Ecological project. The idea of recycling garbage.
Scientific and practical conference
“Garbage and his second life”
The project implementation time is January-February 2012.
Students 3 “b” class MBOU “Nizhneangarskaya secondary school № 1”:
The project is divided into two phases.
Information and research stage
Creative – practical stage
Information and research stage
Our village is located on the shores of a unique lake Baikal. We were born in the village, we grow, we study and we live. But often you have to see how there are empty garbage cans full of waste near residential buildings, and there are still so much garbage lying around. And stray dogs are rummaging through it all. In the spring, our village turns into a garbage field. But then they organize subbotniki, cars arrive, all the garbage is loaded and taken away. “Where?”, Adults answer: “To the dump!”
The relevance of the project. In Nizhneangarsk at the moment there is one option for the disposal of garbage – removal to the village dump. But does this solve the problem of recycling household waste in an ecological sense? No and no again.
Hypothesis: Or maybe garbage can be given a “second life”?
And then we decided to conduct an investigation on the topic: “Garbage and its“ second life ”.
- Learn all about how to dispose of garbage.
- To learn through practical work to find useful use of domestic waste, thereby making a contribution to the partial recycling and reduction of landfills.
- identify which household waste is greatest in the classroom and at home;
- find out which waste decomposes faster;
- to get acquainted with the ways of “combating” household waste, namely, the safest method of disposal;
- recycling garbage.
- to master new technologies of working with various waste materials;
- together with the teacher to produce useful products from household waste;
- organize a master class.
Investigating this problem through journals, encyclopedias, textbooks on ecology, the Internet, we learned that, it turns out, the problem of domestic garbage is relevant for all countries of the world.
200 thousand years BC e. The first garbage heaps found by archaeologists.
400 years BC e. The first municipal dump in history was founded in Athens.
200 year In Rome, there was a city service for cleaning garbage.
1315 year After a long break in Paris, garbage collection resumed.
1388 The English Parliament banned throwing garbage into the streets.
1775 The first garbage cans appeared in London.
1800 New York City Council ordered pigs to be driven out to the streets
who were supposed to eat trash.
1874 The organized burning of urban waste began in Nottingham.
1897 The first waste sorting and recycling center was opened in New York.
1932 In the United States invented machines, pressing garbage.
1942 In the USSR and the United States begins a massive collection of garbage for recycling in
1948 The New Kills dump opened in New York, still remaining
the largest in the world.
1965 The US Congress adopts the Solid Waste Disposal Act.
2000 The EU countries set the goal of recycling and reusing
use 50% waste.
On average, for every inhabitant of the Earth, about a ton of waste is accumulated during the year, which is more than 5 billion tons. In each country, garbage problems have their own characteristics, but wherever there is garbage, there are garbage dumps. There are landfills "wild" and specially equipped. "Wild" landfills are well known to all of us. On vacant lots, abandoned construction sites, on the forest edges, along highways and railways, in spite of prohibitions, the most diverse garbage is dumped.
Of all this debris, solid household waste is a serious environmental hazard. Landfills significantly affect all components of the environment and are a powerful pollutant of air, soil, groundwater. These dumps are, moreover, still breeding grounds for mice, rats, insects, and can become sources of infectious diseases. Plastics and synthetic materials occupy a special place among domestic wastes, since they are not subjected to processes of biological destruction and can be in the environment for a long time. For example, a plastic bag left by us will lie in the ground for several centuries. There are no bacteria on Earth that can destroy it. And fragments of glass, cans, bottles can, like mines, “work” even after 1000 years: in sunny weather, a piece of glass can play the role of a lens and cause a fire. And how many people are injured because of broken glass, which even shoes easily cut through.
We found out that it takes many years to decompose household waste.
Glass bottles – 1000 years;
Plastic products – 100 years;
Cans – 50 – 80 years
(bury under the plum – 2-3 years);
Rubber soles shoes – 50 – 40 years;
Nylon products – 30-40 years;
Plastic bag – 10 – 20 years;
Batteries – 10 years;
Cigarette butts – 1 – 5 years;
Wool sock – 1 – 5 years;
Orange or banana peel -2 – 5 weeks.
During the week we tracked the accumulation of garbage in the classroom and at home.
Conclusion: At home, most accumulated household garbage (paper, plastic, food waste)
At school, paper mainly accumulates.
Then we conducted a survey of school students.
Places most littered
Residential Yards – 30%
shopping centers – 12%
school grounds – 1%
recreation areas of citizens – 20%
Main cause of littering
Insufficient number of bins and garbage containers – 5%
Poor job janitors – 2%
Lack of a clear system for the collection and disposal of garbage – 47%
Low level of culture of the residents of the settlement – 46%
Who most litters?
Preschoolers and pupils of elementary grades – 10%
What would you throw on the street?
Empty cardboard box – 3%
Empty can or bottle of juice, water, beer and
Chewing gum wrapper – 25%
Read newspaper – 15%
Paper Cup – 2%
The skin of a banana, orange and
Nothing at all – 40%
After conducting a survey among school students, we found out that
The main reasons for the increase in the amount of garbage in our village are:
- growth in the production of disposable goods;
- increasing the amount of packaging;
- raising the standard of living, allowing usable things to be replaced with new ones.
- low level of culture of the inhabitants of the village.
The amount of domestic waste is growing every day at a rapid pace. And only 5% of household waste is processed by industrial method.
World practice offers the following methods that make it possible to dispose of household waste:
- method of burial (in the ground, in reservoirs);
- burning method;
The first two methods are not harmless to our environment. They carry a serious environmental hazard. The method of disposal is the most effective way to solve the problem of disposal of garbage, but for this it is necessary to build recycling plants and change the usual behavior of people, everyone learn how to sort household garbage, as is done, for example, in Germany. There, the batteries of garbage cans in houses are painted in 3 colors: gray, yellow, green.
- In a gray barrel carry the newspaper, magazines and cardboard boxes;
- The cans, bottles, plastic, paper, and metal packaging are thrown into the yellow barrel;
- The green barrel is intended for biodegradable food waste, which will later be processed into compost.
In general, the problem of eliminating garbage, namely domestic, in the modern world is particularly acute. Mostly it concerns our country. For example, the first incineration plant in Russia was built only 102 years after the discovery of a similar one in England. And now the number of waste treatment plants can be counted on the fingers.
Garbage has accumulated so much everywhere that if it is not recycled, it will cover the entire planet.
Used glass products are very easy to recycle. Intact cans and bottles do not need to be recycled; after processing, they can be used again for their intended purpose. Broken glass can be melted down.
Glass – durable and wear-resistant material. By itself, it does not harm the environment, but broken glass is traumatic for people and animals. In nature, glass waste has been destroyed for several hundred years, cracking and crumbling from temperature changes. The final product of the decomposition of glass containers is glass chips, similar in appearance to sand.
The bulk of glass waste is not recycled, but is buried at landfills.
Most often in scrap metal there are products from iron or cast iron. Iron compounds can cause significant harm to the environment – they are toxic to many organisms. In addition, pieces of discarded metal are traumatic for people and animals.
Scrap metal decomposes under the action of oxygen, eventually forming iron oxide. The rate of decomposition of metal products – for 10–20 years by one millimeter in depth (in fresh water – for 3-5 years, in salty water – for a year or two).
Scrap metal is the most suitable material for recycling. Recycling of scrap metal is of great importance for the economy and ecology. It allows you to unload and so depleted ore deposits, reduce fuel costs for the smelting of the most important metals, as well as a significant reduction in associated costs (for example, transportation).
Foil and aluminum cans are also recyclable. In nature, foil can lie on the ground for up to 20-30 years (and aluminum cans – up to several hundred!), Forming a generally harmless oxide and aluminum salts under the influence of oxygen. The safest way to dispose of products based on aluminum (not counting the remelting) is burial.
Much benefit can be gained even from small, useless pieces of skin.
From the old belt will be easy to manufacture, reliable and not creaking hinges for the drawer lid, easel, caskets.
From the scraps of the belts it is easy to make beautiful roots for bookbinding.
A strip of soft thin leather, pasted on the inner side of a metal watchband, will make it more comfortable.
If you are tired of metal and plastic bracelets, then, having mastered the techniques of decorative leather trim, you can make your own comfortable and soft leather watch strap to your taste.
Using the same techniques, it is not difficult to make a comfortable and durable bookmark from leather.
A thin strip of leather, longitudinally folded in half or three times and glued, can be sewn as a hanger to a coat or jacket. It is much stronger and more durable than cloth and is not as coarse as metal chain hangers.
What can be done with a used, but still suitable natural leather, if you do its centralized collection? At the cooperative institute, tannery specialists have thoroughly thought through how to sort and process secondary leather, how to disinfect and restore it. They developed manufacturing technology from old shoes of fashionable youth jackets, vests, slippers. We all liked the laboratory samples.
Another example is the development of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Leather and Footwear Industry. Here they offered absolutely useless waste of skin to use as a protein fertilizer for growing vegetables. Scraps of skin are crushed, filled with water, boiled soft and dried. It turns out gray powder, which contains 9-14% nitrogen and many valuable trace elements. Fertilizer fertilizer was highly effective: the harvest of potatoes increased by 30%, and tomatoes – by 35%.
And from the waste of leather production make feed meal.
Waste paper makes up 40% of all solid waste and usually consists of waste printed materials consisting of paper (sometimes treated with protective substances), cardboard and paint. Despite the fact that the paper decomposes 2-3 years, it does not cause any harm to nature. However, paints and protective coatings can release toxic substances for humans during the decomposition process.
Waste paper has a large recycling potential. It is used for the production of paper for various purposes, packaging and building materials. 1 ton of waste paper replaces about 4 cubic meters of wood, so the collection and rational disposal of paper waste will help significantly reduce deforestation. Old papers are soaked, cleaned and crushed to obtain fibers – cellulose. The process is then identical to the process of making paper from timber.
When burning paper waste, harmful dioxides are formed – products of burning inks and inks. This method is not rational when disposing of this kind of waste.
In the modern world, no company can do without the use of polymeric materials. Therefore, the processing of plastic waste has great potential – it is possible to produce polymeric raw materials used in the manufacture of products from recycled plastic. Products, depending on quality standards, can be made entirely from recycled plastic raw materials, or from a certain proportion of primary and secondary plastics.
Discarded plastic products inhibit gas exchange in soil and water bodies and pose a threat to animals. There are many examples when a swallowed pack led to the death of an animal – even cases of death of whales are recorded. Plastic packaging is resistant to aggressive environment, and is not digested by the animal.
In addition, plastic emits toxic substances during combustion and decomposition, which can last more than 100 years.
The least hazardous waste – food, organic origin. They do practically no damage to the environment and relatively quickly decompose in about 2 weeks. However, due to the fact that organic waste is used for food both by microorganisms and animals – their excess can lead to the spread of harmful and dangerous bacteria, insects and animals. In the Middle Ages, the rubble of rotting organic waste in cities led to epidemics and a significant spread of rats – carriers of parasites and infections.
When burning food waste, substances harmful to human health are released – dioxides. This once again confirms the need for sorting waste before its disposal.
The safest way to recycle organic waste is composting. During this process, the content of easily absorbed by the plants substances – phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, and others – is increased in the organic mass and the unfavorable flora and microorganisms are neutralized.
Thus, with proper and timely disposal of organic waste, this type of waste not only does not harm nature, but can also be used as a natural fertilizer.
More than half of this waste can be recycled and reused. Let’s start with ourselves and try not to litter our planet so much. For this we will use at least elementary methods to reduce the volume of garbage.
Glass can be recycled an unlimited number of times. As a rule, it is sorted by color, cleaned, melted down and re-used: produce new bottles, decorative ornaments and even flooring. Hand over bottles and cans to collection points for containers. If you throw them away, then fold them into a separate bag and place them next to the trash can so that others can pass them.
Canned aluminum beverage cans can be melted into new cans. Steel cans are used in the production of various parts. In Russia, unfortunately, aluminum and steel are recycled only in industry, and reception points for cans exist in few places. So just do not leave the cans of drinks anywhere, but throw them in the bins.
Plastic bottles can be recycled and reused. Furniture and accessories are made from remelted bottles in some countries. The best way out is garbage sorting. For this, containers for selective debris are already emerging. For plastic bottles designed yellow tank. In some areas there are points for receiving plastic bottles.
Cardboard packaging from under the juices is the most difficult to process, because they usually consist of a layer of aluminum foil or polyethylene in addition to cardboard, so as not to let the liquid through. If you are resting outside the city, then do not throw such packaging on the local landfill, and burn at the stake.
Plastic bags buyers take at the box office of supermarkets. Every year, tens of billions of packages are used that cannot be recycled. Try not to take extra bags in the supermarket. Even better: go back to the Soviet tradition and go to the store with your own bag.
Paper and cardboard make up about 1/3 of household garbage that we throw away. Just the easiest way to recycle and reuse them. In Soviet times, waste paper was used in every district. Currently in Russia, the organizations that deal with this take mostly large parties. But you can donate the accumulated paper and cardboard for free, bringing them yourself to the receiving point.
Products from the fabrics that we throw out every year, for the most part make up good clothes, which according to objective characteristics can still be worn. Clothes that are out of fashion, curtains, tablecloths can be transferred to homeless shelters or in churches, from where these things will go to those who need them. New things can be taken to the orphanage or boarding school.
And just try not to buy unnecessary and useless goods, count the amount of material required for their needs.
Creative – practical stage
We offer our way of re-use of used items and things. There are no unnecessary things, and there is little imagination!
Flow chart for making a decorative bottle.