The choice of format and size of the picture
The composition determines the choice of the base format, and the final result often depends on the correctness of this choice.
There are two rectangular formats: landscape (horizontal) and portrait (vertical). The names speak for themselves: as a rule, portraits are painted on a vertical basis, and landscapes are painted on a horizontal basis. Such a division of formats according to their functional purpose is quite logical: it would be strange to depict a wide-spread steppe or an endless sea on a vertical basis, and the silhouette and the face of a person on a horizontal one.
The format of the basis for the picture is very important, because it often helps the artist in achieving his ultimate goal – the impression of the viewer.
Landscapes and portraits are usually written in certain formats. But the existing rules can be violated if it is necessary to make the picture more spectacular or to convey a particular idea of the artist.
Most of the paintings created by artists, have a rectangular format. Although there are some peculiarities. For example, landscapes look better on a horizontal rectangle – looking at such a picture, we are “walking” along it. Ancient Chinese artists created horizontal paintings in the form of scrolls. They were extremely long, they had never even been fully unfolded and were treated in parts. Traditional for Japanese art, engravings, scrolls and screens of vertical formats depicting landscapes and marinas inspired European artists of the 19th century. The horizontal format is also suitable for pictures in which something interesting is happening – the viewer, as it were, becomes a casual witness to the event and only gradually understands what is happening. There are pictures that are stretched horizontally, they are called friezes. They can depict, for example, an event with a large number of characters.
But a person is often depicted in a vertical format picture: this is how his figure attracts the most attention. There are many reasons why portraits are usually depicted in a vertical format. However, the silhouette of a reclining woman on the couch looks more natural in a horizontal format.
In the so-called classic portraits, the model’s face is always depicted at the top of the picture. Due to the vertical format of the picture, the eyes of the depicted person are at the level of the eyes of the spectator in front of the portrait – this is how a peculiar contact between them arises and an impression is born.
Pictures that are very elongated vertically also exist – it is this format that best conveys the beauty of a flower on a long stem, or of long-necked and long-legged birds, such as a crane or heron. Usually such paintings are decorative. They are placed, in particular, along the wall of a large hall or on the sides of the doors.
The size of the picture is chosen depending on the size of the room, therefore, for its correct perception, an optimal distance is necessary. Works of 70, 90 and more centimeters on the larger side (taking into account the width of the framing frame) are relevant only in spacious rooms with a high ceiling. "Vertical" canvases visually make the room higher "horizontal" as if "expand" walls. If the living room is not very spacious, then it is better to choose paintings of small sizes, maximum 50 cm on the larger side. If there is little free space on the wall, you can hang very small "Pictures" – less than 20 cm. They look good not only separately, but also in groups of two, three pictures. Author’s compositions from several works, united by one theme, should be placed side by side. You can make a composition of different works, but they must be made in the same technique (watercolor, tempera, etc.) and framed in the same style.
The horizontal format makes it possible to depict landscapes and allows the artist to create the illusion of depth. In France, a system of 20 standard formats was created for landscapes from 12 × 18 cm to 114 × 195 cm. Many of these formats are based on the golden ratio portions of 3: 5 or 8: 13. However, the landscape format can also be used for portraits, if this is dictated by the artist’s plan.
A wide format, such as 30 x 56 cm or 246 x 412 cm, designed for marine and other panoramic landscapes, can be used differently. However, the composition must be carefully composed so that the glance does not wander aimlessly from one end to the other. Paul Gauguin often used a panoramic format, enclosing static figures in a narrow canvas. Moreover, his paintings are strictly calculated. Often he shared the space of the composition, using the technique of Rabat. According to this system, the short side of the rectangle is deposited on the long one and a vertical is drawn from this point, which divides the picture into a square and another rectangle.
Rabatment can be expanded if you hold the second vertical on the other side of the picture. Two verticals divide the picture into three parts. The diagonals drawn from the corners of the picture intersect the vertical lines of the Rabat at the points that are called "eyes" the pictures. In the past, many artists considered these points to be particularly important.
There are 8 standard formats that portrait painters in Britain and the United States traditionally use in their work. A short portrait format is best suited for the image of a shoulder portrait, while high options are more convenient for full-length portraits of people. Traditional sizes are:
- "episcopal" full length 269 × 178 cm
- full length 239 × 147 cm
- small full height 224 × 132 cm
- "episcopal" half-length portrait 142 × 112 cm
- half-length portrait 127 × 102 cm
- small half-length portrait 112 × 86 cm
- format kit – kat 91 × 70 cm
- three quarters 76 × 64 cm
The format of the kit – the cat is named after the popular in the 18th century. "Keith – Cat Club"whose members gathered at the home of Christopher Cat in London. Sir Godfrey Kneller painted their portraits in precisely such a format that would fit in the rooms of the club with rather low ceilings.
French size standards for paintings
French size standards for painting were formed in the XIX century. Depending on the genre of painting, the formats are divided into three categories and are distributed in ascending order: a rectangular format approaching a square is called a “figure” format; maximally elongated – in marin format; intermediate format landscape. Depending on the size of the larger side, a number is assigned to each format. For example, 12F (61 × 50), 25P (81 × 60), 20M (73 × 50)
Vintage formats of standard French canvases
Vintage formats of French canvases that are still in use.
- Cloche (Bell, cap)
- Teller (named after Chancellor Tellier (1603-1685), who introduced it
- Ecu (Shield)
- Koky (Sink)
- Rasen (Grapes)
- Zhezyu (Jesus)
- Soleil (Sun)
- Petit Aigle (Little Eagle)
- Grand Aigle (Big Eagle)
- Grand Monde (Big World)
- Univer (Universe)
The most common are Rezen and Zhezyu. Razen only meets modern standards (15 "Landscape").
Some formats get their name from font or graphic watermarks on paper. For example: “big eagle” (74 × 105), “small eagle” (60 × 94), “grapes” (50 × 64), “shell” (44 × 56), “wreath” (36 × 46 or 37 × 47).
European picture formats
- 40 × 30
- 50 × 40
- 60 × 40
- 60 × 50
- 70 × 50
- 70 × 55
- 70 × 60
- 80 × 60
- 80 × 65
- 80 × 70
- 90 × 60
- 90 × 70
- 100 × 70
- 100 × 80
- 100 × 90
- 120 × 100
- 150 × 100
- 150 × 120
American picture formats
In Britain and the United States landscapes canvas produced in the form of horizontal rectangles of three formats.
- 75 × 127 cm
- 91 × 137 cm
- 102 × 152 cm
Formats of paintings associated with the growth of the artist
After World War II, American artists began to use European formats of paintings less often, preferring formats associated with the growth (build) of the artist.
So-called "American" Format Type: 200 × 160, 240 × 200, and
Currently the problem hanging of pictures, photos, posters solved with the help of hanging systems for paintings
If you have a lot of pictures or engravings at uniform style, can arrange homemade picture gallery. To do this, right under the ceiling along the entire length of the free wall you need to fix metal rod with movable hooks. Suspension system will allow hang out pictures one under the other on transparent fishing line. Such composition can be changed from time to time by adding pictures, hanging pictures on different height and in various combinations. It is important that outer edges assembly of pictures formed a clear, correct rectangle. It will give compositions equilibrium.
Suspension systems of pictures allow:
- Save time and effort in finding the location of the carnation on the wall and drilling holes at the wall. WITH suspended systemshangingof pictures take no more than ten minutes without clogging and drilling new holes.
- Group pictures or replace exposurepictures, photos and other works of art as often as you wish. With this you can easily, effortlessly move pictures right-left or up-down.
- Preserve the aesthetics of the room and forget about noticeably protruding nails from walls or visible holes.
- Suspended systems Easy to assemble and dismantle by yourself.
Departure of the specialist with samples hanging systems for paintings.
The specialists baguette workshop professionally will hang yours pictures. Suspension systems and picture highlights ArtiTeq(Holland). Consultations, calculation, delivery, installation, installation.
How to order a hanging system for paintings?
I want to order a hanging system for pictures, what do I need to do for this?
To order a suspension system you need:
Call a specialist in our workshop to measure walls (ceilings), or send by mail a floor plan indicating the intended locations for the paintings.
Figure out what walls are made of (definition of wall material)
Measure the height of the ceilings.
Specify the desired number of lines and hooks. One line of the wall requires two lines (the exact number can be calculated, knowing the overall dimensions of the paintings in the frames and the distance between them).
Know the approximate weight of framed paintings
It is possible to hang pictures in several tiers one above the other. It is still important to take into account the weight of the placed pictures (photos) for the correct selection of hooks that can withstand from 4 to 15 kg each. Photos (diplomas and
Starting with a 30 x 40 picture format, it is preferable to use two fishing lines with a hook on each (for ease of centering). Suspended systems use transparent fishing line, which makes it almost invisible. It is also possible to use a metal braided cord (cable).
The number of hooks depends on the number of levels of suspension of your paintings. If the level is two, then you must use two fishing lines and two hooks on the picture.
After calculating the cost of the suspension system, our framing workshop can report the total price or invoice by mail (for non-cash payment of the system)
Make a payment in any way convenient for you. Pick up the ordered and paid suspension system (on your own or by ordering delivery).
You can order a suspension system:
- at the shop reception office
- with delivery at the place of residence or work
- by email
- by phone
- in cash and cashless payments
PAINTING IN THE INTERIOR
Cure for the blues
It is time to sad landscapes, when the sky is low and gray, the trees threw off the leaves and rustle in the wind with bare branches. And if the walls in the house are bare, then by all means wait for the uninvited guest – the autumn blues. Not happy with the prospect? Then it’s time to gallery for a picture.
City in the living room
Today, the presence in the house of works of art is considered good form. The picture is a classic version of the wall decoration, it is able to enliven and fill any interior with meaning. This is a replica in a fascinating story about the house and its owner. Often the picture is replaced with a reproduction or print (copy of a famous canvas) – from the point of view of the interior, this is not important. It is important that the picture was appropriate, and its palette gave positive emotions. On the canvas should prevail bright and transparent or warm and bright colors. Carefully choose the style in which the picture is painted. Psychologists believe that some of the paintings take away energy from a person. These are works in the styles of abstractionism, constructivism, cubism – it is better to admire them at the opening days, at least hang them in the hallway. It is better to decorate the habitats of households with creations of impressionist artists and realistic canvases depicting children, animals, the sea and marine life, summer and spring motifs.
It is worth considering the genre of paintings. Bright cityscape is good in the living room, here it creates a solemn atmosphere, as if opening a window to another world. Filled with light, the peaceful rural landscape, made in pastel colors, is suitable for the bedroom. The usual location of the paintings here – the head of the bed. Landscape with a great depth of the image is good to hang along the stairs (but not screw), the best option – several paintings of the same size, repeating the line of steps.
Still life is the most universal picture, according to the laws of painting any inanimate objects can be depicted on it. In the arsenal of the artist an infinite variety of objects, we have endless possibilities of their use in the interior. Snow, dishes, vegetables in the dining room and in the kitchen. Books, statues, stationery in the office. Cut flowers and plucked fruits in the bedroom. Ideally, still lifes on the wall should be made in a general manner.
Subject pictures – a special case. Biblical and antique scenes will bring into the house an element of luxury and continuity of traditions. But not any interior will withstand such a picture. It is good to hang over the fireplace in the interiors of the classical style. Battle scenes are suitable for the Empire style, but for such paintings it is still better to find a place in the study, and in the living room to hang ceremonial portraits of ancestors or members of the household. The genre scenes are more democratic, besides they can highlight the occupation of the owner of the house or hint about the sphere of his hobbies.
Why artists love windows to the north
Choose a picture – half the battle, it is important to choose a suitable place for it and the method of its exposure. Traditionally, paintings are hung on the walls symmetrically with the help of professional suspension systems, which represent a bar with brackets. This is very relevant and convenient – to move the picture above or below, you just need to move the bracket to the desired position. But why not just arrange the pictures on the shelves, on the floor, on the table, on the piano, on the easel, on the chair or in the chair and rearrange them from time to time? It is best to hang a good picture in the most lighted area of the room, but it is better to avoid direct sunlight, they distort and discolor. The best option – artificial lighting or sliding natural light. If the windows of the room face south or south-west, the best exposure areas will be the side west and north-west walls. The south and south-west wall will do if the windows look east. With windows facing north, any hanging of paintings is permissible, even opposite the window. It is no coincidence that artists, even in past centuries, preferred studios with windows to the north. This position provides even studio lighting. But even if the light allows, it is better not to hang the pictures around the perimeter of the room – on each wall – it breaks a single interior composition.
Do not depreciate the picture next to other wall decorations. Sometimes allowed the company of other paintings. In any case, they should be kept in the same color scheme to balance and soothe the decor of the room, and not create chaos of colored spots. Ideal – pictures that make up a single composition. For example, small paintings, located around a large picture. Such a composition would look advantageous in a room with high ceilings. Canvases of the same size can be hung on the wall in a row, at equal distances from each other or in a checkerboard pattern, it is important to keep the same intervals between the pictures. Pictures that are different in format, it is convenient to have tiers, but not in ascending or descending order — this is a deliberately unsuccessful composition. The official appearance will be given to the interior by two paintings of the same type, symmetrically located, for example, above the sofa or table.
Painting in the interior can either solo or play the role of the background. The bright and large art canvas will surely attract attention, become the semantic center and will dictate its design conditions. It is necessary to select a picture for the interior, if you do not want to change the interior for a picture. The first thing you need to think about the walls, not every wall is a picture. Wooden or wood walls are not prone to oil paintings. The same applies to the walls, decorated with colorful wallpaper, here the picture will have to look on the wall. True, you can save her with a wide frame, but it is better to prepare a special place for her. Part of the wall from floor to ceiling draped with canvas or bare to rough, gray plaster. But still, the ideal residence of the painting is a smooth wall painted in a restrained light tone. But to paint the wall to match the picture is optional, and even undesirable. Seascape, for example, in the blue room can be lost. Usually the picture works as a team with furniture. In order for the team to be friendly, the picture should be hung no more than 30 cm from the furniture, in any case, experts advise to always hang pictures a little lower than you would like it to be more convenient to admire it. At the same time, a picture or a composition of pictures should not be cumbersome. Effective work will be when the size of the picture does not exceed two-thirds of the size of the furniture on which it hangs. A small picture on the wall can be lost, because it is better to choose a size equal to at least half the size of the furniture. Otherwise, you will have to create a composition of small paintings. Group them better in one place. You can hang pictures in one row, such a composition should have one common mental boundary at the top or bottom. Not to do here and without the usual neighbors of the picture – vases, figurines, lamps. The classic version of the literate neighborhood – pictures of vertical format, balanced by a low vessel, paintings of horizontal format – a high vase. Make a picture of the room with the help of frames, matched to the style of the interior, the color and texture of furniture and finishing materials. The fashion for baguette follows the trends in interior design, so if you wish, you can find a frame for any home.
For an art deco room, a silver, white or black frame with rounded corners, clear vertical lines, concave shapes and a streamlined pattern, with an unusual texture of elements will suit. The Art Nouveau frame imitates bronze intertwined in exquisite lines of fancy colors and sea creatures. Classic-style gold frames cite ornamental reliefs of ancient Greek architecture. The frames for imperial interiors are decorated with repeating ornaments of stylized laurel branches and arches. The abundance of curls differ baroque style frames. Baguette ethnic styles made from natural materials: rattan, bamboo, bone, and seashells. Country style frames – wooden or painted in tan and cherry tones. Baguette made of aluminum is very suitable for a modern interior. Modern style in general can afford a lot, even a picture without a frame. Of course, the frame is first "clothes" for the picture. As they say, they meet on clothes. The color, design and width of a baguette can change a lot in the visual perception of a picture. For example, wide frames deepen and at the same time expand the space of canvases, as if they are drawn inward, they are good for small paintings. Narrow frames attract attention to detail, they look great paintings, sketches and watercolors. For the latter it will be appropriate for the mat – a cardboard frame that emphasizes the beauty of the picture and harmonizes its color relationship with the plane of the wall.
Copyright © Galleon website Framing Workshop Moscow, Prospekt Mira 102, p. 34 metro " Alekseevskaya", "Riga"