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India is a country of South Asia.

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Compiled by: Yurkova Alena, student of grade 11a.

State symbols Motto: “Satyameva Jayate (Sk.) -” Only the truth wins “

The Republic of India is a state in South Asia. India ranks seventh in the world in terms of area, second in population. India borders with Pakistan in the west, with China, Nepal and Bhutan in the northeast, with Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. In addition, India has sea borders with the Maldives in the south-west, with Sri Lanka in the south and with Indonesia in the south-east. The disputed territory of the state of Jammu and Kashmir has a border with Afghanistan.

India is a federal republic Consisting of twenty-eight states, six union territories and the National Capital District of Delhi. All states and the two Union Territories (Puducherry and the Delhi National Capital District) have their own elected government. The remaining five union territories are managed by an administrator appointed by the central government, and therefore are under the direct control of the President of India. All states and allied territories are divided into administrative and government units called counties. There are more than 600 in India

Minerals: Worldwide Regional value Iron ore: India Manganese ores: India Coal: India Uranium ores: India Titanium ores: India Mica: India Hydropower: India

National clothing Sari – traditional women’s clothing in the Indian subcontinent, which is a piece of fabric with a length of 4.5 to 9 meters (sometimes up to 12), width up to 1.2 meters, in a special way wrapped around the body. A border can be made along the entire fabric (pattern on the lower or upper and upper edges, applied with paint, embroidered or simply sewn tape). Wear a sari with a blouse known as choli or ravik and petticoats

Dhoti (Hindi धोटी, dhoṭī) is a traditional type of men’s clothing, common in South and Southeast Asia, particularly in India. It is a rectangular strip of fabric 2–5 m long wrapped around the legs and hips with one end passing between the legs. Usually, white or monochrome fabric is used, sometimes decorated with an ornament on the edge. When worn, it looks like narrow shorts or short trousers. In South India and in Punjab, dhoti were traditionally worn in the form of a skirt-plowing.

Population: As already mentioned, in terms of population, India is the second country in the world after China. Population censuses since 1891 held every 10 years. Their analysis indicates a very rapid rate of reproduction of the population (1). India is the most multi-ethnic country in the world! The concept of “Indians” unites several hundred ethnic groups, ethnic groups and tribes that are at different levels of social and economic development and speak different languages.

Religion: Religion has a great influence on the Indian way of life, including both social and family relations; almost 4/5 Indians are Hindu religion and more than 1/10 – Islam. One of the most important dogmas of Hinduism is the division of society into castes, which, despite the official abolition, persist, especially in the villages. Belonging to a particular caste determines all human behavior from birth to death. Along with this, the complex ethnic and religious composition of the population often leads to the aggravation of interethnic and caste contradictions, to the emergence of separatist movements.

General characteristics of the company: a country of contrasts. During the years of independence, India has achieved great success in economic and social development. It successfully conducts industrialization, agrarian transformations, carries out a space program. The country’s economy is developing on five-year plans. The quality of many Indian products is not inferior to the best international standards. Among other things, this is due to the labor skills of the population. Children in India are taught to work from their very early age. Nevertheless, India is still a country of very great contrasts. In terms of total industrial output, it is ranked 9th in the world, but in terms of national income per capita, it ranks only in 102nd place. Almost 1/4 of its residents have a income below the official poverty level.

Powerful, equipped with the latest technology, industrial enterprises are combined with tens of thousands of small and tiny, using only manual labor ("home industry"), large state and private capitalist farms and plantations – with millions of small farms suffering from landlessness and lack of land. When you fly over India, then all the land below seems woven out of small patches – individual land allotments are so scanty. The level of agricultural equipment in these farms is one of the lowest in the world. In most villages there is no electricity.

India ranks first in the world in livestock stock and one of the last in consumption of meat products. She owns the first place in Asia along the length of the railways, but half of them have a narrow gauge. By the number of scientific and technical specialists, India occupies a prominent place in the world, but "brain drain" touched almost all areas of its science and technology. No country in the world can compare with India in the number of films produced (750 per year), but almost half of its inhabitants are illiterate. In large cities, modern comfortable neighborhoods side by side with slums (basti), home to millions of homeless people.

Industry: the main features of the industry structure and geography. India’s industry employs 1/5 of the active population. From a country of light and food industry, it turned into a country with a developed heavy industry. Modern India now produces not only machine tools, diesel locomotives, automobiles, tractors, televisions, but also the latest electronic equipment, equipment for nuclear power plants and space research. In the development of the atomic industry, it occupies one of the leading places in the developing world. India’s entry into industrialization has dramatically increased the importance of its fuel and exhaust resources. For industrial use, especially those areas where minerals form territorial combinations; they are located mainly on the Deccan Plateau. Therefore, the main industrial hubs emerged here, the most important new developments in heavy industry, which the first prime minister of independent India, J. Nehru, figuratively called “temples of new India”. Indeed, they have become peculiar, as they say, “growth poles.” The main branches of light industry in India are cotton and jute. Recently, electronics and computer science have been developing rapidly.

Agriculture: natural conditions, agricultural zones. Agriculture employs 2/3 of the active population of India. As a result of state investments, the use of the achievements of the “green revolution” and the strengthening of grain crops, especially wheat, increased significantly and the country began to provide itself with grain, although at a very low level of consumption (250 Kg per capita). In a large part of the territory of India, favorable conditions for the development of agriculture are quite favorable for most of the territory of India. The country has a significant land fund. In terms of arable land, it is second only to the United States, arable land occupies more than 1/2 of the territory. In India, the two main agricultural seasons are summer and winter. The summer season (Harif) lasts from the end of May to September-October. Sowing the most important crops is usually timed to its beginning, so that the period of their aging falls on the summer monsoon, and the harvest on the time of its consumption. The winter season (Rabi) lasts from September-October to March-April. This is a season of dry and sunny weather, and most crops need irrigation.

Corresponding to these seasons in India, two main landmarks formed, located on the Indo-Gangetic lowland. In the southeastern part of this lowland, the main rice-growing zone of India was formed, where rice is cultivated during the season of harvest under monsoon rains and during the season of rabi under artificial irrigation. Such a system of farming allows you to take two, even three crops a year. In the northwestern part of this lowland – Punjab (Five Rivers) is the main wheat zone. Wheat is grown in the Rabi season, mainly in irrigated land. For this purpose, hydraulic structures have been built, the largest of which is Bhakra-Nangal. In this zone, where there are more large capitalist farms, the “green revolution” manifested itself earlier and stronger than ever. This is India’s main area of ​​commercial agriculture. Along with this, there are still significant areas of cultivation of fibrous, oil-bearing, sugar-bearing, tonic crops in the country.

Geographical picture of India and the resettlement of India: centers and “corridors” of development. In India, there is such a territorial structure of the economy, which distinguishes it from most developing countries. There is no single dominant center in the country. There are four “economic capitals”, as it were, in the west, east, north and north of the country. M mb a and – the largest city, industrial and commercial and financial center of India. Here are engineering, petrochemical, cotton enterprises, the center for the peaceful use of atomic energy, the largest film studios in the country. Port of Mumbai is the main sea gate of the country. Together with the surrounding cities, Mumbai forms the largest industrial hub in the country. Originally, the city originated on several small islands located in the Arabian Sea off the coast. Over time, they were connected by earthen bridges, turned into one island, and then it was connected to the shore. An old fort has been preserved in the former island part, the “India Gate” built in 1911 is located here, there are business, administrative and industrial quarters, as well as a port. The main industrial areas are located in the mainland.

K o l to and t and arose at the end of the seventeenth century. on the trading post of the British East India Company and for almost a century and a half was the administrative center of British India. This is the second industrial city and port after Mumbai, which is particularly notable for the processing and export of jute. Kolkata is considered the main cultural center of India. Its agglomeration, which stretches along one of the branches of the Ganges delta, unites many cities that have grown together. Kolkata is characterized by very sharp social contrasts. Thousands of thousands of homeless people make up the “population of the streets” of this city. De l is one of the oldest cities in the world, rich in monuments of Hindu-Muslim architecture, since 1911 – the capital of India. After independence, the city is growing rapidly. He became a major transport, industrial and cultural center of the country. But more important is its political and administrative functions.

The city of Delhi consists of two different parts. Its northern part, or Old Delhi, has a typical oriental look with narrow streets, artisanal workshops, a huge crowded population. The southern part, or New Delhi (New Delhi), was built in the 20th century. European style as the capital of British India. It is New Delhi that is considered the official capital of the Republic of India. Man is one of the main industrial centers and ports of India, the “economic capital” of the South. Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai are the four main industrial centers spreading their influence to the West, East, North and South of India, and to a large extent to the whole country. They form, as it were, the tops of the large quadrilateral, connected by the most important traffic arteries, which play the role of the main “axes (corridors) of development”.

Population: As already mentioned, in terms of population, India is the second country in the world after China. Population censuses since 1891 held every 10 years. Their analysis indicates a very rapid rate of reproduction of the population (1). India is the most multi-ethnic country in the world! The concept of “Indians” unites several hundred ethnic groups, ethnic groups and tribes that are at different levels of social and economic development and speak different languages. The main includes 15 languages. But almost 100 million Indians speak other languages ​​and adverbs, and the total number of dialects, according to scientists, reaches

Population: As already mentioned, in terms of population, India is the second country in the world after China. Population censuses since 1891 held every 10 years. Their analysis indicates a very rapid rate of reproduction of the population (1). India is the most multi-ethnic country in the world! The concept of “Indians” unites several hundred ethnic groups, ethnic groups and tribes that are at different levels of social and economic development and speak different languages. For example, in 1901 there were 239 million inhabitants in India, in 1951 – 361 million, in 1981 – 683 million, in 1991 – 844 million, and in 2001 – 1 billion 25 million. Thus, India became the second country of the world, having crossed the milestone of 1 billion inhabitants.

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Religion Population% Hinduism 80.46% Islam

Religion: Religion has a great influence on the Indian way of life, including both social and family relations; almost 4/5 Indians are Hindu religion and more than 1/10 – Islam. One of the most important dogmas of Hinduism is the division of society into castes, which, despite the official abolition, persist, especially in the villages. Belonging to a particular caste determines all human behavior from birth to death. Along with this, the complex ethnic and religious composition of the population often leads to the aggravation of interethnic and caste contradictions, to the emergence of separatist movements. Jammu and Kashmir – the only state in India, dominated by Muslims who advocate for the independence of the state from India or its accession to Pakistan. The territorial dispute over this state has been going on for more than half a century. To prevent such a separation, the Indian government was forced to introduce troops into the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Industry: the main features of the industry structure and geography. India’s industry employs 1/5 of the active population. From a country of light and food industry, it turned into a country with a developed heavy industry. Modern India now produces not only machine tools, diesel locomotives, automobiles, tractors, televisions, but also the latest electronic equipment, equipment for nuclear power plants and space research. In the development of the atomic industry, it occupies one of the leading places in the developing world. India’s entry into industrialization has dramatically increased the importance of its fuel and exhaust resources. For industrial use, especially those areas where minerals form territorial combinations; they are located mainly on the Deccan Plateau. Therefore, the main industrial hubs emerged here, the most important new developments in heavy industry, which the first prime minister of independent India, J. Nehru, figuratively called “temples of new India”. Indeed, they have become peculiar, as they say, “growth poles.” “Growth Pole” – a city, a major industrial new building, providing a stimulating effect on the development of the surrounding area. Example. The important “growth poles” in India were the large steel mills Bhilai and Bokaro. The first of them contributed to the economic growth of the backward in the past of the central part of the Deccan Plateau, and the second main coal and metallurgical base of India, located in the eastern part of the plateau, in the valley of the Damodar River.

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