Born on May 26 (June 6
Raised by French tutors, he learned from his home school only an excellent knowledge of French and a love of reading. Even as a child, Pushkin became acquainted with Russian poetry from Lomonosov to Zhukovsky, with the comedies of Moliere and Beaumarchais, the writings of Voltaire and other educators of the 18th century. His grandmother, Maria Alekseevna Hannibal, who spoke and wrote fluently in Russian (a rare phenomenon in the noble families of the time), and a nanny, Arina Rodionovna, instilled a love for their native language. The early development of Pushkin’s literary inclinations was facilitated by literary evenings in the Pushkins’ house, where prominent writers gathered.
In 1811, Pushkin entered the newly opened Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. &# 151 is a privileged educational institution, designed to prepare for a special program of senior government officials from the children of the nobility. Here, Pushkin first felt like a poet: his talent was recognized by his lyceum mates, among whom were Delvig, Kuchelbecker, Pushchin, teachers of the lyceum, as well as such luminaries of Russian literature, Derzhavin, Zhukovsky, Batiushkov, Karamzin.
After graduating from the Lyceum in June 1817 in the rank of collegiate secretary, Pushkin was appointed to serve in the College of Foreign Affairs, where he did not work even a day, devoting himself entirely to creativity. This period includes poems "Liberty" (1817), "To Chaadaev", "Village" (1819), "On Arakcheeva" (1817 &# 151 1820), which, although not published, were so famous that, according to I. Yakushkin, "at that time there wasn’t any competent ensign who didn’t know them by heart". Even before the end of the lyceum, in 1817, he began to write a poem "Ruslan and Ludmila"which ended in March 1820.
In July 1823, Puschkina was transferred to Count Vorontsov, and he moved to Odessa. Difficult relations with the count led to the fact that he was at the request of Vorontsov was removed from Odessa, dismissed from public service and sent to the estate of the mother "under the supervision of local authorities". Here the poet led a solitary life, the monotony of which brightened only communication with neighbors &# 151 Osipov-Wulf family &# 151 and a nanny telling him fairy tales in the evenings. In the Mikhailovsk link, Pushkin was formed as a realist artist: he continued to write "Eugene Onegin", started "Boris Godunov"wrote poems "Davydov", "On Vorontsov", "On Alexander I" other.
December 17, 1825 learns about the Decembrist uprising and the arrest of many of his friends. Fearing a search, he destroyed autobiographical notes, which, according to him, "could mix many and maybe multiply the number of victims". I waited with deep emotion for news from the capital, I asked friends in letters "do not answer and vouch" for him, leaving behind freedom of action and belief. The days of anxious waiting ended in September 1826, when Pushkin, with the courier, received the order of Nicholas I to immediately come to him in Moscow (the emperor was crowned in the Kremlin).
Frightened by the general disapproval of execution and the reference of noble officers, Nicholas I was looking for ways of reconciliation with society. The return of the poet from the link could contribute to this. In addition, the emperor hoped to attract Pushkin to his side, to make him a court poet. As a great mercy, he announced to Pushkin that he himself would be his censor. The censorship of the king turned into police surveillance: "Boris Godunov" was banned for several years; the poet was forbidden not only to publish, but also to read his works anywhere, not viewed by the king. Severe thoughts of the poet are reflected in the verses of this period: "Memory", "A gift is vain, a gift is random", "Premonition" (1828).
In May 1828, Pushkin unsuccessfully asked for permission to go to the Caucasus or abroad. At the same time, the poet swears to N. Goncharova, the first beauty of Moscow, and, not having received a definite answer, he left the Caucasus without permission. Impressions of this trip are given in his essays. "Journey to Arzrum"in poems "Caucasus", "Collapse", "On the hills of Georgia. ". Returning to St. Petersburg, the poet received from the chief of gendarmes Benkendorf a letter with a sharp reprimand from the emperor for a trip without permission, which clearly revealed the hostile attitude of Nicholas I to Pushkin.
In April 1830, Pushkin again made N. Goncharova an offer, which this time was accepted, and in September went to his estate Boldino to arrange things and get ready for the wedding. The cholera epidemic forced him to stay here for several months. This period of the poet’s work is known as "Boldin Autumn". Experiencing great creative enthusiasm, Pushkin wrote to his friend and publisher P. Pletnev: "I will prepare for you stuff, and prose, and poems" &# 151 and kept his word: in Boldino written works such as "Tale of the late Ivan Petrovich Belkin", "Little tragedies", "House in Kolomna", "The Tale of the Priest and his Worker Balda", poems "Elegy", "Demons", "Forgiveness" and many others are over "Eugene Onegin".
February 18, 1831 in Moscow, Pushkin was married to
The last years of Pushkin’s life were spent in a difficult situation, all aggravated relations with the tsar and hostility towards the poet from influential circles of the court and bureaucratic aristocracy. In order not to lose access to the archive, Pushkin was forced to accept the appointment of his chamber-cadet of the court, insulting the poet,
At the end of 1835, Pushkin received permission to publish his journal, which he named. "Contemporary". He hoped that the magazine would contribute to the development of Russian literature, and did everything to achieve this goal. &# 151 The artistic level of the magazine was unusually high: such a collection of brilliant talents did not yet know Russian periodicals (Zhukovsky, Baratynsky, Vyazemsky, D. Davydov, Gogol, Tyutchev, Koltsov).
In the winter of 1836, the envious and the enemies of Pushkin from the higher Petersburg aristocracy used vile slander against his wife, associating her name with the name of the king, and then with the name of Baron Danthes, who arrogantly courted Natalia Nikolaevna, who used the location of Nicholas I. To protect his honor, Pushkin called Dantes to a duel, which took place on January 27 (February 8
Fearing demonstrations, the king ordered to secretly remove the body of Pushkin from St. Petersburg. The coffin was accompanied by a gendarme and an old friend of the poet’s family, A. Turgenev.
Pushkin was buried in the cemetery of the Svyatogorsky monastery, five versts from the village of Mikhailovskoye.