Alexander Kuprin: biography
Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin is a famous writer, a classic of Russian literature, the most significant works of which are Juncker, Duel, Yama, Garnet Bracelet and White Poodle. The short stories of Kuprin about Russian life, about emigration, about animals are also considered high art.
Writer Alexander Kuprin
Alexander was born in the county town of Narovchat, which is located in the Penza region. But the writer’s childhood and youth were spent in Moscow. The fact is that Kuprin’s father, hereditary nobleman Ivan Ivanovich died a year after his birth. The mother of Lyubov Alekseevna, also descended from a noble family, had to move to a large city, where it was much easier for her to give her son an upbringing and education.
Already at the age of 6, Kuprin was assigned to the Moscow Razumovsky Boarding House, which operated according to the principle of an orphanage. After 4 years, Alexander was transferred to the Second Moscow Cadet Corps, after which the young man enters the Alexander Military School. Kuprin was issued in the rank of second lieutenant and served exactly 4 years in the Dneprovsky infantry regiment.
Alexander Kuprin in childhood
After retirement, the 24-year-old young man leaves for Kiev, then to Odessa, Sevastopol and other cities of the Russian Empire. The problem was that Alexander had no civilian specialty. Only after meeting with Ivan Bunin, he manages to find a permanent job: Kuprin goes to St. Petersburg and gets a job in the “Journal for All”. Later, he settled in Gatchina, where during the First World War at his own expense will contain a military hospital.
Alexander Kuprin enthusiastically accepted the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. After the arrival of the Bolsheviks, he even personally addressed Vladimir Lenin with a proposal to publish a special newspaper for the village of Zemlya. But soon, when he saw that the new government was imposing a dictatorship on the country, he was completely disillusioned with it.
Alexander Kuprin in his youth
It is Kuprin who belongs to the derogatory name of the Soviet Union – “Council of Deputies”, which will firmly enter the jargon. During the civil war, he volunteered for the White Army, and after a major defeat he went abroad – first to Finland, and then to France.
By the beginning of the 1930s, Kuprin was mired in debt and could not provide for his family even the most necessary. In addition, the writer did not find anything better than finding a way out of a difficult situation in a bottle. As a result, the only solution was a return home, which in 1937 was personally supported by Joseph Stalin.
Alexander Kuprin began to write in the last courses of the cadet corps, with the first attempts at writing were in the poetic genre. Unfortunately, the writer never published his poetry. And the first printed his story was “Last Debut”. Later in magazines published his story “In the Dark” and a number of stories on military subjects.
In general, the theme of the army in Kuprin allocated a lot of space, especially in the early works. Suffice it to recall his famous autobiographical novel “Juncker” and the preceding story “At the Turning”, also published as “The Cadets.”
Writer Alexander Kuprin
Dawn Alexander Ivanovich as a writer came at the beginning of the 20th century. The White Poodle, which later became a classic of children’s literature, came out, memories of a journey to Odessa, Gambrinus, and, probably, his most popular work, the story Duel. At the same time, such works as “Liquid Sun”, “Garnet Bracelet”, stories about animals saw the light.
Separately, it should be said about one of the most scandalous works of Russian literature of that period – the story “The Pit” about the life and fate of Russian prostitutes. The book was mercilessly criticized, paradoxically, for “excessive naturalism and realism.” The first edition of The Pit was removed from print as pornographic.
Books by Alexander Kuprin
In emigration, Alexander Kuprin wrote a lot, almost all of his works were popular with readers. In France, he created four major works – “The Dome of St. Isaac of Dalmatia”, “Wheel of Time”, “Juncker” and “Zhanet”, as well as a large number of short stories, including the philosophical parable about the beauty “Blue Star”.
The first wife of Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin was the young Maria Davydova, the daughter of the famous cellist Karl Davydov. The marriage lasted only five years, but during this time the couple had a daughter, Lydia. The fate of this girl was tragic – she died shortly after giving birth to her son at the age of 21.
Alexander Kuprin and his wife Elizabeth
Heinrich writer married the second wife Elizabeth Moritzova in 1909, although they had already lived together for two years by that time. They had two daughters – Xenia, who later became an actress and model, and Zinaida, who died at the age of three from a complex form of pneumonia. His wife survived Alexander Ivanovich for 4 years. She committed suicide during the siege of Leningrad, unable to withstand the constant bombing and endless famine.
Alexander Kuprin with his family
Since the only grandson of Kuprin, Alexei Egorov, died due to injuries received during the Second World War, the family of the famous writer was interrupted, and today his direct descendants do not exist.
Alexander Kuprin returned to Russia already with severely undermined health. He was addicted to alcohol, plus an older man quickly lost his sight. The writer hoped that he would be able to return to work at home, but his health did not allow it.
The grave of Alexander Kuprin
A year later, while watching a military parade on Red Square, Alexander Ivanovich picked up pneumonia, which was aggravated by esophageal cancer. August 25, 1938 the heart of a famous writer stopped forever.
The grave of Kuprin is located on the Literator’s bridges of the Volkovsky cemetery, not far from the grave of another Russian classic, Ivan Turgenev.