granddaughter, Zinaida Modestovna Molostvova (1828-1897), the daughter of Spassky Uyezd’s leader, Modest Porfirievich Molostvov.
In 1845, after her father died at the age of 16, Zinaida Modestovna was placed in the Rodionovsky Institute of Noble Maidens in Kazan (now the Suvorov School is located in this building). As a friend of the institute of Lev Nikolayevich Maria’s sister, Zinaida Modestovna met with the future writer at the institute, at balls, and was at their home. As Maria Nikolaevna told, "in the Tolstoy house she was very much loved and distinguished from others, because with a rich inner content, Zinaida Modestovna was alive, witty, with great humor.". Other contemporaries noted: "She was not the most beautiful, but was distinguished by her good looks and grace. She was smart and witty. Her observations of people were always imbued with humor, and at the same time she was kind, delicate in nature and always dreamy.".
Of course, the loving Lev Nikolayevich could not help but notice this prominent girl, but the development of a great feeling was prevented by the speedy departure of Tolstoy from Kazan.
A new meeting took place in 1851, when, going with his brother Nikolai to the Caucasus, Lev Nikolayevich held in Kazan "very pleasant week". This time left in him the best memories, thanks to meetings with
If Pushkin is a world poet, then undoubtedly Yesenin is the most Russian poet of our era! How and where this poetry originated, where Sergei Yesenin first saw the fields, rivers and forests that inspired him to such poems – you can find out by visiting the village of Konstantinovo on the banks of the Oka River. Konstantinovo is a village in the Rybnovsky district of the Ryazan region. Located on the picturesque high right bank of the Oka 43 kilometers north-west of Ryazan. Konstantinovo is famous for the fact that the Russian poet Sergey Alexandrovich Yesenin was born here on October 3, 1895 (in a new style). In Konstantinov passed the childhood and youth of the poet. In the central part of the village there is the State Museum-Reserve of S. A. Yesenin.
The history of the village Konstantinovo has about 400 years. The first mention of it dates back to 1619, the village was then the property of the royal family. A few decades later it was granted Myshetsky and Volkonsky.
Most of the village began to own Jacob Myshetsky, who gave him a dowry to his daughter Natalia when she married Kirill Alekseevich Naryshkin.
In 1728, the son of Kirill Alekseevich Semyon Kirillovich Naryshkin became the owner of Konstantinov. He received a brilliant European education, consisted in the diplomatic service. Not having direct descendants in 1775, bequeathed Konstantinovo to his nephew Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn.
In 1779 a stone church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God was erected with the funds of Golitsyn. In 1808, the estate passed on to an extra-marital daughter, Catherine Alexandrovna, in marriage to Dolgorukova.
According to her will, in 1843, her nephews Alexander Dmitrievich and Vladimir Dmitrievich Olsufievs became the owners of the village. After 2 years, they divided the aunt’s inheritance, and the eldest of the brothers, Alexander Dmitrievich, began to single-handedly manage the estate. His son, Vladimir Alexandrovich Olsufiev (1829–1867), inherited in 1853.
The manifesto of 1861, when they received personal freedom, became a significant event in the life of the peasants of the village of Konstantinovo. At that time, 680 revision souls, that was exactly what was meant by the revision fairy tales of the village of Konstantinovo, received 1,400 desiatin 740 sazhen lands in their ownership. For the redemption of which they paid 72,945 rubles.
The village was in the possession of the Olsufyevs until 1879, when it passed into the possession of the Kupriyanov merchants from the town of Bogoroditsk – Sergey, Alexander and Nikolai Grigorievich.
The eldest of the brothers, Sergey (1843? – 1923), built a district school, did much to educate peasant children.
In 1897, the Moscow millionaire, the owner of apartment houses on the Khitrov market, “hereditary honorary citizen of Moscow” Ivan Petrovich Kulakov, became the owner of the house and the estate. Kulakov built a new school building, decorated the temple with a wooden oak iconostasis. According to the order of the Bishop of Ryazan and Zaraisk Nikodim (Bokov), he was buried in the church fence. After the death of his father in 1911, Lidia Ivanovna became the mistress, in marriage Kashin. She continued her parent’s charity work. Since 1917, a new historical period began in the life of the village of Konstantinovo.
Peterhof was laid by Peter I in the image of a regular European parks. Under Peter the Great, the first fountains were opened. Peterhof, like other royal residences located on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, had to emphasize that Russia came to these shores seriously and for a long time. Therefore, the center of the ensemble is the fountain “Samson tearing the lion’s mouth”, dedicated to the victory of Russia over Sweden.
Russia’s first major victory over Sweden took place near Poltava in 1709 on the day of St. Sampsonius, and the lion is the main figure on the coat of arms of Sweden. There are several parks in Peterhof, which are unique monuments of world history and art, but the most famous of them are the Lower Park and the Upper Park with many fountains. Between them on the mountainside is the Grand Palace with a large cascade of fountains. All fountains work thanks to the water level difference in the reservoirs in the vicinity of Peterhof, without artificial pumps.
Personal impressions Saying that is cool and beautiful is somehow banal … Really very beautiful regular parks with gilded fountains and sculptures. The number of fountains and sculptures is amazing, especially the Grand Cascade – there are fountains even on the roof and windows of the pavilions. There are a lot of museums on the territory of Peterhof, you can’t do it all, probably in a week. Inspection of all the fountains will take from 2 hours (gallop) to 5 hours (walking step with photos about each). If you are lucky, you can see squirrels living in the crowns of trees. I want to warn you – to feed them with your hands than anything. For these animals have very sharp teeth that can crack a nut, and to tear off your hand for them a trifling matter. In Petergof there is a huge number of people, especially on weekends, because many of St. Petersburg people come here just for a walk! Crowds of foreigners roam around the park, sometimes with black electronic gadgets that dictate a tour in their native language. Back in Peterhof, I was struck by birches growing right on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, since in the Central Russia a willow and similar trees grow on the banks of the rivers. It can also be concluded that the water in the Gulf of Finland is very fresh and the water level practically does not fluctuate.
MAIN MONUMENTS AND ATTRACTIONS OF PETERHOF A beautiful panorama opens on Peterhof from the sea. On the edge of the natural 16-meter terrace is the Grand Palace, in front of which the Grand Cascade glitters with gold.
Before the cascade soars up the most powerful stream of fountain "Samson tearing the lion’s mouth". From the Grand Cascade to the sea leads the Sea Channel. The canal divides the Lower Park into two parts – "Western" and "Eastern". In the Eastern part are: Monplaisir Palace, cascade "Chess Mountain", "Roman fountains", fountains, crackers. The Hermitage Pavilion and the Marly Palace, a cascade are located in the western part. "Golden mountain", "Manger" fountains.
It is impossible within the framework of this article even to briefly describe all the sights of Peterhof. Therefore, we list the most prominent of them: – The Grand Cascade of Peterhof Fountains – built in 1714-21, with grotto, waterfall stairs, numerous bronze gilded statues, made by sculptors M. I. Kozlovsky, F. F. Schedrin, I. P. Martos , F. I. Shubin and others. The Grand Palace, created in 1714-25 as the Petrovskie Upper Chambers, was rebuilt in 1747-52 by V. V. Rastrelli in the style of Russian Baroque. Upper garden with a regular layout, with a fountain "Neptune".
Lower park with a regular layout – 1714-25, architect I. F. Braunshteyn, J. B. Leblon, M. G. Zemtsov. Marley Palace, built in 1720-23, by architect Braunstein. Pavilion "Hermitage", erected in 1721-24 by architect Braunstein. Pavilions-colonnades, 1803, architect A. N. Voronikhin. English landscape park with Gothic and classical buildings – architect J. Quarenghi. Park Alexandria, architect A. A. Menelas. Meadow park with a palace "Gazebo" 1853-56, architect A. I. Shtakenshneider.
Shchelykovo (the full name of the State Memorial and Natural Museum-Reserve of A. N. Ostrovsky “Shelychekovo”) is a museum-reserve in the Kostroma Region. The estate is located near the village of Shchelykovo, 120 km east of Kostroma in the Ostrovsky district of the Kostroma region and 15 km north of the Volga River and the city of Kineshma, Ivanovo Region. In old Shchelykovo called wasteland Shalykovo. From the 17th century it belonged to the Kutuzov family. In the XVIII century, Shchelykovo became famous thanks to the leader of the Kostroma nobility, retired General F. M. Kutuzov, who built a large stone house, services, greenhouses, created a large landscaped park.
By his order, in the neighboring village of Berezhki, an outstanding architect S. A. Vorotilov built the temple of Sv. Nicholas. In the 1770s, the Kutuzov house burned down, and more than that was not restored. Its remains could be seen in the manor park at the end of the XIX century. A large park pavilion was built on the site of a burnt house, which stood until the 1820s. The new manor house of F. M. Kutuzov built on the banks of the Kuekshi river, but the river suddenly changed its course, and the house was on the island. Because of the constant dampness it was impossible to live in it.
F. M. Kutuzov died in 1801. In 1813, his vast inheritance was divided between his three daughters. Shelykovo went to P. F. Kutuzova, and after her death in 1825, the estate passed to another sister, V. F. Sipagina, born Kutuzova. Her son, A.E. Sipagin, squandered the estate, and in 1847 Shchelykovo was bought at auction by the writer’s father, Nikolai Fedorovich Ostrovsky.
The manor at that time consisted of the main building (“Old House”) and three outbuildings, which housed the courtyard people. There were also all the necessary outbuildings: a large stone stables, a two-story barn, a shed, a chaff, three cellars, a bathhouse, a stone forge, etc.
In the Orenburg region is one of the two Ural museums dedicated to the famous Russian writer – Sergey Timofeevich Aksakov. The Museum-Reserve is located in the village of Aksakovo, which was previously called Znamensky, after the name of the local church. This village was founded in the 1760s by the writer’s grandfather – a nobleman Stepan Mikhailovich Aksakov, who bought a vast plot here. He brought here his serfs from the Simbirsk province. In 1814, the son of Stepan Mikhailovich built in the village a stone church in the name of the Sign of the Mother of God with a three-tiered bell tower. The one-storey house of the Aksakovs was cut from the trees of the famous Buzuluksky boron. Near the house, the writer’s grandfather created a beautiful park with lime and pine alleys. He also soon built a pond on the Buguruslan River and built a mill.
Later, the future writer Sergey Timofeevich Aksakov spent the most wonderful childhood years here. These places he remembered all his life. Here he learned to truly love and appreciate nature, to notice the natural beauty around us. All this is reflected in his works. These places are mentioned in the famous autobiographical trilogy.
Perpetuating the memory of the writer Aksakov was engaged even before the 1917 revolution. The estate was redeemed and they wanted to organize in it the Aksakovsky labor assistance group and a vocational school. In addition, they put in order the garden, built a chapel. However, with the advent of Soviet power, the house of the great writer faced difficult times. For some time it housed a children’s colony, then the volost committee, hospital, post office, school, office and dormitory of the MTS. In 1962, the Aksakovs’ house was demolished …
Also, the Communists demolished the Church of the Sign, demolished the family Aksakov crypt, destroyed the dam and pond, and the mill burned down. Only with the collapse of the USSR in the early 1990s did they begin to think about recreating Aksakov sites. Rebuilt House Museum
Tourists will learn a lot of interesting things in the house-museum of Aksakov: about the development of these lands by Russians, about the noble family of the Aksakovs, about their moving here, about the life of writers
There are places dear to the heart of every Russian person. They are forever associated with the names of geniuses, they are filled with inexplicable greatness, they are endowed with incredible attractiveness … With the name of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, little Votkinsk entered the history of Russian culture – the composer’s birthplace. In the small factory village of Votkinsk, far from the hustle and bustle of life in the capital, the composer’s first years of childhood, which Peter Ilyich himself called the “rainbow period”, passed.
Tchaikovsky Museum In 1837, Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky was appointed the new head of the Kama-Votkinsk district. Upon arrival from St. Petersburg to Votkinsk, he and his wife Alexandra Andreyevna settled down in Gospodskaya Street in a spacious, cozy house – a government-owned apartment of the mountain chiefs of the iron-making plant. The Tchaikovsky family reigned in a rare atmosphere of love, exceptional harmony, mutual respect. In Votkinsk they spent 11 happiest years of life, here were born four of their children. On May 7, 1840, Pyotr Tchaikovsky was born – the future genius of Russian music. For over 200 years, the Tchaikovsky House has been the main attraction of Votkinsk. The house was built in 1806 in style "classicism" by architect
Wandering at the Tchaikovsky Museum Foundation of the Museum The Tchaikovsky Family Memorial House, 1921-1930 20 in. Memorial plaque on the Tchaikovsky house for over 100 years Letter on the organization of the museum of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky in Votkinsk, February 4, 1939. Order No. 88 on the opening of the museum of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky in Votkinsk, May 13, 1940. Exposition of the Votkinsk museum of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, 1940 Monument to Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in Votkinsk (author
The building is a palace in oriental style. Together with the adjacent part of the park it is surrounded by a snow-white openwork cast fence. The main entrance is in the form of a semicircular arcade on columns with peculiar Moorish capitals. An elegant stone staircase leads to the entrance. In the corners facing the park fence there are columns with sculptures of lions, personifying the power and strength of the owner. The inscription in Arabic read: “Welcome” or “The World is coming.” Palaces of Russia Description of the Palace The palace of the Emir of Bukhara is a beautiful, though not so large in size, sample of oriental architectural style. It is surrounded by a patterned iron fence, stylized Arabic script, and sculptural images of lions are installed above the main entrance. Nearby is the minaret, and not decorative, but quite functional. In addition, the palace is decorated with a Moorish arch, peaked windows, traditional ceramic white and blue mosaic and carved wooden decoration of balconies, window frames and verandas. The palace was built under Emperor Alexander III for his former fellow student in the cadet corps, the emir and the Russian general Seyid Abdullah Khan. In 1868, the hereditary possessions of Abdulla Khan passed to the Russian Empire, but the emperor bestowed upon him a piece of land on Iron Mountain, since the health of the general required regular treatment on the waters. At this site and the palace was built by the architect V. Semenov. The best masters from Bukhara and Khorezm arrived to finish the building in Zheleznovodsk. The best masters from Bukhara and Khorezm arrived to finish the building in Zheleznovodsk. But it turned out that the chief architect was forced to leave the building unfinished. Moreover, General Abdullah Khan himself also did not find its end, having died in 1910. The new Bukhara emir continued construction, but he was not very interested in this residence and donated the completed palace to the imperial family in 1913. The Emir’s Palace was ready for the summer of 1912 .
Another legend is connected with the construction of the palace. During finishing work, one of the workers fell from a great height and crashed to death. The emir, as a deeply religious man, took this as a bad sign and never crossed the threshold of his residence.
After the death of the emir, Tyura-Jan-Mirza-Alim-Khan became the new emir of Bukhara. Under the threat of upcoming events in the emirate, he no longer thought about the palace in Zheleznovodsk. In 1913, the builders of the palace
A few kilometers from Volsk, the Saratov region, is the city of Shikhan (until last years it had the status of a settlement).
For many years the village was a closed area for tourists (because of the military unit) and one of the historical landmarks of the region is forgotten.
Nowadays, a department of the Volsky local history museum is open in Shikhany "Manor of the hero of the Patriotic War of 1812 Vasily Vasilyevich Orlov-Denisov".
The history of the estate begins simultaneously with the formation of the village – from the early twenties of the nineteenth century. In a picturesque place at the foot of the high mountains in 1822, Count Orlov-Denisov built himself a two-story stone house with fancy balconies and lanterns and landscaped the area. By 1826, in addition to the manor house, several outbuildings on the hill were built in the estate, a park, an orchard and two ponds with springs were built. In the 1870s, Vasily Vasilievich’s grandson, Vasily Petrovich Orlov-Denisov, organized the expansion of the manor. A school was opened in the count’s estate, a wooden church was built, and open-air gazebos and hanging bridges across the pond and greenhouses appeared in the park. On the eve of the revolution, there were more than two hundred buildings and about eight hundred inhabitants in the count’s estate.
Since 1996, the manor was reconstructed and the territory was ennobled. Part of the nationalized paintings and fragments of the interior were returned to the estate. Nowadays, the museum-estate is a well-kept park area with gazebos, a pond with swans and ducks, a grotto
History of the museum
In 1920, two museums were established in Volsk: the Central Scientific Educational and Artistic and Historical. On January 1, 1920, representatives of local authorities, culture, public education, trade unions, and the press signed the act of opening the exposition of the Central Scientific and Educational Museum. Source: VF GASO F. 84. Op. 1. On November 7, 1920, the ceremonial opening of an exposition of an art-historical museum took place. (Volsk, Revolutionary Street, 6). Source: The newspaper “Power of the Soviets.” Volsk, November 9, 1920 On October 1, 1925, the merger of two museums under the general name Central Scientific and Educational Museum took place. Source: Scientific-reference archive of the VKM history department
SEPTEMBER 27, 2014 – The ceremonial opening of the Tambov Regional State Autonomous Culture Institution “Historical and Cultural Museum Complex“ Aseyev’s Estate ”, timed to the birthday of the Tambov Region. From the first day of work, the Museum Complex “Aseyevs’ Estate” became the cultural center of the city and region. Survey and thematic tours of the museum give visitors the opportunity to find themselves in the atmosphere of a Russian manor of the beginning of the 20th century, to see the carefully recreated interiors of the Cabinet of M.V. Aseyev, Reception Room, Parade Dining Room, White Hall, Avanzal, Sofa Room, Minor Room, Male Room and
In addition to the permanent exhibition, visitors to the Museum Complex Aseyevs’ Estate can see exhibitions organized together with famous Russian museums (the State Museum Preserve Peterhof, the Museum of the Moscow Academic Art Theater), as well as museum institutions, galleries, public associations and private collectors of the city and areas.
In addition to excursion and exhibition activities, various cultural and educational events, master classes, creative meetings with theater and film actors, educational, patriotic, children’s and family events, concert programs, festivals, and theatrical events are regularly held in the halls and rooms of the Aseyevs’ Estate. , balls, traditional for the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century, are recreated, socially significant projects are being implemented, aimed at preserving and promoting the national historical heritage.
The Aseev Manor Historical and Cultural Museum Complex today is already a well-known cultural and educational center of the Black Earth Region, one of the main communication platforms of the Tambov region for conferences on culture and art, presentations of cultural and educational projects, briefings on existing problems in cultures and ways of solving them, etc. The museum continues to evolve and improve.
In the development of new thematic exhibitions and projects. In the historic walls of the mansion
Palace and park complex
The village of Muromtsevo in the Sudogod district of the Vladimir province from the 17th century belonged to the Hononev family, which later, at the beginning of the 19th century, merged with the Khrapovitsky family after the wedding of Ekaterina Honeneva and Ivan Khrapovitsky, secret adviser, Nizhny Novgorod (1827-1829) and St. Petersburg (1829-1835) governor. The village passed from him to his son, Semyon Khrapovitsky, colonel of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment.
After his death and the division of the inheritance, in 1884 his son, Vladimir Semenovich Khrapovitsky (1858-1922), became the owner of Muromtsev’s estate, with whose name is associated with the flourishing of the estate.
The neglect of the inherited farm and the richest surrounding forests (21 thousand dessiatinas of land) suggest Khrapovitsky to take up the idea of forest industry development and sale of timber, lumber and firewood. Deliveries of timber for the needs of the railway and firewood to Moscow, as well as to treeless areas begin. Having shown the talent of an entrepreneur, in the first two years Khrapovitsky achieved 90 thousand rubles of net income from the sale of the forest. This allowed him, along with his wife Elizaveta Ivanovna, to begin a radical reorganization of the Muromtsevo estate, which he inherited from his father at the cost of a tiff with his family (mother and sisters).
Khrapovitsky decides to rebuild the estate to your liking and the latest fashion. According to legend, the castle in Muromtsevo was built “in dispute.” Khrapovitsky during a trip to France made a bet that he would build a castle in Russia, which would not be inferior to European analogues in anything.
Designing a manor, he orders a talented architect popular in the highest circles
In June 1884, construction began on the main house-palace in the spirit of medieval European castles with a cascade of ponds. In the construction work, a brick was used from a small local plant owned by Khrapovitsky. In the walls of some buildings and today you can see the bricks with the mark “BX”. In the period 1884-1889 The fighters are also building other estate buildings and outbuildings kept in the same style: the Church of St. Queen Alexandra, the hunting pavilion on the r. Sudogde, the steward’s house, the summer theater, the equestrian courtyard, the barnyard, the carriage yard, the wooden music and boat pavilions, the pier on the pond and the water tower. Special decoration of Muromtsev was a huge park, built using elements of European park construction and a complex system of hydraulic structures.
Manor “Muromtsevo” from an ordinary landlord’s nest turned into a thriving estate and was so huge and luxurious that contemporaries called it “royal”. In the days of the host’s arrival here, the Khrapovitsky flag was hoisted over the house.
The main manor’s house (palace) was located in the center of the estate and was an asymmetrical architectural composition consisting of two different formative and multi-temporal buildings. The southwestern two-story part of the building (1884-1887). P. Boytsov designed in the Romanesque style, in the image and likeness of the castles of the French kings and aristocracy in the Loire Valley in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Adjacent to the building is a three-tiered round tower. In 1906, the ensemble of the house ended with the construction of the north-eastern wing in the form of a powerful four-story fortress tower with a round donjon, battlements and mounted turrets (the name of the architect is still unknown). Its appearance is influenced by the architecture of the medieval castles of Scotland. Truly, “my home is my fortress.”
The layout of the palace premises was solved with the help of suites of various heights. There were more than 80 living rooms, living rooms and other rooms. The building was built with the latest construction art with all possible comfort for its time: electric lighting of the house and the park from the autonomous locomobile, which gave current; central heating; plumbing and sewage systems that operated from a steam pump that pumps water into the huge tanks of the two water towers; telephone in the rooms, own telegraph station in the estate.
Quiet noble estate in the depths of the old park captivates with its simplicity. But precisely here was the fate of Russian aeronautics and navigation. Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaisky – amazing fate people. Sailor, researcher, inventor and dreamer – he raved about the sky, but not only dreamed, but also became a pioneer of Russian aviation, for the first time creating a flying projectile heavier than air. In this house he lived 7 happy years with his wife and two sons. And I could hardly imagine that someday this place will become a museum in his name.
A. F. Mozhaisky lived with his family in the Kotelnikovo estate from 1861 to 1868. Here were born not only his children, but also a lot of technically revolutionary ideas. After 1917, the son voluntarily donates the house to the state and leaves for the capital, all the things of the scientist are sold at auction. The new owners carefully preserved them, and when the creation of the museum was announced, they returned everything that could be returned. Over the years of the 20th century, there were a club, a warehouse, an office and a communal apartment for 50 families. In 1973 she was resettled and began to restore the house. Museum A.F. Mozhaisky opened on November 4, 1986
The house has two floors. On the second there are 5 rooms dedicated to the life of the Mozhaisk family and the work of Alexander Fedorovich. In the living room are authentic furniture, an old piano, on which the hostess played for guests, family photos adorn the walls. Here the atmosphere of the noble estate of the second half of the 19th century is magnificently conveyed. The office is the holy of holies for a man like A. F. Mozhaisky. It was here that an idea was born from a dream.
During the trip to Japan, the ship “Diana” crashed a tsunami. The sailors landed and became friends with the Japanese, who helped build the new ship according to the schemes of A. F. Mozhaisky. For this, he left them his drawings, which contributed to the development of a new type of shipbuilding.
In addition to work, Mozhaisky was engaged in social activities – a separate room is devoted to this. The next room tells about the time when he lived in St. Petersburg and dealt directly with the realization of a dream – to lift a man into the air. And it was possible, if only for a while. The last hall tells of travels and voyages to foreign shores. It is decorated with souvenirs brought from distant countries and paintings painted by the owner during his travels.
The ground floor is fully occupied by the exposition dedicated to the citizens of Vologda, who made a significant contribution to the development of aeronautics, aviation, and astronautics in Russia and the USSR. Here you can see photos, models, the remains of the first aircraft, “space food” and special equipment for astronauts. Learn about the life and work of the famous aircraft designer S. V. Ilyushin, pilot-cosmonaut P. I. Belyaev.
How to get where is:
Vologda region, Vologda region,
pos. Mozhaiskoe, 160514.
You can get from the city bus station by bus to Peryevo or Minkino, the Mozhayskoe stop (12 km from Vologda).
Boris Mikhailovich Kustodiev [
Since the early 1900s. Kustodiyev developed the portrait painting genre, linking the model with the interior or landscape. Along with outwardly spectacular, often salon portraits, he created portraits of an intimate-lyrical warehouse ("Morning", 1904, Russian Museum), as well as similar in general concept and manner of execution with its everyday genre, in which the person being portrayed, while maintaining his individuality, acquires generalized national features (self-portrait, 1912, Uffizi Gallery, Florence; portraits A. I. Anisimov, 1915, F. I. Chaliapin, 1922, both – Russian Museum). Working a lot for the theater, Kustodiev transferred his thematic and stylistic hobbies to the stage. RECORD PRICES 2012-11-26. Record price set for works by Boris Kustodiev Painting "Cab" Boris Kustodiev from the collection of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Peter Kapitsa, was sold at Christie’s for $ 7 million, according to a press release received in "
Astrakhan, st. Sverdlov, 68,
The S.D.Erzi House-Museum – a museum in the village of Baevo Ardatovsky district of Mordovia, a branch of the Mordovian Republican Museum of Fine Arts named after S. Erzya. Opened in 1976, to the 100th anniversary of sculptor Stepan Dmitrievich Erzi (Nefyodov). The building is a one-story wooden hut with a sloping roof, typical of Mordovian villages, consisting of a dwelling and a canopy. Built not far from the place where the Nefedov hut used to be. In the exposition of the house-museum there are documents and photographs devoted to different periods of Erzya’s life, reproductions of some of his works, personal items of the sculptor, works of his students. At the entrance to the museum is a monument to Erzha, the work of Moscow sculptor Aldona Nenasheva.
Opened in 1976, the year of the 100th anniversary of the sculptor’s birth.
It occupies a one-story wooden building, 1976. Total area – 89, 26
The total number of storage units: sculpture – 4; folk art – 20. In the collection of photographic documents, personal belongings
Stepan Nefedov (Erzya) was born on October 27, and was baptized on October 31, 1876 (November 8 and 12, of a new style). The village of Baevo is the birthplace of the great master S. D. Erzya – the beginning of all beginnings. Here his character and worldview were formed. In the future, this influence determined a lot in his work. “… Despite the hardships and deprivations, until the last days of his life, he (Erzya) carried special warmth in his heart about the years of distant childhood and youth. He often recalled and talked about the sweet spaces of his heart of Sura open spaces, Baevsky Vyselkah, about Alatyr … “(N. Golovchenko. From the article” Alatyr period “).
The uniqueness of the object lies in the fact that the museum complex actually includes three museums: a memorial house-museum
The museum has a land plot on which 2 of the 3 buildings are located – the house-museum
Village Lomonosovo 4 km east of Kholmogor and 73 km south-east of Arkhangelsk, it is known that the eminent Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov was born here. But few know that Lomonosovo is the birthplace of two more remarkable figures: the classical sculptor F. I. Shubin and the physicist M. E. Golovin. As a rule, trips to Lomonosovo are always combined with Kholmogory. Fortunately, there are two villages just 4 km from each other. How to get where it is: By bus from Arkhangelsk 4-6 times a day. Bus number 502 comes from the main bus station (tel. 8 (8182) 23-79-94). Schedules may vary by season, but usually there are five flights a day (at 7:15, 9:30, 11:00, 16:00, 18:00). The journey time is about 2 hours, the cost is 220 RUB. Later in the summer, on the ferry, and in the winter – on the ice, since Lomonosovo is located on the island of Kurostrov, formed by the channels of the Northern Dvina. On foot from Kholmogory to the ferry 4 km. The ferry through Bystrokurku performs four flights a day. The schedule changes, it is better to call the museum in advance and you need to clarify (tel. (8-230) 3-70-06). The fare is 25 RUB per person, 240-550 RUB is the transportation of a car. Prices on the page are as of February 2016.
Sights Lomonosov Museum The M. V. Lomonosov Historical and Memorial Museum is located at the place where the house where the future scientist was born was located, in the wooden building of the school of 1892. The inscription above the entrance reads: “School them. Lomonosov 1868 year. The museum exhibits tell about the scientific activities of Mikhail Vasilyevich, about the history of the village and the peasant life of that time, there is a model of the house of the Lomonosov family. In the courtyard of the museum there is a pond dug up by Michael’s father.
The exhibition hall in the building attached to the museum in 2001, acquaints visitors with samples of Kholmogory bone carving, exhibited about 400 objects: products made of bone, walrus and mammoth tusks. Bone-carving on Kuroostrov was practiced from ancient times, and the local masters created a special style of the thinnest openwork bone-carving. The art exhibition “Pictures of Northern Artists” is another permanent exhibition of the exhibition hall. In the museum you can also see a collection of fifty books of the XVIII century and a collection of old tools of the builder, roofer, blacksmith and bone cutter. Village Lomonosovo Museum is open daily from 10 to 17 hours. The day off is Friday. Applications for excursions are accepted by phone: 37-0-06.
Museum address: 164555, Kholmogorsky district, p / o Lomonosovo. Site
There are in the Smolensk region a wonderful place that will appeal not only to lovers of traditional Russian landscapes and quiet provinces, but also to fans of Griboedov’s work. This is a historical, cultural and natural reserve of Khmelit, which was established on September 10, 1990 in the Vyazemsky district on the basis of the museum-estate of Alexander Sergeyevich. The purpose of the creation of the reserve is “the preservation of historical and cultural monuments, a unique natural landscape and memorial sites associated with the name of the great Russian writer A. S. Griboyedov. The purpose of creating the reserve is obvious, and in the official document it is formulated as follows: “preservation of historical and cultural monuments, a unique natural landscape and memorial sites associated with the name of the great Russian writer A. S. Griboyedov, propaganda of his creative heritage”. The reserve includes memorial monuments: Khmelita, Nikolskoe (Nikolsky Garden), Grigorievskoe, Bogoroditskoye, Gorodok, Kostkino; archaeological monuments: settlements, settlements, barrows; monuments of nature: Semenovskoye and Translivskoe swamps. In short, there is something to see here. Khmelita The center of the reserve is the patrimonial nest of the Griboyedovs, the estate of Khmelita. This is the oldest lordly estate in the Smolensk region. Incredibly beautiful stone manor house, picturesquely surrounded by trees. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the estate belonged to the poet’s uncle, Alexei Griboyedov, a wealthy Moscow, and therefore imposing gentleman. A rich library, a noble collection of paintings, a home theater created a magical aura of the estate. Representatives of aristocratic families of Russia gathered here for balls from neighboring estates. The young poet spent the summer months in the estate of his uncle, and had a wonderful opportunity to observe the rhythm of life of the chosen society. Later, when Griboedov’s comedy “Woe from Wit” was seen, representatives of the best families of Russia saw themselves as her heroes. The center of the reserve is the tribal nest of the Griboyedovs, the estate of Khmelit.
Miraculously, the manor has not suffered in civil or in World War II. But in 1954 a tragedy occurred: the collective farmers made a fire right in the manor house, started a fire in which the manor was almost completely dead. So, in its original appearance, the building, built by an unknown architect in the style of Elizabethan baroque, did not survive to this day. But the great ascetic and fan of Russian antiquity, architect P. D. Baranovsky and his pupil V. Ye. Kulakov, having overcome all the obstacles for which the bureaucracy is rich, managed to restore the estate, in the 90s of the last century the Griboyedov Museum opened here. Museum exposition The museum exposition is called “A. S. Griboedov and his time. Not only documents showing the poet’s successes in the military, literary and diplomatic fields and lifetime editions of his books, but also many things that characterize the life of the Russian nobility of that era are presented for review. Paintings, pieces of furniture, dishes, textiles of the end of the 18th and the first third of the 19th centuries provide a holistic picture of the everyday traditions of one of the strata of the population. Presented in the museum and the exhibition devoted to the stages of restoring the estate, creating a reserve and plans to expand it. The museum also hosts exhibitions, the themes of which contribute to a more complete display of the epoch and creativity of A. S. Griboedov. Events and holidays Themed holidays are constantly held in Khmelit. So, every year in July, the All-Russian Griboedov celebration takes place, timed to coincide with the feast day of the local rural church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. It has become a tradition to celebrate the birthday of the poet in January. A lot of modern Russian writers, poets, journalists, illustrators take part in this holiday. How to get where it is: Visit the estate at: Smolensk region, Vyazemsky region, p. Hmelita. Contacts: tel. (08131) 9-06-29, fax (08131) 5-34-21. From Moscow (only 260 km) you should go along the Minsk highway, turn right in the Vyazma area to Khmelita (about 35 km), Vyazma-Kholm-Zhirkovsky highway. By the way, Vyazma itself also deserves a visit, so they often go to these places for 2-3 days.
Butinsky Palace – sometimes you don’t need to travel to distant countries for interesting stories, they are waiting for us very close. So, few people know, but in Siberia there are many interesting places. In particular, a small town in the south of the Trans-Baikal Territory Nerchinsk. The city boasts 500 years of history, since it was founded in 1653 as part of expeditions to conquer Siberian lands. The Dahurian land, namely in the 17th century, was called Transbaikalia, attracted explorers with rumors of silver. In addition, proximity to China opened up new opportunities for trade with the help of a large waterway – the Amur River. Before the foundation of the fortress, on the site of the city were the lands of the Tungus tribe, the current Evenki, nomadic tribes. The founding of the city in the ancestral lands angered the Tungus prince Gantymur, so he tried to burn the city in 1656.
Russian did not surrender – and in 1657 it was built anew. Because of its convenient geographical location, Nerchinsk quickly became one of the centers of Siberia, and in 1689 a Russian-Chinese agreement was signed here that defined the exact boundaries of the two states, as well as trade relations between them. The town developed, a silver smelting plant was opened here, and the Assumption Monastery, the largest in those days, was founded nearby. Economic conditions attracted people from central Russia. Even a line from the song “in the wild steppes of Transbaikalia, where gold is washed in the mountains. »Hints about the reasons for such interest.
At one time, the city visited
At the latter, it is worthwhile to dwell separately, since it was Butin who founded the main attraction today of the city of Nerchinsk – the Butin Palace.
Where is located, how to get there: BUTINSKY PALACE – Located in Nerchinsk, on ul. Soviet, 73. Monument of architecture and urban planning of national importance (since 1995). The palace and the manor buildings were commissioned by the N Butchinsky gold producers, the Butin brothers. The estate belonged to the head of the firm “Brothers
The construction of the palace began in 1864. For 10 years, a water tower, a greenhouse, stables, and warehouses were built. Between the palace and the greenhouse initially housed a small garden-courtyard with pavilions, a fountain, gazebos and sculptures. In the north-western part of the estate there is a garden with pine alleys. The palace housed: office, shop, residential and utility rooms, art gallery, Butin’s home museum, library, office. The interiors of the palace were particularly luxurious. The doors of the rooms are decorated with laid carved elements of precious woods; parquet floor is made of Daurian mahogany; the grand staircase was decorated with a huge stained-glass window “Archangel Michael, striking the devil”, made in 1857 in the Munich workshop. The musical hall was decorated with Venetian mirrors. The multi-storey building of the palace occupied half a block.
The compositional core of the palace is the south-eastern 3-storey part, oriented to the square and executed in the Moorish-Gothic style. The southeast facade of the palace is decorated with a balcony on figure brackets, arched window openings. The walls of the building are laid out with pilasters and decorated with “diamond rust”. Above the crowning cornice is a decorative toothed parapet and turrets, which serve as the completion of pilasters. As a result of the fires of 1982 and 1993, the palace building and its interiors suffered greatly. Historical interiors are most fully preserved in the former library and the eastern part of the palace. Six mirrors, brought from the World Exhibition of Paris in 1878, including the largest (5.1×5.1 meters in size) survived. The decor of the music hall has been preserved: the “Muse” sculpture and decoration group, wall bas-reliefs with portraits of Glinka, Mozart, Bach, Mendelssohn, a sculpted rosette, a bronze gilded chandelier (height 2 meters, bottom diameter 2 meters) with leaf decorations. In 1997–2001, emergency preservation works were carried out, and since 2002, restoration has begun. By the 350th anniversary of Nerchinsk in 2003, the restoration of the front part and the large mirrors of the palace was carried out; the building houses the Nerchinsky local history interdistrict museum.