Planning compiled by the textbook E. M. Domogatskikh.
MOU “Secondary school №8”, Sergiev Posad
(to the CMD Domogatsky
Geography teacher: Kalinovskaya
The course “Geography of Russia” occupies a central place in geographical education in school. The content of the proposed course is fully consistent with the educational standard in the field of geography and the concept of geographical education in primary school. This course is based on a system of geographic knowledge acquired by students in grades 6-7. On the other hand, it develops general geographic concepts, definitions, patterns at a new, higher level, using the geography of the native country as a base for this. The special importance of this course is determined by the fact that it completes the course of geographical education in basic school.
All this determines the special role of this course: in addition to the disclosure of basic knowledge, the formation of geographical abilities and skills, it affects the students’ worldview, it has a great educational value.
The main goals and objectives of the course:
– to form a complete geographical image of their homeland;
– to give an idea about the features of nature, population and economy of our Motherland;
– to form an image of our state as an object of the world community, to give an idea of the role of Russia in the world;
– to form the necessary geographical skills;
– to bring up a patriotic attitude on the basis of the knowledge of his native land, its history and culture; understanding of its role and place in the life of the country and the world as a whole;
– to bring up a competent ecological behavior and attitude to the world around.
In the Federal basic curriculum of 2011, the study of the course “Geography of Russia” is given for 68 hours (2 academic hours per week) in 9 classes. This program involves studying in the 9th grade of the population and the economy, thus, the classical approach to the study of the geography of their homeland is being implemented.
PART II. POPULATION AND ECONOMY OF RUSSIA
Introduction Economic and social geography (1 hour)
The subject of economic and social geography. The economic complex is the main object of study of economic geography. Differences between the natural and economic complex.
Basic concepts: economic and social geography, economic complex.
Section 1. RUSSIAN OVERVIEW (35 hours)
Topic 1. Russia on the world map.
Natural conditions and resources of Russia (8 hours)
Formation of the territory of Russia. Historical cities of Russia. The time of the formation of cities as a reflection of territorial changes. Directions of growth of the territory of Russia in the XIV — XIX centuries. Changes in the territory of Russia in the twentieth century. The USSR and its collapse. Commonwealth of Independent States.
Economic and geographical position. Factors EGP Russia: a huge territory, the limited access to the seas of the oceans, a large number of neighboring countries. Pros and cons of the geographical position of the country. Political and geographical position of Russia. The collapse of the USSR as a factor in changing the economic and political-geographical situation of the country.
Administrative-territorial division of Russia and its evolution. Russia is a federal state. Subjects of the Russian Federation. Territorial and national entities within the Russian Federation. Federal Districts.
Economic and geographical zoning. Principles of zoning: homogeneity and multi-level. The specialization of the economy – the basis of economic zoning. Branches of specialization. Auxiliary and service industries. Economic regions, regions and zones. Grid of economic regions of Russia.
Natural conditions. Their direct and indirect influence. Human adaptation to natural conditions is biological and non-biological. Connection of non-biological adaptation with the level of civilization development. The economic potential of the natural conditions of Russia. The comfort of the natural conditions of Russia. Zone of the Far North.
Natural resources. The impact of natural resources on the economic specialization of territories. Mineral resources of Russia and the main features of their placement. Water resources and their importance in economic life. Soil and soil resources. Agroclimatic conditions. Nonchernozem. Forest resources. Forest abundant and forest deficient areas. Recreational resources and prospects for their development. World Heritage sites in Russia.
The interaction of nature and population. The impact of industry, agriculture and transport on natural systems. “Clean” and “dirty” branches. Environmental problems. Ecological disaster areas. Ecological disasters.
Basic concepts: socio-economic geography, economic complex, economic and geographical location, political and geographical location, geopolitics, administrative and territorial division, subjects of the Federation, economic region, zoning, specialization, natural conditions, adaptation, natural resources.
Practical work. 1. Drawing on the contour map of the countries neighboring with Russia. 2. Determination of the state border crossing points by major roads and railways, pipelines and waterways.
Topic 2. Population of Russia (7 hours)
Demography. Population census. The population of Russia and its dynamics. Natural population growth. Reproduction of the population. Traditional and modern type of reproduction. Demographic crises. The demographic situation in modern Russia. Gender and age structure of the population. Labor resources of Russia. Labor market. Unemployment in Russia.
Population density. Two zones of settlement and their characteristics. Migrations of the population and their causes. Internal and external migrations in Russia. Forced migrants, refugees. Migration waves.
Settlement and its forms. Cities of Russia. Urbanization. The level of urbanization of the Federation. Functions of urban settlements and types of cities. City agglomerations.
Peoples of Russia. Language classification of peoples. Language families and groups. Religious composition of the population of Russia. The spread of the main religions in Russia. Ethnoreligious conflicts and possible solutions.
Basic concepts: natural growth, population reproduction, labor resources, population density, migration, resettlement, urbanization.
Practical work. 1. Drawing on the contour map of national-territorial formations and territories. 2. The definition of the population density of individual subjects of the Federation. 3. Compilation of the table “Peoples of Russia, not having national-territorial formations within the country.”
Topic 3. Russian Economy (20 hours)
National economy. The concept of enterprises of the material and non-material areas. Sectors of the economy. Three sectors of the national economy. Sectoral structure of the economy. Interindustry complexes. Factors of placement of production. Raw materials, fuel, water, labor, consumer, transport and environmental factors.
Fuel and energy complex. Oil, gas and coal industry. Oil and gas bases and coal basins of Russia. Their economic assessment. Electricity. Hydraulic, thermal and nuclear power plants and their types. The largest hydroelectric cascades. Alternative energy. Unified Energy System of Russia.
Metallurgical complex. Ferrous metallurgy. Features of the organization of production: concentration and combination. Combine full cycle. Industry placement factors. Metallurgical bases of Russia. Non-ferrous metallurgy. Location of the main branches of non-ferrous metallurgy.
Engineering. Branches of engineering and factors of their placement. Heavy, transport, agricultural, power engineering, tractor and machine-tool construction. Military-industrial complex.
Chemical industry. The raw material base and the chemical industry. Mining chemistry, basic chemistry, chemistry of organic synthesis and factors of their location.
Forest industry. Forest industries: logging, woodworking, pulp and paper industry and forest chemistry. Timber industry complexes.
Agro-industrial complex and its links. Agriculture. Crop and livestock sectors and their location in Russia. Zonal organization of agriculture. Suburban type of agriculture. Light industry and food industry and factors of their location.
Transport and its role in the national economy. Types of transport: rail, road, pipeline, water and air. Advantages and disadvantages of various types of transport. Transport network and its elements.
Branches of the non-material sphere. The scope of services and its geography.
Basic concepts: national economy (national economy), industry, enterprise, interdisciplinary complex, factors of location of production, combination of production, tangible and intangible sector of the economy, services.
Practical work. 1. The choice of a site for the construction of an enterprise based on knowledge of the factors of production location. 2. Comparative characteristics of two or several coal basins of the country. 3. Drawing up the characteristics of one of the metallurgical bases on the basis of maps and statistical data. 4. Determination of maps of the main factors and areas of placement of the aluminum industry. 5. Determination from the maps of the main centers of location of the metal-intensive and labor-intensive mechanical engineering. 6. Determination of the features of the zonal specialization of agriculture on the maps.
Section 2. ECONOMIC AREAS OF RUSSIA (14 hours)
The northern economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and the specifics of economic specialization. The only raw material area of the Western zone. The Russian North is the largest area of the ETR. Fuel and energy resources are the basis of the district economy. Murmansk is the sea gate of the country.
Northwest economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. The North-West is a transit region between Russia and Europe. Poverty by natural resources. The favorable geographical position is the main factor in the development of industry in the region. Reliance on imported raw materials. Mechanical engineering is the leading industry in the region. St. Petersburg is a multifunctional center of the district.
Kaliningrad region is the most western territory of Russia.
The central economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and the specifics of economic specialization. Historical, economic, cultural and administrative center of the country. Limited natural resources. The key role of engineering. The oldest center of the textile industry.
The Central Chernozem economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. The leading role of natural resources in the development of the district economy. Central Black Earth Region is one of the largest agricultural regions of Russia.
Volgo-Vyatsky economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. The profitability of the economic and geographical position. Highly skilled workforce area. The largest automotive industry in the country. Nizhny Novgorod agglomeration – the economic core of the area.
The North Caucasus economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and the specifics of economic specialization. One of the largest by the number of inhabitants and at the same time the least urbanized region of the country. Agroclimatic and recreational resources. The outstanding role of agriculture and recreation.
Volga economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and the specifics of economic specialization. Large oil and gas region. Favorable conditions for the development of agriculture. High availability of labor resources. “Automobile shop” of the country. Oil, gas and chemical industry. Volga-Kama Cascade Hydroelectric Station. Energy-intensive industries.
The Ural economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. Advantageous transit position and rich mineral resources. Old industrial area. Ural metallurgical base; heavy machinery center.
West Siberian economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. The main wealth is the huge reserves of oil, gas and coal. The leading role of the fuel and energy industry. Ferrous metallurgy of Kuzbass.
East Siberian economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. Harsh natural conditions and rich natural resources of the area. The vast water resources of Baikal and major rivers. The Angara-Yenisei HPP cascade is the largest electricity producer in the country. Prospects for the development of energy-intensive industries.
Far Eastern economic region, its geographical location, resources, population and specificity of economic specialization. The largest economic region of the country. Favorable seaside position, extremely poor development, remoteness from the developed part of the country. Specialization – the export of timber, fish, ores of non-ferrous metals, gold, diamonds.
Basic concepts: transit position, extractive industries, energy-intensive industries, Non-Black Earth Region.
Practical work. 1. Economic and geographical characteristics of the territory (region, territory, republic) according to a typical plan. 2. Drawing up a scheme of external production and territorial relations of the economic region. 3. Comparison of the economic and geographical situation and resources of the North-West and Central regions. 4. Analysis of the prospects for the development of a recreational farm in the North Caucasus. 5. Comparison of economic specialization of the West Siberian and East Siberian economic regions.
Section 3. COUNTRIES OF NEAR FOREIGN COUNTRIES (5 hours)
The countries of the European West. The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – are small countries with limited natural resources. The key role of non-metal engineering industries. Belorussia. Its transit position between Russia and foreign Europe. Specialization in transport engineering and chemical industry. Common for the countries of the European West economy features: light and food industries, livestock specialization of agriculture.
The countries of the European South. Rich natural resources and favorable conditions are the basis of the economy of Ukraine. Diversified industry of Ukraine. The leading role of metallurgy, engineering and chemical industry. Ukraine is the largest grain producer in the near abroad. Agroclimatic resources are the basis of Moldova’s agricultural specialization.
Countries of the Caucasus. The southern position and the predominance of mountainous terrain. A limited set of mineral resources. Agriculture is the basis of the Georgian economy. Exact engineering and nonferrous metallurgy are the economic specialization of Armenia. Oil and gas complex of Azerbaijan.
The countries of the Asian South. Kazakhstan is a giant country. Ore and fuel resources are the basis for the metallurgy and oil and gas industry. The dominant role of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. Natural conditions that determine the agricultural specifics of different parts of the country. Four Central Asian republics: similarities and differences. The predominance of agriculture: cotton, sericulture, horticulture and viticulture.
Concepts: Baltic type of agriculture, congestion, heat-loving cultures, karakul sheep, deserts, carpet weaving, long-staple cotton.
Practical work: drawing up a diagram of external production-territorial relations between neighboring countries and Russia.
Geography of your region (8 hours)
Conclusion Place of Russia
in the economic system of the modern world (2 hours)
The development of the economic complex of Russia and the change of its economic value at the international level.
Requirements for the level of student training
1. To know (understand):
– geographical features of natural regions of Russia; major geographic features;
– the reasons for the diversity of the nature of our country;
– the relationship between geography, natural conditions and economic features of individual regions of the country;
– factors of location of the main sectors of the Russian economy;
– the main sectors of the Russian economy, the geography of their location;
– the largest urban agglomerations of our country;
– causes of geo-ecological problems, as well as measures to prevent them;
–Geography of the peoples inhabiting our country.
– to give characteristics of large regions of our country, including using atlas maps;
– provide examples of environmental management; predict changes in natural objects as a result of human activities;
– explain the features of the economy of the regions of Russia and their economic ties.
Extreme points: Cape Fligeli, Cape Chelyuskin, Mount Bazarduzu, Curonian Spit.
Seas: Barents, White, Laptev, Kara, East Siberian, Chukotka, Bering, Okhotsk, Japan, Baltic, Black, Azov, Caspian Sea-lake.
Gulfs: Gdansk, Finnish, Kandalaksha, Onega Bay, Baydaratskaya Guba, Obskaya Guba, Yenisei, Penzhinskaya Guba, Peter the Great.
Straits: La Perouse, Kunashirsky, Kerch, Bering, Tatarsky.
Islands: Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Novosibirsk, Severnaya Zemlya, Wrangel, Sakhalin, Kuril, Solovetsky, Kolguev, Vaigach, Kizhi, Valaam, Komandorsky.
Peninsulas: Kamchatka, Yamal, Taimyr, Kola, Kanin, Rybachy, Taman, Gydansky, Chukotka.
Rivers: Volga, Don, Ob, Irtysh, Lena, Yenisei, Angara, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, Anadyr, Amur, Zeya, Bureya, Shilka, Argun, Northern Dvina, Pechora, Onega, Mezen, Oka, Vyatka, Kama, Neva , Kuban, Kuma, Terek, Ural, Belaya, Chusovaya, Iset, Biya, Katun, Tobol, Ishim, Pur, Taz, Lower Tunguska, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Viluy, Aldan, Khatanga, Selenga, Olenek, Ussuri, Kamchatka.
Lakes: Chudskoye, Onega, Ladoga, Baikal, Taimyr, Teletskoye, Seliger, Imandra, Pskov, Ilmen, Plescheevo, Elton, Baskunchak, Kulundinskoe, Chany, Khanka.
Reservoirs: Kuibyshev, Rybinsk, Bratsk, Volgograd, Tsimlyanskoe, Vilyuysk, Zeya, Gorky.
Channels: White Sea-Baltic, Mariinsky system, Volga-Baltic, them. Moscow, Volga-Don.
Mountains: Khibiny, Greater Caucasus, Kazbek, Mount Elbrus, the Urals, People, Yamantau, Magnetic, Kachkanar, Altai, Belukha, Salairsky logs, Kuznetsky Alatau, Western and Eastern Sayan, Byrranga, Yenisei Ridge becomes Highlands, Aldan Plateau, Vitim plateau, The Stanovoy Range, the Verkhoyansk Range, the Chersky Range, the Chukchi Highlands, Dzhugdzhur, Sikhote-Alin, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Avachinskaya Sopka, Shiveluch.
Hills: Central Russian, Volga, Central Siberian Plateau, Putorana Plateau, Timan Ridge, Northern Uvaly, Valdai, Stavropol, Siberian Uvaly.
Plains: East European (Russian), West Siberian, Oksko-Don, Ishimskaya, Barabinskaya, Zeysko-Bureinskaya, Central Yakutskaya.
Lowlands: Yano-Indigirskaya, Kolyma, Mid-Amur, Kumo-Manych Depression, Caspian, Pechora, Meshcherskaya, Oksko-Don, Prikubanskaya, Kuznetsk Basin, North-Siberian, Minusinsk, Tuvan Basins.
Reserves and other protected areas: Astrakhan, Barguzinsky, Kandalaksha, Galichya Gora, Kedrovaya Pad, Prioksko-Terrasny, Lapland, Darvinsky, Samara Luka, Teberda, Pechora-Ilychsky, Bashkir, Ilmensky, Altai, Temrynsky, Pechoro-Ilychsky, Bashkir, Ilmensky, Altai, Temrynsky, Pechoro-Ilychsky, Bashkir, Ilmensky, Altay, Temrynsky -Lensky, Kronotsky, Wrangel Island, Far Eastern Marine.
Deposits: Pechora coal basin, Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, Moscow-based brown coal basin, Baskunchak (salt), West Siberian oil and gas bearing basin, Kuzbass, Mountain Shoria (iron ore), Donbass, Khibiny (apatite), Kansk-Achinsk, Lensky, Tungus Yist, Yakutsk coal basins, Udokan (copper), Aldan and Bodaibo (gold), Mirny (diamonds).