Statistics of the frequency of occurrence of fires shows that in buildings and public premises the most flammable are the premises of theaters and baths (saunas). The theater begins with a hanger, the theater’s fire safety starts with a plan to evacuate people during a fire. And what begins the fire safety of the bath (sauna)?
To understand this issue, first I propose to find out what exactly is a fire hazard in the bath (sauna).
One of the popular causes of fire is the physico-chemical process of extracting combustible gas from heated wood. Otherwise, this process is called wood pyrolysis. As you understand, the most fire-hazardous place in the bath (sauna) is the steam room. The woods are abundant and the temperature is suitable. It is in the steam room that all the conditions for the pyrolysis of wood are created, and the emitted gas is capable of spontaneous combustion.
The next popular reason for the occurrence of fires in the bath is electrical equipment – electric furnace and electrical wiring for the lighting of the steam room, namely, not correct installation of electrical equipment and disruptions during their operation.
Another cause of fires may be due to improper installation of the furnace itself in the steam room, the proper distance from the furnace to the combustible decoration is not maintained, which not rarely leads to overheating and firewood.
We found the most dangerous places, the conditions are familiar, but what is the most dangerous time for a fire to occur? The most dangerous period is considered to be warming up the steam room before it is visited. Minimal control by people and minimal ventilation of the room contribute to the accumulation of combustible gases and the uncontrolled self-ignition of these gases. The second most dangerous period is the time of the completion of bath procedures. The stove in the steam room is not yet turned off, and visitors, steaming, take on other procedures. As a rule, the steam room overheats.
After we have understood the most popular causes of fires in saunas, I propose to consider how the regulatory framework regulates the issue of fire safety.
There are norms of building design and fire safety rules, the non-observance and non-fulfillment of which is punishable not only by supervisory and controlling organizations, but also by Manifestation.
- The premises of built-in baths (saunas) are not allowed to be placed under the stands, in the dormitories of children’s preschool and school institutions, in the basements of all buildings adjacent to the rooms in which there are more than 100 people.
- The premises of built-in baths (saunas) are allowed to be placed in buildings of a different purpose on all floors except the basement, provided that they are separated from the rest of the building by fire partitions and ceilings;
- The complex of baths (saunas) must have an outlet directly outside the building;
- It is not allowed to exit directly to lobbies, halls, staircases intended for evacuating people from buildings.
The fire damper automatically closes when a certain temperature is exceeded or when the fire extinguishing system is turned on, so that the hot air from the sauna does not get into other rooms of the building.
SNiP “Residential buildings” does not allow the placement of public bath complexes (saunas) in the volume of apartment buildings, but allows individual saunas to be placed in apartments. When designing saunas in apartments should include:
- steam room volume – not more than 24 m3;
- a special factory-made furnace for heating with automatic shut-off when the temperature reaches 130 ° С, as well as after 8 hours of continuous operation;
- placement of this furnace at a distance of at least 0.2m from the walls of the steam room;
- device above the fireproof furnace heat insulation shield;
- equipment of the ventilation channel fire-retardant valve.
The NPB 106-95 “Individual Residential Houses” regulate the baths (saunas) to be separated from other rooms of an individual residential house by fire partitions and ceilings. The steam room should be equipped with a factory-made stove with automatic protection and shutdown after 8 hours of continuous operation until it cools completely and automatic protection to turn off the stove at a sauna temperature of 110 ° C. For finishing steam room must be used hardwood. The placement of sauna rooms in the basement is allowed, provided that the device from them exit directly to the outside.
The Rules for the Installation of Electrical Installations regulate the use of hidden wiring in saunas, bathrooms, bathrooms, showers, prevents the laying of wires with metal sheaths, in metal pipes and metal hoses, prohibits the installation of sockets, switchboards and control devices for sauna heaters. Protection of suitable cables must be heat resistant and not calculated as the maximum allowed temperature in the sauna. The control panel of the electric stove is placed in a dry room in front of the steam room.
Earlier regulatory documents provided for the device built-in baths (saunas) compliance with the following requirements:
- The distance from the sauna heater to the wall paneling should be at least 20 cm. A fireproof heat-insulating shield should be installed directly above the sauna heater under the ceiling. The distance between the shield and headliner should be at least 5 cm;
- The steam room should be equipped around the perimeter with a deluge device (from perforated dry-tubes attached to the internal water supply system) with control before entering the steam room.
Sukhotrub held inside the steam room around the perimeter. It has holes at a certain angle. If a fire starts in the sauna, then it is necessary to open the tap and the water goes through the dry-pipe and is sprayed indoors, irrigating the casing and preventing burning. For the dry pipe used steel water pipes, the diameter of which should be taken by calculation, taking the irrigation intensity of at least 0.06 l / s square. m ceiling and side walls, with holes of 3-5 mm and a pitch of 150-200 mm. In order to ensure the effectiveness of irrigation, water jets should be directed at an angle of 20-30 degrees at an angle to the irrigated surface. Sukhotrub connects to the general system of internal water supply. Water for irrigation is supplied by opening the valve, located in an accessible place, outside the sauna room in the special. the box.
Remember! Compliance with regulatory requirements is not the satisfaction of the controlling and supervising organizations, but the safety of your property, your health and your life.
During the operation of the sauna, in addition to the regulatory requirements, it is necessary to observe regime-specific measures. It is prohibited in the sauna room:
- To leave unattended the electric heater of the furnace – the heater included in the network.
- Independently repair or replace any equipment, or install non-factory heating elements.
- Operate the stove with a disabled or faulty thermostat.
- To use electric heating appliances in the sauna room outside specially equipped places.
- Cover the ventilation gap (30 mm) between the door and the floor with any objects.
- Make clothes drying on the fencing of the stove, or directly near it.
- Drink alcohol and smoke in the rooms of the bath (sauna) outside the designated areas.
So we considered preventive measures, compliance with which guarantees a long and trouble-free operation of the bath (sauna). Now I want to share with the reader what the regulatory documents are silent about, what can be found only in the memoirs of firefighters.
This is the tactics of extinguishing the fire in the bath (sauna). It’s like the commandments written by the blood of firefighters. The price of this knowledge is human life. History knows many cases of death of firefighters during fire extinguishing in steam rooms. What kind of monster appears there in a fire? Will explain…
As I wrote above, “a popular cause of a fire is the physicochemical process of extracting combustible gas from heated wood.” Here is what happens in the steam room: high temperature, the process of pyrolysis, the gas self-ignition, the burning of the steam room plating. The closed door of the steam room and the faulty ventilation system, or its absence, impede the access of oxygen, and without it burning is not possible. The burning of wood plating as it fades, goes into a stage of corruption. Such a burning is seemingly harmless. But!
If you open the door of the steam room, fresh air penetrates inside the steam room and gives new energy to the fire. There is a flash, bordering the explosion. The fire mill breaks out of the room, pushing and burning everything in its path. A person even in fire ammunition will not stand and will be very traumatized. This effect is called “reverse thrust”.
What is the tactics of action to extinguish?
Act One. In the system of perforated sukhotrub provided for the perimeter of the steam room, serves water that irrigates the wood sheeting lowering its temperature and wetting the wood sheathing.
The second action. To the door handle tie the end of the rope. The second end of the rope is fed into the window opening outside the building. All people are taken out of the sauna complex. The door of the steam room is opened with a rope, using it as a means of remote control, hiding behind the outer wall of the building. Only after this, firefighters enter the bath complex for the final extinguishing of the fire.
Be alert – be healthy.
I want to build a bath on my site, located on the lands of the settlements. Baths are planned to use in terms of commerce. What fire safety regulations are required to comply with at the same time, if you can then specifically and list the items that need to be done.
ANSWER: It is necessary to develop project documentation for the construction of public facilities, which include baths on a private territory and used for commercial purposes, in compliance with the “Regulations on the composition of sections of project documentation and their content requirements”, approved by a decree of the Russian government dated 16 February 2008, No. 87. This Regulation establishes the composition of sections of project documentation and the requirements for the content of these sections including the section “fire prevention measures”. General fire safety requirements are set out in the article posted on the site. The development of sections of project documentation, including the section on fire prevention measures, are paid services.
Hello, I wanted to open a sauna in the basement of a 9-storey residential building, how to do it right?
ANSWER: In basements, especially residential buildings, the placement of baths (saunas) is prohibited by the Code of Joint Ventures
Is the basement considered a “basement” room?
The basement is not a basement floor. They differ as follows: if the middle of the height of the room is de facto above ground level, then this is a basement, and if the middle of the height of the room is lower than ground level, then the basement.
Are there rules or regulations obliging the individual who built the bath to have a fire alarm system?
ANSWER: If the bath is built on the territory of a garden plot or individual housing construction and is used for personal use (not for conducting commercial activity), then protection by its automatic fire alarm system is not necessary.
Hello! I want to open a sauna in a non-residential building or basement (and do not say that they can not be opened there,
ANSWER: when changing the functional purpose of the premises, as well as their redevelopment, it is not necessary to develop the project documentation in accordance with the current rules and norms of building design, to bring the requirements of the design decisions to life. Sauna is part of the bath and recreation complex.
Is it possible to open a sauna in a hotel located on the first floor of a five-story residential building. The room of the hotel according to testimony – non-residential.
ANSWER: Placing a sauna on the ground floor in a hotel built into a residential building is possible only within the hotel room, but not as a separate complex. At the same time, the premises of the hotel should be separated from the residential part of the building by fire barriers and have independent emergency exits.
Is it necessary to install a fire alarm in the steam room itself, what regulatory documents should be followed? If so, which fire detector should be used? Thank you in advance.
ANSWER: To protect the steam rooms of baths and saunas with an automatic fire alarm or not to protect is a creative question. Normative document NPB 110-03 “List of buildings, structures, premises and equipment to be protected by automatic fire extinguishing installations and automatic fire alarms” clause 1 table 1 p. 9 “Public and administrative buildings” and
1 – should fire detectors be installed in the sauna room or if it is installed; 2 – how the dry pipe is turned on
ANSWER: 1- Protect the steam rooms of baths and saunas with automatic fire alarms necessary according to NPB 110-03 “List of buildings, structures, rooms and equipment to be protected by automatic fire extinguishing installations and automatic fire alarms” clause 1 manually, simply opens the tap.
Is it possible to arrange a sauna in the basement, according to the NPB 106-95 “Individual houses”. If not, is it possible to arrange the inhalation with a maximum heating temperature of 85 s there and what regulatory documents regulate it. Thank you in advance.
ANSWER: NPB 106-95 regulate baths (saunas) to be separated from other rooms of an individual dwelling house by fire partitions and ceilings. The steam room should be equipped with a factory-made stove with automatic protection and shutdown after 8 hours of continuous operation until it cools completely and automatic protection to turn off the stove at a sauna temperature of 110 ° C. For finishing steam room must be used hardwood. The placement of sauna rooms in the basement is allowed, provided that the device from them exit directly to the outside. If you wish to place inhalation, carefully study the requirements of the manufacturer of the equipment. Something is available in OST 42-21-16-86 SSBT INDUSTRY STANDARD “SYSTEM OF SAFETY STANDARDS. DEPARTMENTS, PHYSICAL THERAPY CABINETS. GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS “.
In the steam room, a dry pipe around the perimeter is required, or you can get by with a drencher installation in the ceiling
ANSWER: SNiP 31-05-2003
Good day! Can you please tell us in which standard it is indicated that it is necessary to equip the sauna electrician with automatic switches, when setting the temperature or for continuous operation? Thank you in advance.
NPB 106-95 “Individual residential houses” Parilnaya should be equipped with a factory-made stove with automatic protection and shutdown after 8 hours of continuous operation until it cools completely and automatic protection to turn off the furnace at a sauna temperature of 110 ° C.
SNiP 31-01-2003 BUILDING RESIDENTIAL APARTMENT BUILDINGS
Are there separate requirements for a steam room equipped with a modern wood-burning stove? The firebox of the furnace goes into the room adjacent to the steam room.
Answer: There are no separate requirements, it will be necessary to take into account the requirements of the sections “heating and ventilation”.
Do neighbors living above the floor have the right to equip a sauna? They want to set up a sauna in the kitchen.
Answer: In the volume of their apartment, citizens have every right to embody everything their heart desires, of course, if this does not affect the supporting structures of the building and does not cause trouble to the neighbors. Arranging a sauna in the kitchen of your own apartment does not contradict the requirements of fire safety standards.
Is the hammam a sauna?
Answer: no, hamam is not a sauna. Hamam – Turkish national steam room. Tiled or marble. No flammable loading. Temperature 40-60 degrees, humidity 70-90 percent. Sauna – Finnish national steam dry heat. Wood trim, large fuel load, wood pyrolysis is possible. Temperature is 90-115 degrees. There is only one thing in common: a functional purpose, and therefore a functional fire hazard.
Is it possible to install this steam room in the basement of a residential building within the existing gym?
According to SNiP
The valve in front of the entrance to the steam room on the drencher network in the sauna should be manually controlled or automatically triggered, depending on some parameters. Is there a standard that says this?
Answer: The norms of construction design in the steam room provide for a perforated dry tube with a tap at the entrance. As for the drencher network in the steam room, then it is necessary to look at the requirements of design solutions or STU (specialized technical conditions). Requirements for a perforated shattle pipe by reference: http: //
Should a steam room be equipped around the perimeter with a drencher device if the bath (sauna) is heated due to the secondary use of production steam. Power plants using steam use a steam temperature of 150-200, and the secondary network of a paraprovod is only 90. A bathhouse (sauna) has a perforated tube in a sleeve under the regiment, emitting water supply to the stones. The valve of this device is located at the entrance to the bath.
Answer: there is no mandatory requirement to protect such a steam room with a dry pipe.
The sauna room has a common wall with a room with a stay of people over 100 people. Is it possible to separate the sauna room (from the common blank wall) with a 1200 mm wide corridor? That is, when equipping the corridor with a combined room with a room with a stay of 100 people or more, there will be a corridor with a door from the sauna. A sauna will be adjacent to the room with a corridor.
Answer: most likely we are talking about meeting the requirements
At what temperature in the sauna is it possible spontaneous combustion of combustible gas?
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of organic and many inorganic compounds. In a broad sense, the decomposition of any compounds into less heavy molecules, or elements under the action of increasing temperature. In the narrow sense – the release of combustible gases from wood (in our case). The ignition temperature of wood depends on such factors as the type, size, shape, moisture content and variety. As a rule, the auto-ignition temperature of wood is about 200 ° C, but it is considered that 100 С is the maximum temperature to which wood can be exposed for a long time without fear of self-ignition. At 150-275 ° C, initial pyrolysis occurs with heat consumption. At temperatures of 275-450 ° C, the main reactions of decomposition of wood substances occur, and with a rapid release of heat (with self-heating of wood). At 450-550 ° C, the last stage of pyrolysis occurs, requiring the supply of heat from the outside and ending with the formation of charcoal, preserving the anatomical structure of wood.
Is it possible to install a remote control for the electric heater in a steam room if this is provided by the manufacturer of the remote control?
If the manufacturer provides such an opportunity, then I do not see any obstacles to this.
If the building, in which there is a sauna, is equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing system, is it possible to replace the installation of a shatype around the perimeter by pairly installing a sprinkler with a response temperature of 141 degrees. In modern regulatory documents there is no requirement for the installation of a dry pipe, but the sauna room is subject to automatic fire extinguishing.