Willy, Acton and Goldblat
History repeats itself twice: the first time as a tragedy, the second as a journey.
Sometimes the past is compared with foreign countries. Rather grab your passport, the journey begins! Willie, Acton and Goldblatt (VEG) will show you the most beautiful moments of human history and return home safe and sound. With the help of the unique technology of temporary exchange of matter, “Vremyasvisch”, we ensure not only safe movement into the past, but also minimal impact on the temporal-spatial continuum. Now you do not get lost in the centuries, and the likelihood that you will be your own great-grandmother, reduced to zero. We are sure that the second round of history should not be a farce, but a holiday! If you are attracted to the idea of such a pastime, the direction of the “Celebrations and Exhibitions” is just for you. Feel all the magnificence of feudal England on the Golden Brocade Field, where the nobility of England and France, led by the kings Henry VIII and Francis I, organized a magnificent feast in the open air. The World Exhibition of 1851 also deserves close attention. We will give you the opportunity to learn more about Victorian England and the luxurious Crystal Palace. For lovers of holidays, we offer Victory Day in London in 1945 or the Woodstock festival in the state of New York – a guaranteed source of fun and drive.
For more experienced travelers we have really important events in store. Carefully selected, made history, they will help not only to understand, but also to feel its course. Feel the fall of the old regime and the birth of the new world, witnessing the execution of Charles I during the English Revolution or accompanying women on the march to Versailles at the height of the French Revolution. For those who are more interested in modernity, we offer a brief overview of the twentieth century: the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, which served as a pretext for the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, which put an end to a long standoff in Europe.
For greater immersion in the past, VEGs offer a precious collection of cultural and sporting events. Our selection of “Cultural and sporting events” will help you to relive something that, one would think, cannot be repeated in all its glory. From the impressive spectacle of the first Olympics to the opening of the Shakespeare Theater, from the birth of the bebop style in military New York to the invasion of the Beatles into Hamburg and Muhammad Ali, who fought with George Foreman in the thundering jungle. We have a spectacle for every taste!
For more advanced and hardy travelers, we are ready to offer great trips: six months to Xanadu with Marco Polo in China of the XIII century or three years of travel to Australia with Captain Cook.
And for those who have the strongest nerves and imperturbable character, we offer extreme travel options: the eruption of Mount Vesuvius and the death of Pompeii, the medieval peasant revolt that literally ignited London, the pathos and chaos of the first encerro. Whatever journey you choose, our Time Traveler Notes will be your source of knowledge.
In order to compile this guide, we visited all the places described in it. Back home and armed with information about the past, we created this book. We promise to deliver you to the exact place and time every time. In addition to the main points, we will tell you where to stay, what to eat and how to pay and, of course, how to get home.
Uncle Karl (Karl Marx) said that people themselves make their own history, but they do it not in the way they want, but in circumstances that they do not choose. These circumstances come from the past and objectively exist. We cannot allow you to make history — what has happened has already happened — but we can allow you to choose circumstances. Welcome to the past; we’ll take you there.
SMALL FONT: TRAVEL CONDITIONS
During the journey it is very important to dissolve in the crowd, which is why VEG will provide you with the appropriate entourage for all your travels. Perhaps you already have a suitable outfit or you want to try to sew it yourself. In this case, carefully read the instructions. If your appearance can cause unwanted attention while traveling, our prosthetics and cosmetology department will take over.
All travelers prior to departure are subject to mandatory screening. A seemingly harmless virus can cause terrible consequences in the past only because it has not yet developed immunity to it. For similar reasons, travelers returning from high-risk locations are also carefully examined and, if necessary, placed in quarantine. Some excursions require good physical preparation, especially long journeys and extreme activities. We reserve the right to refuse customers whose physical condition may cause concern. We also advise all travelers to issue the appropriate medical insurance.
Travelers should understand that during travel, except for those that are close in time, they will not be able to use their native language in its usual sense. English-speaking travelers who have gone unprepared to Elizabethan England will find it difficult to communicate with the “local” residents. Given this, EEGs provide a basic knowledge of the local language and an introductory course in sign language, body movements, rituals, customs, and behavioral norms. The announced price of each tour includes a two-day preparation and introductory program. Please keep in mind: these programs are the minimum standard of preparation and are required for all travelers.
All our tours are carefully selected, so that you can get into the past without attracting too much attention to yourself. (For the same reason, we cannot provide you with a landing on the moon or, for example, an intimate relationship with Caesar or Napoleon.) Even with this in mind, you should make every effort not to disturb the natural course of events in the time you decide to visit.
The space-time continuum is strong enough to cope with your presence, but a massive invasion of history can have serious consequences. VEG reserves the right to deport any traveler whose actions threaten the natural course of events without reimbursement. Minimal interactions with local residents are allowed, as well as household activities, such as food. History easily transfers this kind of interaction (for example, you may return to find that you prefer speed metal to jazz, and Lionel is much better suited to you as a partner than Pam). Such changes should be categorized as occupational hazards. It is also quite obvious that bringing souvenirs from our trips is strictly prohibited. This may adversely affect the antique business. Mobile phones and cameras are strictly prohibited. Forget about selfie!
VEG are not responsible for the consequences of non-compliance with the rules of travel.
Celebrations and exhibitions
Field of golden brocade
8–24 JUNE 1520 • NEAR KALE, ENGLAND
For two weeks in June 1520, Henry VIII and Francis I, the kings of England and France, as well as the color of the English and French nobility, gathered for a grand retreat in northern France. The reason for the meeting was the establishment of peace and the celebration of the engagement of the son of Francis and the daughter of Henry, but the political realities of the XVI century made their adjustments to what was happening. The field of golden brocade (as historians of the 18th century later called this event) enabled the two greatest monarchs of the Renaissance to show themselves as warlords, gallant cavaliers, as well as the brightest stars of the European political sky. Both monarchs settled in huge, luxurious tent camps. Having met for the first time, the kings united for a knightly tournament, as well as games, abundant peers and dances.
Please note that on this journey you will stay in an English camp. For those who prefer France, we will very soon offer the French version – le champ de la toile d’or.
SUMMARY: BIG SUMMIT
Meetings of the Great Summit of the English and French kings have a great history. In 1254, Henry III of England met with Louis IX of France in Chartres and together they went to Paris for a banquet. The meeting came out so successful that it was repeated in 1259. At the same time the contract was signed. The meeting of Richard II and Charles VI in 1396 set the bar high for luxury and splendor. The meeting was held in the midst of the Hundred Years War. The main reason was the attempt to establish peace through the marriage of Richard to the seven-year-old dauphine, Isabella de France. Like all European monarchs since the fall of the Roman Empire, Henry VIII English and Francis I French spent huge amounts of money on military needs. Protecting and expanding his own possessions at that time was one of the most important duties of a monarch (by his behavior he set an example of military courage to the nobility). However, at the beginning of the XVI century, completely different trends developed. In the field of philosophy, humanist writers such as Erasmus argued that the power of the monarch should be expressed in maintaining peace, the military credo shifted towards the knightly code. In the field of politics, the two most significant European figures found enough reasons to stop civil strife in Europe. In turn, Pope Leo X advocated unification, as he feared the strengthening of the Ottoman Empire in the East. Cardinal Woolsey in England, who diligently advanced England from the periphery to the center of the political arena, advocated stability. In 1518, the Treaty of London was concluded, which was the result of a brief period of competitive peacemaking between Cardinal Woolsey and the Pope and called on European countries to unite in order to ensure lasting peace. The French side signed the document, and in order to secure the agreement, it was decided to conclude an engagement between the dauphin Francois and Princess Maria, daughter of Heinrich. The fine print contained the remark that the monarchs agreed to meet for the tournament. In this situation, both monarchs could demonstrate military power, but at the same time – the readiness to abandon the war in favor of the ideas of chivalry. This was followed by eighteen months of exchange of gifts between the kings, as well as the complicated process of negotiating the details and protocol of the event under the leadership of Gaspard de Coligny, Marshal of France and Carl Somerset, Count of Worcester and Lord Chamberlain. However, by April 1520 the preparations had been completed, and the managers of the royal court faced the difficult task of transporting 6,000 people, their horses and luggage from England, as well as the corresponding number of French nobles throughout the country.
You arrive in the morning of June 8, 1520, on a very bumpy road between Ardrom and Guin (now northern France). You will arrive on the road about a mile from Ginah, on English territory, or more precisely in English Calais, or Pale Calais, an area of about ten miles, near the port, captured by the French in 1347. In order to return home, you should be here on June 24th. The main part of the English camp, about 6,000 people, arrived the day before, but the traffic on the road is still quite dense. On the way to the English camp in Ginah, you will most likely see Lord Chancellor Antoine Duprat and Admiral Bonnieve rushing past you. They are going to pay a courtesy visit to Heinrich. In turn, half a dozen English aristocrats are sent on a visit to King Francis. You will also be able to notice the flow of wagons with mules that carry building materials and provisions for the English camp. Keep in mind that a sufficient number of wanderers, beggars and thieves, who are waiting for generous handouts from the camp residents, will hang around the camp.
When a gin appears on the horizon, you will not see a stone castle, church spiers or residential quarters. In front of you will be 300 pavilions of the campground. Almost all the nobility Tudor with his retinue is located here in tents. Round, square and rectangular tents are covered with shiny fabrics and set up to recreate the chic houses of aristocrats. Some of them are connected by covered corridors and galleries. This is not the Glastonbury festival, although flags, posters and pennants on each pole vaguely remind him of it. Around the camp – less luxurious tents, where servants, maids, gunsmiths and grooms settled. Right in the center, in front of the Ginsky Palace, is the King’s Palace: a magnificent two-story brick building covered with linen.
Moving along the English camp, pay attention to the fact that the pavilions are lined with painted wood. The most luxurious also have borders and flooring. Tudor roses and the symbols of the Beaufort family can be seen literally everywhere. Look up: there, on top of masts supporting tents, you will see a zoo of heraldic animals, including dragons, griffins, hounds, lions, deer and antelopes. For the next two weeks, you will stay with Sir Adrian Fortescue. You can find his pavilion by the Fortescue family coat of arms: a blue shield with a white diagonal stripe, rounded festoons and a pair of golden parallel lines. Sir Adrian, Knight of the Order of the Bath, landowner in Hertfordshire, recently widowed and will be in mourning for another five years. Thus, he will not notice your presence in his pavilion, unless you come across. Remember! It is strictly forbidden to use a small round tent in the far corner of the Fortescue site! Pay attention to the Fortescue livery prepared for you. With it, you will be taken to the banquet room. But do not count on the place! Your direct responsibility is to monitor waste.
The palace of Henry in Guinea is one hundred square yards, quadrangular with a central courtyard. All buildings have a stone foundation and brick walls up to eight feet high, then a wooden frame with clay plaster and an Italian wooden cornice decorated with crosses and floral ornaments. From above, you can see a decorative canopy made of fabric, hanging on a frame made of logs. The palace was built in less than three months by thousands of highly skilled artisans. Wooden parts were brought from England, glass from Flanders, and fabrics collected throughout Western Europe.
Coming up to the ornate layout of the guardhouse, pay attention to the magnificent fountain with the image of Bacchus, carved on a tree. During holidays and banquets, this fountain will spew red and white wine under pressure. Do not worry, there will be earthenware vessels for wine. The gate is decorated with a statue of St. Michael, a deliberate compliment to the French patron of chivalry. On both sides of the courtyard, you will see the richly decorated pavilions: on the left are the rooms of Cardinal Woolsey, on the right are the sisters of the king, Mary, Duchess Suffolk.
Behind these pavilions there are two long brick buildings: on the left are the chambers of King Heinrich, and on the right are queens of Catherine. These buildings are connected by an underground passage, from the apartments of Heinrich to Gene leads a green corridor, planted with box-trees. These buildings will be carefully guarded and it will be extremely difficult to get there, but you should try to look at a set of nine floral tapestries of Catherine woven from gold and silk. In the main reception you will see a magnificent tapestry, according to rumors there even are Petrarch’s Triumphs. Even outside you can smell the sweet aroma of freshly cut reeds and flowers decorating the royal apartments. Directly opposite the entrance and the building where you can definitely go, is the Great Hall. The two-story building, on the ground floor of which there will be a constant movement, are the rooms of the manager, the main chamberlain and the treasurer – the three main positions at the royal court. There are also utility rooms, including warehouses, treasuries, pantries with spices, oil, drinkware, laundry tubs and linens. A staircase leads to the second floor, on top of which is a statue of an infantryman in armor. Going to the banquet room, look up at the canvas roof. The complex ornament on the canvas includes the mystical sermons of Alexander Barkley. At the moment, he is a theological favorite, and the satirical poem of the Benedictine monks – “Ship of the Fools”, published in 1513, in 1520 – is a great topic of conversation. In the depths of the Great Hall begins a short gallery that leads to the palace chapel. This is a large open space decorated with gold and silver. On the first floor – two royal chapels, lodges, intended for members of the royal family. The altar is decorated with golden candles and a magnificent four-foot-high pearl crucifix. Pay attention that the British brought with them a church organ.
Food on the field of gold brocade – stratified business. During these two weeks you will be able to attend several large banquets, but most of the time you will eat at the Fortescue Pavilion. For true nobles and their servants food will be cooked in their own kitchen. Get ready. There will be a lot of chowder, broth and coarse black bread. Keep your ear open. Some dishes for gentlemen and, perhaps, their servants will cook in their kitchen. Regulars of such camps – beggars, lepers and local residents – will try their luck and constantly hang around the camp kitchen. Water is intended exclusively for washing. The main drink in the English camp is three degrees of boiling with a decrease in quality. The third cooking contains the least alcohol, and it is intended for servants and children. As mentioned earlier, free wine will be available during the holidays, but at other times it will be difficult to get it. At banquets you will notice that the treat consists of many dishes, both salty and sweet. There will be a huge amount of poultry, game, baked fish and steamed fish, pies, meat in pots and, of course, fried meat. Exotic birds, such as swans, can be prepared and served to look like edible statues. Subsequently, the English court counted that 6475 different birds were bought, about 100,000 eggs, not to mention 3406 rams and lambs, 842 calves and 373 bulls.
A visit to the French camp by the lower members of the Fortescue house is a serious violation of the protocol, therefore we advise you to refrain. However, it can be viewed from a distance. The French court set up its camp in the small town of Ardres, five miles southeast of the English camp. You can get there by the same road on which you arrived. You will see that the king’s order to dig a wide moat around the camp and repair the city walls was executed. Inside you will see about 400 pavilions and a significant number of French peers and nobles.
Francis I, Jean Clouet. time: the approximate date of the meeting of kings, the medallion of St. Michael, attire – Renaissance
The king’s quarters can be seen in the western part of the city. Houses alternate with large pavilions there to create a temporary palace. You should pay attention to the huge banquet hall near the city walls, connected to the palace by a long gallery. The English knight Edmund Hall described it like this: “The house was built as a multi-tiered amphitheater, with a three-tier stone wall, a whole range of balconies, and according to Hall it is extremely elaborately decorated. The canvas of the ceiling is decorated with gold stars. The transformation of Ardra took place under the control of Marshal of France Gaspard de Coligny and the Grand Master of the Royal Artillery Jacques Di Galio de Genuyac. It was they who successfully transported the French guns across the Alps and won the battle of Milan in 1513. The main work for the camp was done at Tours, more than 300 miles from the scene. They were able to meet the demand of the French court for textiles. For more than three months, thousands of sewers worked around the clock in the palace of the Archbishop of Tours in order to have time to sew awnings for the camp. Among the most notable works is the main awning of the royal pavilion, made in gold, with three wide stripes of blue velvet, decorated with golden royal lilies. He was crowned with a gilded figure of St. Michael, made in human growth, in his right hand a saint held a dart, and in his left – a shield with the emblem of the French crown, and a dead serpent at his feet. Many other pavilions are decorated with large golden apples carved from walnut. Queen Claude’s Pavilion is visible due to its bright golden fabric. The awnings of the queen mother are made in purple and crimson tones.
THURSDAY, JUNE 8: MEETING OF KINGS
You must arrive on Thursday morning. Preparations in the camp are in full swing, horses are cleaned, metal parts are polished, and nervousness and tension are gathering in the air.
At about five o’clock in the evening you will hear three cannon shots signaling the arrival of Henry and his retinue to the royal meeting. Shortly thereafter, you will hear similar shots in the Ardra region. They announce that the convoy of Francis is on the way. Retinue Henry will be under the protection of hundreds of archers, as well as personally Cardinal Woolsey. They will be accompanied by a retinue of knights and gentlemen. If Sir Adrian Fortescue can, he will also join this procession. After that you will see high nobility, and among them King Henry. In front of Heinrich, the Marquis of Dorset marches with a ceremonial sword; to his left is Cardinal Woolsey in sparkling crimson-red silks; to his right is Sir Henry Guildford, the royal horse breeder, leading the reserve horse for the king. Behind the king are dozens of young minions and hunters, followed by another procession of aristocrats, accompanying bishops and foreign ambassadors. The march is closed by musicians and servants: twelve wyllons, twelve trumpeters and twelve heralds, all in Tudor liveries. Get ready for the fact that along the way there will be a lot of music.
Henry VIII arrives at the English camp. Pay attention to the royal palace and wine fountain on the right, the lists (right above) and the dragon, which will appear on Mass on the last day of the event
Francis’s cortege is similar to Heinrich’s cortege, but slightly smaller. We strongly advise you to look at them at the meeting point in Arden, rather than in a French camp or on the road. At the head of the cavalcade you will see two hundred horsemen of the royal guard, dressed in gold cotts, followed by two hundred courtiers and a hundred Swiss infantry. The twelve trumpeters forerun the procession of the French nobility: the duke of Bourbon, admiral Bonnieve and, in fact, King Francis. The man next to him with the ceremonial sword of France in a sheath of blue velveteen with golden royal lilies is Galeazzo de San Severino, the royal horseman. Behind them are the Duke of Lorraine, Alencon and Wandom, all the Cardinals of France and the Knights of the Order of St. Michael. As the English motorcade leaves the camp, they are joined by a phalanx of infantry and a royal guard in the Tudor livery decorated with golden roses. They occupy positions in front, behind and on the sides of the tuple. Now the tuple has 4000 people. You may notice that scouts are scurrying around. They follow the progress of the French convoy. At the same time, the French scouts are in a hurry to report back to the authorities. The procession halted at least once, so that the king and his advisers would decide how safe it was to proceed. Nevertheless, by seven o’clock you should already be approaching Arden, where the two tuples will take up positions opposite each other on the embankments. The music dies down, both the tuples stand in silence. You can see King Francis moving forward, guiding the horse forward a few steps. He is accompanied by three main advisers. Heinrich is accompanied by Sir Henry Guildford, Earl of Worcester, Sir Richard Wingate (ambassador at the French court) and, of course, Cardinal Woolsey. Wingate is dressed in a magnificent brocade cloak, which gave him Francis. As you can see, he does not come to any comparison with his own, royal, attire. Heinrich is dressed in a silver doublet and cloak, embroidered in gold and adorned with precious stones. On it you can also see the insignia of the Order of the Garter, as well as the pendant of St. George and a black hat with a plume. Francis is dressed in a fashionable camisole at that time, a gold chain with silver inserts and precious stones, white riding boots and, like Henry, an ornate velvet headdress. Suddenly the flute began to play, and the attendants stopped, while the monarchs proceeded further to the meeting point – a spear stuck in the ground. Both retinues enthusiastically observe how kings greet each other by raising their hat, and then, still on horseback, embrace. Suddenly, the infantry appeared, accompanying the monarchs in a small awning. As long as the kings are inside the tent, you will see that the English tuple does not move from its embankment. At the same time, the French are overwhelmed by curiosity, and they pass to the British. Some awkward conversations are made. After about an hour, the kings reappear. Many embraces follow, until an anxious Woolsey gives the signal to leave, and both tuples return to the camp before sunset.
FRIDAY, JUNE 9: THE TREE OF HONOR (HONOR)
The tournament begins with hanging shields on the tree of honor. The honor tree is located on the edge of the lists and is made of twisted branches of raspberry and hawthorn, which symbolizes the new links between England and France. The whole structure is attached to a stone pillar and surrounded by a wooden fence. At about half past nine, two kings, sixty nobles and sixty guards from both camps, arrive at the tree of honor to hang shields. Since the tree is on English soil, the right to hang your shield first belongs to Francis, then Heinrich hangs up his shield a little to the right. Thirteen shields of nobles who organize a tournament for all comers will add below.
In the end, three shields will be hung on the tree, symbolizing the three components of the tournament: gray with black – knightly competitions, gold with red – knightly tournament and silver – foot battles. Over the next few hours, applicants will approach the tree, in turn touch up to three shields and hang their shield on special mounts. As a result, there will be about two hundred applicants and their emblems.
SUNDAY, JUNE 11: A HOLIDAY WILL BE BEGINNED!
At about noon a cannon shot will announce the departure of Henry from the English camp towards the French. At the same time, Francis is going to an English camp. They will meet briefly in the field before they go to visit each other’s queens. If you manage to get to the banquet, you will see that the monarchs have their own zone, to which there is no access, while the rest of the hall is divided into two tapestries hanging from the ceiling. On the one hand, about a hundred English court ladies dine. There are about twenty gentlemen present there, who, however, do not eat anything. On the other hand, the French high nobility in the person of the Duke of Bourbon and Admiral Bonnive dine with his retinue. After lunch there will be dancing to the music of drums, flutes and violins. Guest Stars is King Francis’s band, which plays Italian-style music on flutes and trombones. The main difference between these dances and ordinary palace masquerades lies in the fact that dancers can summon dance partners from among the spectators.
MONDAY, JUNE 12: THE BEGINNING OF THE KNIGHT’S COMPETITIONS
On Monday morning, most of the English camp will be on its way to the Golden Brocade Field (although it wasn’t yet named). The 900-foot-long and 300-foot-wide field is surrounded by an eight-foot moat, which also formed an earth mound. Inside the field is delimited by wooden railings and towers.
Heinrich with royal ornaments, the author is Hans Holbein. Before this picture was painted, a posture with legs apart was considered indecent
At both ends of the field, temporary triumphal arches were built. From the side of Gin there are two protected places for monarchs. The honor tree can be seen from Ardra and from the arch. On the left side of the field – the queen’s pavilion. From there, the competition will be observed by high nobility. On the right side – three-story stands for all others. Heinrich wanted the moat to be dug out also in front of them to eliminate unwanted intruders on the lists, but this could damage the already shaky structure pillars. Therefore, we decided to limit the additional number of railings. In the center of the field, the walls draped with fabric create a slope. Such walls appeared only at the end of the 15th century. They are designed to provide greater accuracy and accuracy of the knights during the competition, which in turn reduces the number of injuries. Additional railings help horses move exclusively in a straight line. At about noon, Queen Claude and Catherine appear on the field. They are followed by Heinrich and Francis at the head of their teams, those who call and those who accept the challenge, under the leadership of Duke Alenkon and Admiral Bonnieve. Then follow long ceremonies with performances and bows. And only then will the competition begin.
TUESDAY, JUNE 13, – SATURDAY, JUNE 17: RAIN AND WESLING
The next five days the tournament will be interrupted by heavy rainfall and, sometimes, just heavy rain. It was raining all Tuesday, June 13th, and the field was soaked that the organizers had to remove the counting sheets from the sloping walls, because of this the level of competition decreased. Riders became difficult to direct their horses to the center.
On Wednesday, the 14th of June, it will still be very overcast, but in the middle of the day entertainment is expected: fighting in the mud of the English Guards and Breton fighters and demonstration performances by English archers. By Thursday, the 15th of June, the field will dry out sufficiently so that the competition will continue in the presence of both Henry and Francis. Henry’s contest with Marshal Lesin was a highlight of the day. In addition, he made a sensation in Heinrich’s outfit – a cloak decorated with golden rhombuses and rosehip flowers. It rains again the next day, and although they will hold several competitions on the field, no one from the nobility, including kings and queens, will appear. However, on the 17th of June the sun will come out again and the competition will resume. Heinrich and Francis are both in excellent spirits after a contest with the team of the Earl of Devonshire, in which they broke 18 and then another 14 copies.
Lead and honor tree – your place is on the left
SUNDAY, JUNE 18: AND A BANQUET AGAIN
Today the camp is full of rumors and whispers. Early in the morning, Francis will make an unexpected visit directly to Heinrich’s chambers, after which they will attend Mass together. After the mass, Henry will go to Ardre, and Francis will rest until lunch in Catherine’s apartments.
Do not lean on the roasted swan, so as not to repeat the fate of the unfortunate left
And again for the dinner time the hall will be divided into two parts, separately for men and women. After lunch, the tapestry will be removed and the dance will begin, led by Francis himself. He will appear in the hall accompanied by ten people in long velvet robes decorated with feathers.
MONDAY, JUNE 19, AND TUESDAY, JUNE 20: LAST COMPETITION DAYS, DAYS AND TOURNAMENT
The last days of the competition will be clear and dry. On Monday, both kings will arrive to lead the exchange of horses and gifts. On Tuesday, they will return to the lists. Try to consider the robes of Francis. In those days when he takes part in contests, decorations and embroidery on his garment are carefully chosen to make phrases and mottos. French courtiers will readily decipher them, so feel free to ask. For example, the Tuesday motto sounds like this: “My heart sank from unbearable pain when she refused.”
On Tuesday – another tournament day – horse knights compete in pairs, but not at the barrier, but in an open area. The weapons of today are blunted swords, poles and clubs. However, the main skill show riders. Steep turns, sudden accelerations, all this provides an increase in accuracy and impact force. The best fighters show their strikes and maneuvers in front of the pavilion of the queen.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 21, AND THURSDAY, JUNE 22: FROZERS
Two days, Wednesday and Thursday, set aside for foot fighting. Fighters will fight through a wooden barrier. This will help prevent fights from turning into a fight and focus on the art of gun ownership. Today, combatants will use short swords, spears, and pikes. Of course, you should pay attention to the quality of Henry’s armor. Although Heinrich could not get access to his most modern, technically complex armor after lengthy negotiations with the French side, he still managed to put on armor, showing many technical innovations of the royal armory. Francis insisted on the use of helmets with a closed visor and the tonlet – a protective plate “skirt”. Heinrich added cuisses to this list – laminated steel bridges – and lamellar, steel plates connected by leather straps, which provide excellent protection and do not hamper movement.
FRIDAY, JUNE 23: THE MASS IS AT THE HOTEL
At night, many workers worked on repairing the lists and building stands on it. In addition, a large chapel was built, richly decorated with tapestries and precious crucifixes (most likely, you will recognize crucifixes from the royal chapel in the English camp). Surprisingly, the task was completed on time. The chapel is located between the queen’s pavilion and the main spectator stands.
The Mass will begin at noon under the guidance of Cardinal Woolsey. Note the relative height of the clerics on the platform: Woolsey is slightly higher than Cardinal Bouassy, both are taller than any of the French cardinals, who are in turn higher than the bishops of both countries. Music and singing are provided by the choir of both countries, the organ is delivered from the chapel of Henry. French organist Pierre Mouton, accompanied by vocals, flute and other instruments, is a rather interesting interpretation of the Kyrie liturgical prayer. Pay attention to Cardinal Bourbon, who will bring the Gospel to both monarchs and their queens for a kiss. Heinrich and Francis also made a holy kiss, while the queens joined their hands. During the liturgy, at the very moment when the cachets and wine become the body of Christ, do not forget to look up. You will see a dragon appear in the sky. According to the testimony of a contemporary: “Here! A graceful monster flying in wide loops prostrated in the sky. ”Of course, the artists would later portray him as a huge fire-breathing animal, but you will clearly see that this is a large, beautifully painted French kite. We advise you to pay attention to the face of Cardinal Woolsey, whom this event overshadowed.
SATURDAY, JUNE 24: THE LAST DINNER
One more time the kings visited each other’s camps for the last farewell banquet. Especially for this event, both dressed up in the best masquerade dresses. If you are observant enough, you will see how King Heinrich passes by, dressed in Hercules costume, golden lion skin, armed with a wooden club, wrapped in a green damask canvas. His retinue dressed up in costumes of Jewish kings and Christian warriors, such as King Arthur and Charlemagne. On today’s holiday the winners of the competition will be presented with precious stones and other valuable prizes. Have a drink at the party, but don’t forget to return to the Fortescue Pavilion to leave for home.
MAY 1 – OCTOBER 11, 1851 • LONDON
The great exhibition of industrial works of all nations, this is its full name, a great festival dedicated to the wonders of human genius, was held in London in 1851. The exhibition is located in the largest greenhouse in the history of mankind, it has 100,000 exhibits and attracted 6,039,195 visitors: at the time, this number equals two-seventh of the population of Britain. The number of visitors fluctuated around 50,000 per day. Despite the wide scope of the event, about half of the exhibits belonged to the host country and its colonies. This undoubtedly made the rest of the world understand about the level of development of Britain. In 1851, Britain was at the zenith of power and prosperity: it accounted for a good half of world iron production, more than half of cotton clothing production and a significant share of all income. It is not surprising that the exhibition was so successful. From the organization of this exhibition, the host country also received a huge benefit. We are accustomed to trade and other exhibitions around the world, we can easily overlook the whole manufacturability and novelty of this World Exhibition.
Increased exhibition plan, which will be issued to travelers
Before that, so many nations came together except on the battlefield. And never before, at least in Britain, various classes communicated so freely. The authorities are still haunted by the ghost of the past French Revolution, not to mention the wave of popular uprisings that has swept across continental Europe. And, of course, the authorities are extremely concerned about what might happen when the social barriers are removed. Nevertheless, at this event, everyone got along well with each other. Both nobles and ordinary people were equally impressed with the exhibits as well as with each other. As for the exhibits, the time traveler has something to see. Two entertainments in one: you can look at interesting exhibits, but you can also watch how other visitors look at them. Many of these exhibits, uninteresting for a resident of the XXI century, make the residents of the Victorian era freeze in admiration. So, forget to think about the Millennium Dome and visit an exhibition that will change the world!
Note! This is a two-day tour, which can be started from any point of the exhibition. For more information, see the “Tickets” section.
SUMMARY: HOW THE EXHIBITION HAS BEEN CREATED
The world exhibition appeared thanks to two people: Henry Cole, who is also one of the inventors of the postage stamp, and Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emmanuel of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, or, more simply, Prince Albert. Before he started this project, Albert suffered from what could be called Prince Charles Syndrome: an urgent need to find some occupation for himself, other than accompanying the queen at official events. The World Show seemed to help overcome this problem and covered the mouths of the London know-alls who still looked at him as an intolerable and sassy German Puritan upstart. In 1843, the prince became president of the Society for the Arts, an organization that promoted useful inventions. Two years later, his lordship organized a small exhibition of similar subjects. One of the winners of the exhibition was Felix Summerly, aka Henry Cole, for the design of a magnificent tea set.
Subsequently, in 1848, Cole joined the Society and proposed to Prince Albert the idea of holding a national exhibition in three years. The prince hesitated. Meanwhile, Cole went to Paris to visit an exhibition that was held there every few years for half a century. During his stay in Paris, Cole learned that the French are seriously thinking about opening an exhibition for foreign exhibitors. The idea failed, but Cole thought. The international exhibition in London should stimulate trade. Other nations, of course, also want to participate in the exhibition, partly because of the competitive spirit, partly for fear of missing something important. Nevertheless, Britain is guaranteed to be the center of attention. What might not like it here? When Cole proposed the idea of an international exhibition to the Prince Consort, he instantly agreed. Then the events began to unfold very quickly. It was decided that the exhibition would be financed from donations, not from the treasury, and in January 1850 the queen appointed a royal commission to translate the dream into reality. On March 21, a luxurious banquet was held in support of the project in the Egyptian Palace Hall in London. He was visited by nearly 200 mayors, foreign ambassadors, politicians and military. After lunch, Prince Albert addressed the crowd with a speech: “Lord! The exhibition of 1851 is designed to show the direction of human development and give a starting point for a new start for all nations. ” What you see only confirms these words.
The World’s Fair occupies about eighteen acres in the southern part of Hyde Park. It is not surprising that the Prince Albert Memorial with the exhibition catalog in its hands will be erected exactly here twenty-one years later. The choice of location was not approved by everyone. The upper class was alarmed by the prospect that the lower class would walk there freely and threaten to strike.
Crystal Palace, south entrance. In fact, there are many more people here than on the postcard.
All this forced many of them to move out of town and cancel the “Season” (annual May and June balls). Nevertheless, some representatives of the cream of society remained. But even if they didn’t stay, the local trading companies still scored a good payoff. One of the prominent beneficiaries was Charles Harrod. You might want to buy something for a picnic at his shop in Knightsbridge, a village a hundred yards from the park. In a few years his business will expand greatly.
The Royal Commission announced a tender for the best project of the exhibition center, but none of the 245 applications submitted fully satisfied her. Then the commission submitted its draft authorship to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. On June 22, 1850, a drawing appeared in the London Illustrated News, which gave rise to almost universal despondency. On the one hand, the project turned out to be extremely trivial and boring, and on the other – it had to be built of bricks. This meant that every furnace in Britain for several months should work exclusively on this project. It was obvious that such a building could not be completed on time. At this anxious time, salvation came from the senior gardener of the Duke of Devonshire, Joseph Paxton. His previous project was a large frame-team greenhouse with water lilies Victoria Regia in Chatsworth. He suggested that the same advanced technology could come in handy when building a building for the World Expo, which would require half the time. Paxton was ridiculed. But despite the fact that the critic John Raskin sarcastically compared Paxton’s design with the design for tying cucumbers, the project turned out to be impressive.
The Crystal Palace is a cross between a medieval palace and a railway terminal. It looks like an extended crucifix about a third of a mile long and 408 feet wide. 330 huge iron pillars, hundreds of smaller pillars and more than 300,000 window glasses were used for its construction.
SOME PRACTICAL QUESTIONS
The company has reserved apartments at the Mivarts Hotel on Brook Street (the Clarridge couple will buy it very soon). Overnight, breakfast and lunch cost only 15 shillings (translated into modern money – this is 165 pounds). If you want to be closer to the people, we can offer you a place in the furnished rooms of Thomas Harrison on Renel Street in Pimlico. At the time of the exhibition there is a hostel with 1000 beds called “House Mechanics”. The hostel provides dining, laundry and doctor services. All this costs only 1 shilling 3 pence per night. We can settle you in London or in any other city. In this case, you can go to London by train. Your fellow travelers will be delighted by the fact that they happened to ride on such innovative transport, and their conversations about what they see in the capital will inspire you. In London, there should be no problems with logistics, but be careful with omnibuses and city taxis. If it rains, they will cool up prices and are unlikely to give way.
Your impressions of the exhibition depend on when you visit it. At the beginning of the exhibition, tickets are more expensive, so at this time there are less crush and you can meet more celebrities. But in this case, you can not communicate with the common people. This is a big omission, as the overwhelmed residents of Victorian England are a very fascinating sight. You have serious chances to meet Queen Victoria walking around the exhibition. She can’t see enough of the exhibits and will visit the exhibition about thirty times before leaving for Balmoral in July. You should come to the exhibition early. The queen usually arrives a couple of hours before the exhibition opens and waits for some of the courtiers. Remember: the queen is a short lady without a chin and in a crown. You could also run into Charles Dickens, Charles Darwin, George Eliot, Lewis Carroll, Emily Bronte, or Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
The price of tickets varies quite a lot. A season ticket costs 3 guineas for men and 2 guineas for women (346 and 231 pounds, respectively, at current prices). It is not necessary to acquire such, but you can attend the opening ceremony. The entrance fee on the second and third day will be 1 pound and will fall on 5 shillings for the next 18 days. In the end, the fee will be 1 shilling per ticket from Monday to Thursday and 2 shillings on Fridays and Saturdays.
The company provides a wide range of costumes, depending on which class you want to represent. For men, wearing a top hat and a cane is a must, this is a reasonably luxurious option. In any case, regardless of which class you belong to, wearing a headdress is necessary. Skillfully folded facial hair, which we associate with the Victorian era, has not yet become fashionable, and if you appear with a beard or sideburns, you will be considered a Frenchman. Skirts with frills and crinolines are very popular among women. But then the crinolines were made from horsehair. Crinolines hoops and cells will be in fashion only in a few years. Women of all classes wear hats.
The choice of food inside the palace is extremely meager. Two points in the palace will offer you a ham or pork pie for 6 pence, bread and butter additionally, for 2 pence. Soda “Schweps” (the official drink of the event) costs 6 pence per glass, small ice cream is also 6 pence, and a large one – 1 shilling. For this era – it is quite high prices. In addition, there have been many complaints about the carelessness of waitresses. Our advice is to take food with you. This will allow you to bypass the ban on alcohol. The Mivarts Hotel will readily provide you with a ready-made lunch, or, as we have said, you can purchase food at the Charles Harod’s store in Knightsbridge. We can also offer you a stroll to the Symposium of Nations – restaurants for 1,500 people, which spontaneously arose on the site of modern Albert Hall. Its owner is a Frenchman named Alexis Sawyer, the first star chef in Britain. Prior to that, he opened a charity canteen in Ireland during the notorious potato famine. A luxurious French-English lunch will cost you from 2 to 10 shillings (22–110 pounds).
You must constantly remember pickpockets. In the end, this is “London Feigin”. But inside the palace you are in relative safety. As a result of fears of the ruling class, mostly unfounded, the palace is teeming with police, both under cover and in uniform. Next to the crystal fountain is a table of finds and search for lost children. If your emergency situation has physiological properties, you can use for the first time in history a paid toilet, kindly provided by engineer George Jennings. It will cost you 1 penny. Men can celebrate a little need for free, but the ladies will have to fork out.
MAY 1: OPENING CEREMONY
If you choose a season ticket, you can attend the opening ceremony on May 1st. The Queen and Prince Albert will arrive only by noon, but the doors of the Crystal Palace will be open from 9am. You’d better come to the palace before that time to walk. Nevertheless, Hyde Park and the road from Buckingham Palace will be blocked from 6 am. By mid-morning, about a million people would line up at the entrance. At the same time about a tenth of them are foreigners.
Opening Ceremony with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The theme of the day is absolute formalities. So do not expect balls
Once inside the palace, try to take place as close as possible to the platform in the center of the building. This is where the queen will sit on a skilfully crafted throne, borrowed from the Indian hall, covered with crimson velvet and blue silk, decorated with royal lilies of ostrich feathers. At 10 o’clock in the morning celebrities will start arriving. You may notice the 82-year-old Duke of Wellington next to the Marquis of Anglesey, who is a little older. This is a very touching moment. These two have not gotten along since Wellington showed no sympathy for Lord Oxbridge during the Battle of Waterloo. “Oh God, sir, I lost my leg!” – this is how this famous conversation began. “Oh God, sir, I willingly believe you!” Was the calm answer of Wellington and, in fact, the end of the conversation. By noon the feeling of foreboding reaches its climax. Fanfare, cannon shots, streamers and echoes of cheers throughout the hall herald the arrival of royals. Then a huge organ at the southern entrance begins to play the national anthem. Suddenly the noise subsides. Prince Albert speaks with a greeting, then Queen Victoria gives her speech, the Archbishop of Canterbury blesses the exhibition, a church choir sounds. They play Handel’s Hallelujah. As a piquant departure from the script, a Chinese man appears on the platform. Several times he respectfully bows to the royal couple. Everyone around him takes him for a high-ranking official, but this is just a junior captain moored near Limehouse, unable to cope with emotions. The royals will pass through the whole palace, looking at individual exhibits. Then the queen will announce the exhibition open, come down from the platform and leave the building. Several exalted ladies take turns sitting down on the vacant throne, still warm because the queen was sitting on it. Now you can safely explore the palace.
To calculate the amount of time it will take to inspect all the exhibits of major museums is a terrible cliché of all guidebooks, but we will not avoid it either. It was published in The Times that the inspection of all exhibits at the World Fair will take 200 hours. Roughly speaking, the exhibits of Britain and the whole Empire occupy the western part of the palace, while the rest of the world is located in the east. This applies to all floors of the palace, but the exhibits on the upper floor are much smaller, and they are not so significant. There are strange, partly crazy exhibits in the style of steampunk. The largest and most popular entrance to the palace is the southern one. It leads to the most important transept of the building. This immediately shows how Paxton solved the problem of ten elms, which had to be cut down to make room for construction. He simply locked them in the general ensemble of the palace. This gives an accurate sense of the scale of the palace, which will intensify as you move towards the Crystal Fountain in the center. The author of the fountain is Follet Ostler. It is made of polished pink glass and is 27 feet tall. In addition to being very beautiful, this is a popular place for meetings and picnics.
BRITAIN AND EMPIRE
The western part of the first floor of the palace is occupied by exhibits of Britain and its subordinate territories. If you turn left from the North transept, past a smaller, less impressive part of the Indian exposition (the best exhibits are on the other side of the main passage that divides the palace in half), you will get to the section, by a strange coincidence, called “Fine Arts”, and you will see a stunning a set of various exhibits, from flowers from human hair to a large oak buffet carved in the vicinity of Castle Keniduert. Behind the pavilion of visual arts throughout the western part of the pavilion is moving cars.
How do you like it? Transport for the modern Maharaja in the hall of India
This is perhaps the most popular pavilion at the exhibition. He gives an idea of the wonderful, new technologies that will change the world. Machines are driven by steam, which is generated in boilers outside the building. One of the most striking exhibits is the steam hammer of James Nasmit, powerful enough to flatten a metal blank, and also capable of breaking an egg in a crystal goblet without damaging the glass itself (you can watch it yourself). Another popular exhibit was the en La Rue envelope making machine. It can turn plain paper into 2,700 beautiful envelopes per hour. Also very popular machine, stamping up to one hundred cigarettes per minute. Locomotives are exhibited to the south of this pavilion, including a motor of 1,140 horsepower and a prototype of a tram, or “railway in the city,” as the inventor himself described it, since the name for it will be invented and patented later.
Please note that other visitors react to these vehicles as residents of the beginning of the XXI century react to unmanned aircraft. After watching the steam engines, head south to the main aisle. If you look at the western wall of the palace, you will see your own reflection in the world’s largest mirror. This mirror is made in order to visually enlarge the already huge building. Turning around, you will see in front of you the whole palace. From here, the Crystal Fountain in the distance seems quite small. Moving forward, the first thing that you will see is a forty-foot model of Liverpool docks, equipped with 1600 miniature ships. Other models follow, including a model of a newly opened railway bridge – a railway miracle consisting of parallel pipes, extending over Menai. After that, you can expect anything. Ostrich feathers compete for your attention with the first samples of photography, the sperm whale’s jaw, the lighting system for lighthouses, and a huge waza electroplated image of Prince Albert along with similar images of William Shakespeare and Sir Isaac Newton. After a well-deserved break near the Crystal Fountain, it’s time to take a look at the southern part of what may be called the western nave. Here begins the second, more luxurious part of the pavilion of India – the pearls in the crown of the British Empire. In the center of the exposition are four precious gifts to Queen Victoria from the Bengal Nawab: a velvet throne under a canopy, two palanquins, one of them is carved out of marble, and Hovdah. If you decide to visit the exhibition in the early days, you, like the others, will definitely be puzzled by the appointment of the last exhibit. Then a stuffed elephant was brought from the Saffron Walden Museum, and everything fell into place. Hovdakh is a canopy palanquin for riding elephants, camels and other similar animals.
Directly to the west of this pavilion are exhibits devoted to Canada, the West Indies, South Africa and New South Wales. The most popular exhibits from Canada are snowshoes, sleds and other devices for survival in cold climates. The least popular are various exhibits of fish oil from Newfoundland. The West Indies Pavilion is full of flowers and fruits, while Australia and Africa are represented by exotic animals, including a stuffed platypus, a canine weighing 103 pounds and a few ostrich eggs. In the role of a buffer between the pavilions of the colonies and the exhibits of Britain is the medieval court of Augustus Pugin and the hall of British sculpture. Pugin’s exhibits are an attempt to balance the largely industrial theme of British exhibits. One side of the hall is devoted to church paraphernalia, other furniture, as well as tapestries and other similar things. All this can be called the Victorian Gothic, idealized version of the 1450s. Despite the fact that the art presented here is impressive, many visitors find it difficult to understand the idea of the pavilion in the context of the innovative spirit of the new world of the exhibition. The hall of the sculpture seems sublime, despite the negative press assessments. This phenomenon can be explained by the abundance of nudity, mostly female. In 1851, naked ladies, even stone, had not yet become a habit. Between this and the western part of the palace, visitors return to the age of industrial revolution. Exhibits near the main aisle represent various cities: Birmingham (gas fittings and other household appliances of the middle class), Sheffield (steel products, including the motherboard of all eighteen-blade penknives), Yorkshire (wool factories) and Manchester (cotton). Behind these exhibits is a long series of agricultural tools and machines. They are like a magnet attracting villagers who look at them with anguish, dreaming of a better, easier future, which they foreshadow. It is time to go upstairs.
The gallery goes around the entire palace around the perimeter, leaving a large cruciform space in the middle. Look over the railing. Peer into the greatness of everything that surrounds you. People who slowly climb and descend the stairs, to the huge, but as if flying up the roof of the transept above you. Continue to the southern part of the gallery, right above the main entrance. Now, after spending a few hours, you can explore the entire western gallery, which is dedicated to the rest of the British exhibits. However, the British exhibits also occupy part of the eastern gallery, there are new samples of clothing. Among other things, there is a Wellington hat (as opposed to Wellington shoes), garments of elastic fabric for those who are tired of lacing, and a pair of checkered socks, studded with … 1,300 diamonds.
Great Exhibition – ingenious inventions. This is typically a British product – a hammock that turns into a lifeboat – struck the imagination of visitors.
In the western gallery you will find yourself surrounded by silk from Spitalfields and Paisley, lace, chemical and pharmaceutical products and weapons, including a new, revolutionary telescopic sight. When you go to the western gallery, pay attention to the exhibition entitled “Philosophical, musical, watch and surgical instruments.” Here you can see beautiful examples of unsurpassed inventive talent of inventors of the Victorian era. The exhibition includes absolutely unique offers, such as waterproof watches, which are fun ticking in a glass of water, or watches powered by electricity (what’s next?). In addition, globes are well represented. There is even one of Chinese silk paper. The highlight of the exposition is, of course, the “Story Predictor” by Dr. Merryweather. Probably, before this you have never seen a device for predicting the weather, working on leeches. The method is based on the habit of animals out of the water, when they feel that atmospheric pressure drops and rain gathers. In this case, an alarm is triggered. If after this you still want to admire leeches, you will definitely enjoy the exposition dedicated to surgery: a cane with medicines, medical instruments, an enema, and a bed that pushes the sleeper at a certain time. Of course, in the best traditions of British events – Jolly Bobby, a guinea pig. Another medical miracle is an adjustable human figure, consisting of 7000 steel parts. You are now in the western part of the north transept, where fine British porcelain from Staffordshire and Worcestershire is represented. Soon you will see a ladder, and you need to go down it. Maybe you want to “spend a penny” (see the emergency section); ladies and gents restrooms are located on both sides of the cafe. We advise you to look, because after that you are going to conquer the whole world!
ALL OTHER WORLD
This half of the palace is dedicated to the part of the world that is not part of the British Empire. The pavilions are located in such a way that the main participating countries occupy both sides of the main aisle (the rest are located in other free places). The same scheme in the eastern part of the gallery on the first floor. The best way to reach the basement is to move in zigzags along the main aisle. This will allow you to view all the exhibits of one country at a time. In the gallery is simply impossible. Try to explore all the exhibits from Austria at once, and you will die a terrible death. Therefore, it is better to move in a circle. At some point, you just think: “Oh, look, Austria again!”
BATHROOM: WORLD PAVILIONS
Before you dive into the wonders and news of the whole world, be sure to look at the legendary Kohinur diamond. The weight of the diamond is 191 carats. He fell into the hands of the British two years ago at the time of the accession of Punjab. A glorified diamond is stored in a kind of bird cage east of the Crystal Fountain. Unfortunately, after you break through the crowd, you will not be delighted. Due to the combination of poor cut and poor lighting, the stone does not sparkle at all. This will be fixed next year, but the weight of the diamond will drop to 109 carats. Well, now you just have to complain about the unfortunate exhibit. Nearby you will find much more sparkling, large stones, known as the Hope Collection and a huge nugget from the veins of Maripos in California. Now you can safely write on the exhibition zigzags. Start with the pavilions northeast of the Crystal Fountain. There are Egypt, Turkey, Persia and Greece with hookahs and beautifully decorated weapons. The Greek exposition consists mainly of marble statues, while the Turks have demonstrated their commitment to smoking, including pipes. On the other side of the main passage is the Chinese Pavilion. It is surprising that London businessmen brought more exhibits to this pavilion than the Celestial Empire itself. As one would expect, in this pavilion there is a large amount of porcelain, lacquerware, silk and bamboo. The exhibits that attract the most attention are the grotesque figures carved from the roots of trees and samples of edible bird nests, which are the main ingredient of the simply unthinkable soup. Salangans fasten nests with their own saliva. All this does not help to dispel the myth that Asians are strange people. To the east of the Chinese Pavilion – Swiss exposure. It is full of beautifully carved toys and furniture, but the watches make the biggest impression. Here are watches of all imaginable and unimaginable forms and designs – in the form of bracelets, embedded in the rings and compasses. This part of the exhibition particularly enchanted Queen Victoria. On the other side of the main passage you will again meet with the expositions of Spain, Portugal and their colonies. Tobacco takes just a huge territory. Havana and Manila cigars. A few barrels of fragrant tobacco smell all over the pavilion. You will also see walls from the Alhambra in Granada and a beautifully carved bullfighting scene. Directly to the east are the pavilions dedicated to the lands that will eventually become Italy, namely Rome, Tuscany and the Kingdom of Sardinia, which at that time includes Piedmont and Savoy. The highlight of this pavilion is mosaics, exquisite carved shells and miniaturization of various kinds. An excellent example is St. George, artfully carved on a cherry pit, his dragon and twenty-four tiny human heads. Further to the east, on the other side of the main passage, is the French Pavilion. By the number of participants (1740) at the exhibition France holds the second place after Britain. To the chagrin of the owners of the exhibition, the old enemies are doing everything with more grace and sense of style. Sevres porcelain, tapestries easily superior to English counterparts. Fortunately, agricultural machinery due to the channel is considered very mediocre. The French Pavilion is decorated with a sculpture of Queen Victoria eighteen feet high, made of zinc. This is a completely unusual sight for the British.
Further, on both sides of the main passage – Belgium and Holland. Dutch exhibits range from the collection of the most powerful magnets to the Kniphausen hawk, a bird inlaid with rubies, carbuncles and amethysts, in full size. Belgium presented mostly sculptures. Here you can see the largest sculpture in the exhibition – the XI century crusader on horseback. Moving east, you will come to Austria’s possessions, while it is an empire covering most of Central Europe, the Balkans and part of Northern Italy. Austria presented to the exhibition refined Venetian glass and Milan sculpture, so popular that the authorities had to fence it from the free approach of visitors. Spectacular relief silver and bronze images of Alexander the Great’s victorious battles arrived from Budapest, and a watch with seventy dials came from Vienna. The capital of Austria also brought a huge amount of perfume. This pavilion, a very tempting place for ladies, can be called a fountain of cologne. For the Austrian pavilion begins the territory of Germany, although technically such a country will not be another 20 years. Accordingly, this area is represented by Saxony, Prussia, the Hanseatic League and the German Customs Union. Of note is another cologne fountain, this time from Cologne, and a fruit vase the size of a ten-year-old child, decorated with figures of progress, from nomadic times and, through agriculture, to science and art. At the end, a modern man (presumably German) stands on top of a palm tree and threatens a snake with a torch. Nevertheless, the most popular exhibit in the German pavilion is the sculptural composition of August Kiss: an Amazon riding a horse is attacked by a tiger. She stands in the main aisle, right next to the only exhibit from Brazil – a pair of bouquets of flowers, which upon closer inspection are composed of feathers! The penultimate compartment of the eastern part of the exhibition belongs to Russia. Tsar Nicholas I sent an amazing collection of jewelery, but what makes you breathless is admiration: a whole hall of Siberian malachite – from doors twelve feet high to tables and chairs. On the contrary – a relatively small pavilion of Scandinavia, frankly, not too exciting, unless you are a fan of Swedish steel. In the end, with the full feeling that you really walked around the world, visit the latest exhibition – the United States, decorated with a large model of Niagara Falls. There is also a seven-tonne piece of zinc. The mining industry is the backbone of the American economy, therefore there are quite a few samples of minerals in the exposition that can enthrall even a sophisticated geologist. However, not all American exhibits are on display.
Beautiful view of one of the elms that fell into the palace ensemble, and the Crystal Fountain from the gallery
To the delight of many Britons who belong to their transatlantic cousins with a mixture of ridicule and anxiety, many exhibits from the US are delayed in transit due to transportation problems. However, when they arrive, the exhibition hosts will be forced to admit that the young nation has made a good start. Agricultural implements are very well represented and according to the results of tests conducted at the end of the summer, British counterparts beat in many ways – ease, speed and price. The USA comes out the winner also in the battle of locksmiths. Alfred Charles Hobbs from New England won £ 200 for dismantling a pair of locks from the English firm Chubb and Brahm. No one could break the lock of its production. A few more American exhibits were a smashing success: Samuel Colt’s revolver of innovative design, a coffin capable of keeping the body in a vacuum (just for those obsessed with the death of people of the Victorian era), and a tiny sewing machine. The latter gives the British to introduce technologies that will change the lives of millions of women. In just a few years, Isaac Singer will launch his version of the sewing machine. If at this moment you begin to develop an industrial version of Stendhal syndrome, go to the northeast part of the palace. There are refreshments and amenities for ladies and gentlemen. Thus, having come to yourself, you can go upstairs to complete a tour of the palace.
EAST GALLERY: WORLD EXHIBITS
Perhaps, fortunately, there are far fewer exhibits in the eastern gallery that need to be inspected than in the rest of the palace. We propose to begin to examine the exposure from the south-western part. There you can once again look at the socks, studded with diamonds. Move east, and eventually you will find yourself again in France, in the world of fabrics and clothing. There you can also see one of the most shocking exhibits – a portrait of Queen Victoria of human hair.
The southern part of the Eastern Gallery is devoted to goods from the German Customs Union. Among the Prussian-Bavarian pianos and other instruments there was a unit called “elodion”. There you can also find wooden, tin and many other toys, including a Christmas tree with light bulbs – for the British, despite the best efforts of Prince Albert, it is still a novelty. Nevertheless, it is possible to particularly highlight the funny kitsch for the authorship of Herman Pluket from Stuttgart. The exhibition consists of hundreds of stuffed anthropomorphic animals. Frogs shave, hedgehogs skate, marten teacher scolds a whole class of naughty rabbit pupils.
OUTSIDE AND HOME
Several exhibits, too bulky to be located inside the palace, were placed outside. In the eastern part you can see a lifeboat, a French cast-iron fountain, a huge granite cross from Sweden, a weeping cypress from China and a large Indian awning. To the west are huge pieces of coal, three anchors from battle battleships and a prototype of a railway crossing, which looks very lonely without railway tracks. Next is the famous statue of Richard the Lionheart by Marochetti. Later, she will find a permanent shelter near the Parliament building. From here you go home.
7–8 MAY 1945 • LONDON
London survived the war! After six years of constant malnutrition, living in a shelter, constant bombing, everything really ended. On May 8, 1945, the entire city took to the streets to celebrate the greatest event. You will arrive just in time to hear the announcement of the Victory and drink to the health of Churchill in Bohemian Soho. On that very day, you will wake up in time for the morning newspapers in Piccadilly, have breakfast in Savoy and see how Trafalgar Square is filled with a crowd of people, before you indulge in drunken dreams and unrestrained celebration. You will hear Churchill addressing the nation at White Hall, see King George VI waving his hand from the balcony of Buckingham Palace in front of a crowd of almost 50,000 people, dance conga all night long, kiss a couple of soldiers and, perhaps, sing some songs .
Keep in mind that very soon the VEG will offer you a trip to celebrate Victory Day over Japan on August 14, 1945. The war in the Pacific finally ended, and in New York holiday. Join the crowd in Times Square, look at the largest telegraph tape you can imagine.
SUMMARY: FUN, HAVE BEEN NOW 1945
Not that the country did not even suspect the future. The defeat of Germany could have been foreseen at the beginning of 1945. The UK Department of Commerce, which has always negatively related to waste, has allocated red, white, and blue flags from the cotton ration. The Ministry of Labor announced that bonfires would be allowed in honor of the end of the war and the holiday. Nevertheless, the government hopes that vital materials will not be used in bonfires. Both flags and fires you will see in abundance on May 7th. London was still anxiously awaiting the official announcement of Germany’s surrender and the end of the war in Europe. Churchill planned to make an announcement on the morning of May 7, but under pressure from the Soviet Union, he was forced to wait for the surrender to be signed before making a simultaneous statement. True, everything went wrong after the Associated Press in New York released the news of the total defeat of Germany. About a million people moved to Manhattan, there was no point in waiting any longer, and Churchill gave the Air Force permission to declare the next day – May 8 – Victory Day in Europe.
You will arrive at 6 pm on May 7, 1945 on Glasshouse Street – a small passage that goes to the northern part of Piccadilly Square. From here at 9 o’clock in the morning on May 9 you will return home. In Piccadilly, you will see that London is still in a state of war, many signs are off, the statue of Eros is closed and sealed with military posters. You will also feel the excitement and anticipation in the air. Military aircraft perform aerobatic maneuvers over the city, and the newspaper boys now and then shout: “The war is over!” Look: rolls of toilet paper fly from the windows of offices in central London. Continue the walk, and you will see even more interesting.
V means Victory. The symbol Churchill taught the nation. If you want to join them – repeat after the lady in the tweed jacket
MONDAY MAY 7: BEGINNING OF THE DAY
Take your time, have a good look at Piccadilly Circus, but try to arrive at a cafe with a radio by 7:40 pm in order not to miss the official announcement of Victory Day. The air force announcer will literally say the following: “In accordance with the agreements reached by the three great powers, tomorrow, Tuesday, Victory Day in Europe will be celebrated. This day is declared festive. ” After this announcement, you will surely hear the beeps of thousands of tugboats and ships moored on the Thames. While the news spreads around the country, Piccadilly becomes the center of the event. Over the next three hours, about 10,000 people will gather here and on the surrounding streets.
A big bonfire will be lit on Shaftsbury Avenue. Stroll north along Soho. You will see small fires kindled on the foundations of buildings destroyed by bombing. Now, while the people are still not very many, you have a good chance to join the dancing congas, sing hoki-povi or dance with the military. However, soon the celebration will intervene … the weather! Around midnight a strong spring thunderstorm will begin, lightning will shine the sky with bright zigzags, a heavy downpour will go on for several hours. Fortunately, for the entire trip you no longer have to seek shelter from the weather. The remaining days will be dry: on May 8, warm spring weather will be established. When you are thinking of going to bed, head to the corner of Piccadilly and Regent Street. A room in a very respectable hotel was booked in your name (Piccadilly, W1, telephone number – Regent 7000). Entrance through the courtyard of the house in the style of Art Deco with a glass dome.
In the past six years, Britain has been cut back on nutrition, and it is unlikely that this will change soon. Even in London’s West End, where restaurants, hotels and cafes did not stop their work, with food is quite difficult and its quality is not always the best. With this in mind, we took the liberty to reserve lunch and lunch in your Savoy Hotel (90, Strand, WC1, Temple Bar 4343 phone number) in your name. This is a good deal. Despite the fact that the clientele here is quite wealthy, the wartime makes its own adjustments: lunch will cost you only five shillings (plus an additional three shillings and six pence for non-residents of the hotel). You can meet people from the Allied Command and Cabinet Ministers, enjoy the game of American pianist Carol Gibbons and Savoy Hotel Orpheans. The victorious lunch, of course, with wine, consists of: consomme broth, niçoise salad, de-will meatballs, lemongrass, ice cream and a medallion in a soldier’s way. The winning dinner is much simpler: soup, chicken and frozen peaches. A more budget lunch is available at Lions Corner House. Branches of this institution can be found throughout the West End. In its own way, it is also a luxury establishment that can satisfy every taste. If you decide to wear a military uniform, you can certainly count on free tea and a bun, nevertheless, the city is full of places for a very different budget. You will find a food court on the ground floor and themed restaurants for another three (or even four in large establishments). During lunch, you can use the telephone, send a telegram, get a haircut, and even wash it. The interiors are richly decorated in the popular chic art nouveau style. This makes them look like modern folk palaces. The attendants, all female, are dressed in the same black and white uniform. They are also known as nippis. Nontraditional travelers will be happy to know that there are also informal “Corner Houses” in which nippies also work. Classic Corner Houses are located in Strand, Coventry Street and Tottenham Court Road.
The company has an agreement with many restaurants at the hotels: Strand Palace, Regent Palace and Cumberland. They are open twenty-four hours a day. For travelers with more modern tastes, to the first London Indian restaurants from the main locale and Soho is literally within reach. “Durbar”, “Bengal Indian” on Percy Street, “Dilkush” on Windmil Street, “Shalimar” on Vardur Street. Another option to eat is street festivities. The pantries are emptied in the blink of an eye, the neighbors arrange a breakfast party. There will be pies and scones, dishes from egg powder and gray dough, look at which is already a test for the brave.
In any case, take it easier. People saved up on this for many years. Much more difficult may be the situation with alcohol. In many places in central London, the beer will end in the early evening. We suggest you have a drink early and spend Friday evening exploring take-out food in SoHo bars.
TUESDAY MAY 8: VICTORY DAY
The morning of May 8 will begin bright and noisy. Most likely, you will first hear the sound of church bells. The rest of the day you will hear them everywhere. Again, you better start with Piccadilly. Around a huge number of sellers of newspapers. People read newspapers, looking over their shoulders, they start talking. The title of the Daily Mail reads: “It’s all over,” “The Daily Express” states: “It’s Victory Day!” While the US military’s newspaper Stars and Stripes writes: “The Nazis have capitulated.” The Daily Mirror teased its readers with the prospect of Starling Jane starring in the Comics With Jane comic strip on the Victory Day. Buy one – see how they kept their promise. Together this you can take advantage of the fact that the celebration has not yet gained momentum, and enjoy the silence and think. At noon, a memorial service will be held at St. Paul’s Cathedral. Try to get there as early as possible, before there is a crowd of people (use the metro: drive east along the Central Line from Oxford Circus to St. Paul’s Cathedral).
VICTORY DAY: SECOND HALF OF THE DAY
Buckingham Palace – to which it is best to get from the Shopping Center or Birdcage Walk – is going through hard times. The stone walls are dirty, some of the windows are dark or clogged. The central balcony, which was draped with crimson and gold curtains, makes it look even worse. The war was long … People will start gathering around 10 o’clock in the morning, during the whole day their number will grow, but the greatest number of people will gather at 11 o’clock when celebrities start to appear, including members of the royal family on a horse drawn carriage. Nevertheless, an even larger crowd will gather to hear Churchill’s joint performance with the royal family at 5:30 and again at 9:30. For the whole day, the royal family – King George, Queen Elizabeth, Princess Elizabeth and Margaret – will appear before the people on the balcony six times. The king in the form of a naval officer, the queen in a huge hat, which she later replaces with a diamond tiara. Princess Elizabeth is dressed in camouflage air force, Princess Margaret is dressed in blue and constantly nervously straightens her hair. Later in the evening, the princesses will leave the palace, accompanied by officers of the guard. If you meet, follow them, but very carefully. Just a couple of minutes from the Shopping Center – Trafalgar Square, which will fill up by one o’clock. People will walk there until the 9th. Separate attention are peddlers in front of the National Gallery. They sell rosettes of red, white and blue colors, Union Jacks on sticks, cardboard holiday hats and badges with Churchill’s portrait. Just listen: Churchill for 6 pence! In fact, it costs more! ”After lunch, a small group will perform the best excerpts from Gilbert and Sullivan. If you are attentive, in the evening you will see how a couple of British officers, to the applause of the crowd, set up a girl in a red dress in white peas at the top of the fountain.
Street dance: Girls from headquarters and military
If you want solemn speeches and universal jubilation, head for Whitehall, from Trafalgar Square through the Admiralty Arch and Parliament Square, which starts right at the end of Whitehall behind the Cenotaph. On the way, you will see that the balcony of the Ministry of Health is already draped by Union Jackie and is ready for use throughout the day. Passing through Whitehall, pay attention to the right: this is the place where Churchill’s famous three-hour speech was coming from. At the end, go through the Cenotaph and see the Parliament Building on the left. These places will be filled with people by half past one, so if you want to take a favorable position, we advise you to arrive before one o’clock.
Despite the number of people, the crowd is well organized and unrest is not expected, however, those who suffer from claustrophobia will be uncomfortable. Pay attention to the bus, slowly moving through the crowd. The inscription on it reads: “Hitler’s bus left.” Around 2:40 from the balcony opposite the Ministry of Labor, a naval officer dressed in Hitler’s costume will give a small presentation and rip a tumultuous ovation. Then Big Ben strikes three hours and the crowd subsides. Finally, through the numerous megaphones installed on Whitehall lampposts, you will hear Churchill’s speech: “General Jodl as representative of the German High Command and Grand Admiral Doenitz, appointed by the German leaders, signed an act of unconditional surrender yesterday at 2:41 am.” The crowd rejoices, especially after the announcement of a cease-fire and the release of the Channel Islands. There are also exclamations of Eisenhower and Russians. Churchill will continue his speech, recalling that the war in the Pacific region is still ongoing and will end with the following: “Forward, Britain! Long live the cause of freedom! God save the king! ”Then the guards forges officially announce a cease-fire, followed by a mass performance of the national anthem. Depending on where you are, move to Parliament Square, where about half past three you can see Churchill standing in an open-top car, slowly moving through the jubilant crowd from the Government Office to the Parliament building. There, the Prime Minister will linger for a couple of hours to settle matters with members of Parliament, in order to then go to the memorial service, along with representatives of the House of Lords, with whom he will depart late, forgetting the cigars. Churchill will appear again around five in the evening, on the way to Buckingham Palace, puffing a huge cigar. Watch the sky (although you will hear noise in advance). “Lancaster”, which will fly, releasing a jet of green and red smoke, will have great success.
ALL GANG IN COLLECTION – FAVORITE SONGS
The soundtrack of 1945, especially the dance one, mainly consists of American performers: the tunes of Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, and Andrews sisters took over the air. Nevertheless, old favorite songs dominate the crowd. In due time you will hear them all. If you want, join us (you will find the lyrics in your pocket or bag).