In a social society, every healthy adult person is engaged in work activities. The efficiency of each directly depends on good health, therefore, timely rest is necessary for any person. Labor Code guarantees us a vacation during the holidays. What is a vacation? This is a process that restores mental and physical performance, as well as the mental and moral strength of a person. Tourism is a journey, the purpose of which can be educational, medical and recreational, religious, sports. In recent decades, outbound tourism has been developing rapidly, allowing tourists to travel abroad. Tourism, in addition to social orientation, has an important economic component.
Technology, tourism classification
The economic efficiency of tourism is largely determined by the classification of its forms. Classification is a grouping according to similar, homogeneous features that depend on specific goals. Each form is characterized by the peculiar needs of tourists, a specific set of services that will satisfy these needs. Production and service process includes:
- type of tourism;
- form of tourism;
- kind of tourism.
The basis of the form of tourism is a country attribute, that is, whether or not the tourist crosses the border. On this basis, there are two main forms: international (inbound and outbound) and domestic tourism.
Domestic tourism is a domestic direction, a trip inside the country, within the Russian Federation to persons who permanently live here. In turn, it can be social and amateur. Usually, each country is interested in the development of domestic tourism, since at the same time currency resources remain within the state, this stimulates the economy.
International tourism is otherwise called foreign, that is, it is an exit or entry into another country. The peculiarity of outbound tourism is the departure of Russian citizens abroad. Inbound tourism is the journey of people in our country who do not reside permanently in the territory of the Russian Federation. Those firms that are engaged in inbound tourism are called receiving (receptive) firms. Russia is a huge country with great potential for the development of tourism. Unfortunately, tourist resources are not used in full force.
The development of international tourism is influenced by many factors, they can be divided into three main groups: social, economic and demographic.
Tourist business in Russia
In the global economy, the tourism business is one of the most developing industries. The development of tourism affects the development of the economic situation of each individual country. World practice shows that in terms of profitability, the tourism business is in second place after the oil one.
In Russia, it is especially important to develop tourism, because this industry is favorable for the growth of small business. It does not require significant allocations, but there is the prospect of attracting large-scale foreign investment. Today, the tourism industry in Russia is in an unstable position, often in shady relations both with the state and with participants in the tourism market.
The state loses billions, refusing to support the development of inbound, outbound and domestic tourism, in addition, thousands of jobs are lost.
Nevertheless, tourism is developing and is one of the main types of business. Russia occupies an advantageous position, it is part of the European and Asian continents. This fact keeps its originality, attracts tourists from all over the world. Many foreigners today seek to visit our country and see the interpenetration of Asian and European culture. Although tourist activity is gradually increasing, this type of business influences the country’s economy a little. From the share of world tourist flow we own only 1%. Whereas in some countries the share of tourism reaches 15 and even 50%.
The tourist business in Russia relies more on the development of outbound tourism. The bulk of tourist operators is engaged in sending our citizens abroad. Only a few work to attract tourists to us in Russia. However, in recent years, this trend began to change, inbound tourism began to develop more actively.
International outbound tourism
In international tourism, travelers leave the country of their permanent residence, this type of tourism has its own characteristics:
- required paperwork on departure;
- there is a limitation of currency exchange;
- when leaving and entering tourists are subject to taxes, duties, fees;
- the need for medical examination, assistance to tourists necessarily included in the services of outbound tourism.
All these points are a mandatory part of international tourism. Differences in monetary units to some extent affect the freedom of movement of tourists, as well as language barriers. This significantly differs international tourism from domestic.
The economic feature of international tourism is that it affects the country’s cash balances. Foreign tourists, carrying out monetary transactions in the host country, activate the currency balance, therefore, inbound tourism is called active (it attracts finance to the state). Outbound tourism involves the outflow of money from the country, so it is called passive. The division into active and passive occurs only in international tourism.
The concept of international, national tourism is represented within the country by four levels: on a global scale (global), a group of countries (regional), a country, a local (in a separate region of the country).
Goals of Outbound Tourism
There is a classification of tourism, where the purpose of travel is taken as a basis. Here the opinions of researchers diverge. Most hold the opinion that outbound tourism has as its goal either entertainment and leisure, or business intentions.
Travel for fun and relaxation. This is the main basis of international tourism. Here educational, recreational, recreational, sports, amateur and other trips for the purpose of recreation are combined. According to statistics and observations, it can be judged that travel to warm countries towards the sun and the sea is in high demand among tourists. Any rest also implies the development of horizons, the knowledge of something new, familiarization with the sights, cultural values of the host countries. Thanks to the development of international tourism, people get the opportunity to personally get acquainted with the culture, the population of another country, this is how ideas about other aspects of life are formed. Cognitive tourism has a large scale, researchers put it in a number of leading sub-industries, on a par with sports and wellness.
Business tourism. People travel for business purposes without receiving income from the place of their business trip. Business tourism covers a variety of trips to congresses, conferences, meetings, scientific congresses, exhibitions, fairs, production seminars. Business tourists include commercial agents, drivers, tour guides, flight attendants, who constantly travel outside the country of their residence according to the needs of their professions.
Inbound and outbound tourism have different economic benefits for the country. Inbound tourism (active), as mentioned above, is much more profitable for the state economy. A foreign tourist, visiting the host country, imports currency. The state budget is replenished. In addition, the tourism industry is increasing the number of vacancies for workers. This has a positive effect on employment of the population, including the payment of taxes to the budget, and also raises the general standard of living of the population.
Outbound tourism of the Russian Federation in this regard will be less profitable for the state. This is due to the export of currency abroad. Income in the economy will appear only from taxes paid by travel companies that send tourists on a trip. New jobs will be received only by employees of a specific tourist organization in the field of transportation and dispatch. On the other hand, with mass domestic and outbound tourism, the state receives considerable income. For example, in Hungary almost every citizen travels twice a year. In our country, only two percent of residents can afford to travel abroad. This is due, of course, with low incomes. Recently, however, outbound tourism in Russia is developing more and more, statistics show an increase in the number of trips abroad. As before, Russians prefer low-cost resorts, where the warm climate favors rest.
International Tourism – Relationship Stimulator
From the practice of international relations it can be seen that at all stages of development international tourism is a factor contributing to the warming of relations between peoples and states, strengthening friendship and peace. There is also a stimulation of the development of cultural, trade, foreign economic relations, general international cooperation.
The main objectives of international tourism:
- Strengthening with the help of tourist ties of trust and positive relations between countries.
- The development of trade and economically mutually beneficial relations.
- Expansion of contacts, connections along the lines of cultural, scientific and technical organizations and individuals.
- Creating mutually beneficial conditions for the exchange of tourists. Organization of technical data exchange, development of standards, simplification of formalities, outbound tourism technologies.
International tourism in cooperation has two main forms: agreements on a bilateral basis and on a multilateral basis. Today the practice of signing such agreements remains in force. The control over the implementation is entrusted to the tourist national administrations. Representatives meet regularly, summarize and plan work for next year. The objectives and goals of such tourist organizations are:
- definitions in the directions of modern tourism;
- assistance to the member countries of these organizations in the development and promotion of tourism;
- environmental objectives for the protection of the environment;
- preservation of culture, heritage;
- preservation of peace and mutual understanding between countries.
In general, today there are approximately two hundred international organizations that have a different status and profile and are engaged in the development of international national tourism.
Organization of international tourism
The organization of outbound tourism implies such relations between consumers (tourists) and distributors (service providers), when the latter, cooperating with transport, insurance companies, banks, provide the consumer with the implementation of international tourism services. The main units in the organization of the tourism market are travel companies and travel agencies.
Travel agencies – retail firms. They perform an intermediary role between customers and tour operators. Travel agencies organize tours that the travel agency offers them, also provide separate services, establishing links with excursion bureaus, hotel and transport companies. Tours are sold here at the prices of the tour operator, while agencies get their commissions. For certain services, the travel agency receives a percentage of the mark-up, which they set themselves. Most of the travel agencies working under the direction of major travel agencies, influential airlines, retail and hotel corporations. Travel agent activity should be carried out in the presence of a license by a legal entity or travel agent (individual entrepreneur).
Tour operator firms are organizing outbound tourism, being an intermediary between travel agents and large tourist enterprises. They can sell tours themselves or with the help of travel agencies. The organization of travel by tour operators implies their connection with transport, catering, accommodation, tour agencies and cultural institutions. Tour operators can rent hotels, buses, airplanes on a contract basis. They provide the maximum load and receive significant discounts. Tour operator firms carry out their activities on the basis of a license obtained by a legal entity or tour operator (individual entrepreneur).
Geography of outbound tourism
Destinations outbound tourism in the Russian Federation are quite diverse. The tourist market offers to go anywhere in the world. The most popular tours among Russians have always been considered southern destinations, where the sun and the sea (Egypt, Turkey, Thailand, Bali, Goa). Due to political instability, demand for Turkey and Egypt has plummeted, due to which the economies of these countries have suffered greatly. But now the directions in that direction are gaining momentum again. Where else do tourists like to relax? According to statistics of tour operators, the most popular destinations in 2016 were the following:
- Slovenia. The UNESCO World Heritage List includes three landmarks that Slovenia is famous for. They are worth seeing. Shkocian caves: natural bridges, various stalagmites and windows are surprisingly side by side. Pile prehistoric settlements in the Alps: to the surprise of tourists, the timber taken for construction has been preserved in exceptional condition. Former mercury mines, they are located in Idrija.
- Iran. The country has emerged from international isolation and is now ready for the “tsunami” of tourists. Attention is drawn to the mosques and palaces of Isfahan. It is curious to visit the Imam mosque, the acoustics here are amazing, you can hear what a person in another corner is whispering. The palace of the XVII century Chehel Stone with forty columns decorated with rich frescoes.
- Romania. Attracts tourists who appreciate a calm, measured rest: a variety of vast landscapes, a huge number of churches, castles. You can wander in Transylvania on the Dracula’s castle, go down to the salt mine in Turda, take a walk through the Botanical Garden of Bucharest.
- Cambodia is famous for its ancient temples, which have retained their beauty. What is the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh. In the same city, more than 14 thousand exhibits have been collected in the National Museum, some of them are hundreds and thousands of years old.
- Belgium. Every tourist here necessarily visits the chocolate museum in Brussels, where he sees with his own eyes the transformation of the sweet mass into the famous Brussels shells. Also worth a trip on a trip to Brugg in the museum of brewing.
- Canada and Japan for those who prefer long-distance outbound tourism. In Canada, you can relax on the famous resorts of Vancouver. Every tourist who seeks unusual impressions strives to get to Japan. Scientific innovations can be seen in the Museum of the Future in Tokyo, art lovers must attend Tokyo Theater.
Those who are thinking about traveling to neighboring countries, experienced tourists advise to go to Georgia, Moldova, Lithuania.
Security basics. Preparing for departure
The safety of outbound tourism is the concern of any travel company. Every tourist should take out insurance for any unforeseen event that may occur in a foreign country. But remember that before you go abroad, prepare yourself, learn the basics of security.
Your safety begins at home – in preparation for the trip. Carefully study the country you intend to visit, read reviews, ask the opinion of compatriots, review the ratings in which the country is included, find out all contacts of embassies, consulates.
Be sure to insure. Outbound tourism, organized by the tour operator, necessarily implies insurance. But if you are driving on your own, do not forget about insurance.
Make photocopies of your main documents and maps and pass them on to relatives or friends, tell them all the coordinates, where you will rest, how to get there. In case of emergency you can get the necessary information from them.
For upcoming flights, be sure to study on the Internet schemes of airports, the location of the terminals. You can print and take the scheme with you.
Form a first aid kit. Preparations divided into it into two groups. The first – the means that you use constantly. Consider, if they contain narcotic substances, you must obtain a certificate from a doctor. Remember that many drugs in another country can cost many times more, so stock yourself at home. The second group – drugs from food poisoning, painkillers, enzymes, from traveler’s diarrhea.
Security in the host country
Outbound tourism has its own specific security. What do you need to prepare for departing to another country? The smallest chance that you will become a victim of any violence, serious crime. As international statistics show, 99.9% of crimes against tourists are a fraud for the purpose of profit, petty theft. If there is a fight, unrest on the street or even a political coup, no one will touch the foreign tourist. You are even safer here than the natives. The law in this respect is strict. First of all, think here about economic security. The main threat is theft. The basic principle of safety is the way you dress, look. Choose outfits similar to those worn in the area, do not stand out from the crowd, do not show yourself as a rich tourist, do not waste money, do not wear expensive jewelry, in other words, be simpler.
Do not think that the more civilized the country, the less there is a rampant crime. By no means. Tourists can be robbed not only in Kingston, Jamaica, or in Cape Town, South Africa. Such large cities as Athens, Rome, Washington are also dangerous in these cases. Remember that the larger and more popular the city, the more pickpockets there are. Classical law: crime is always higher where there are more people.
The hotel should be chosen according to the principle “the less the better”. In small establishments you will be remembered by the staff more quickly, here it is less likely that outsiders will come in here. Stay in establishments on busy streets for lighting to work in the evening. Rich neighborhoods are usually safer than poor. When processing the documents, strict confidentiality should be maintained. Outsiders do not need to know for how long, in what number you were settled. In reputable hotels, the key is given in an envelope on which the number of your room is already written, it is not indicated on the tag. So in the case of losing the key in your room will not be able to penetrate an outsider.
Follow all precautions and your vacation will not be overshadowed by unpleasant incidents.