In connection with the disappearance in recent years of many objects of flora and fauna, it is necessary to take emergency measures to save them. Despite the fact that animals listed in the Red Book of Russia are under special state protection, the number of individuals of some of them continues to decline.
Causes of animal extinction
This problem is relevant for many countries of the world. The complete disappearance of many animal species from our planet is of great concern to nature conservationists. The main reason for this phenomenon is considered a violation of the natural balance as a result of environmental pollution, which has a detrimental effect on representatives of the animal world.
The consumer attitude of man to nature also has a big role. Poaching has led to the fact that the population of many species of animals has significantly decreased, and some of them have disappeared irrevocably. Our country is no exception. The animals listed in the Red Book of Russia are also on the verge of extinction (the description of the most rare of them is given in this article).
The Red Book of Russia
In addition to the International Red Book, the same document was created in Russia in 2001. It contains data on the status and distribution of rare animals and plants in our country, their status and protection measures. The Red Book is a reminder to all of how defenseless our nature is. Improving their living conditions by cutting down forests and draining wetlands, a person should not forget about those who are close by. So far this is the only official document that has a mechanism for the protection of the animal and plant world.
The fact that the efforts of conservationists stabilize the situation is evidenced by the fact that some plants and animals listed in the Red Book of Russia replenish the lists posted on its green pages informing about the representatives of fauna and flora that have overcome the critical point of population reduction.
Nevertheless, there are still very many endangered species of animals living in our country.
These powerful animals up to two meters high and weighing sometimes more than a thousand kilograms were almost completely destroyed in the wild by the beginning of the last century. Considered the number of individuals remained only in zoos of Europe. This situation has arisen due to the destruction of forests, the growing number of human settlements in the bison habitats, as well as intensive hunting.
If earlier these powerful and beautiful animals were often found not only in the forests, but also in open spaces, the bison remaining in the Caucasus and Belovezhskaya Pushcha in the 20s in Russia were finally exterminated by poachers. The basis for breeding were only contained in captivity single individuals (in zoos, nurseries, etc.).
Despite the fact that today bison are animals listed in the Red Book of Russia, their population is still very small, and they are still endangered.
This is perhaps the largest cat in the world. Her body reaches 3 meters in length. The weight of the animal is about 300 kg. The Amur tiger has a special resistance to cold, arranging its rookery right in the snow and being there for quite a long time. This animal prefers mostly forests with steep slopes and rocky protrusions, from where the surrounding space is clearly visible.
Residents of Primorsky Krai, where this formidable predator lives, worship him. In their language, they call the Amur tiger “Amba”, which means “big.” However, this did not save him from extinction. In the 19th century, like all other forest animals listed in the Red Book of Russia, the Amur tiger was a rather numerous species in terms of the number of individuals living. But the destruction of the forest, unregulated shooting, poaching led to the fact that by the beginning of the last century, these animals remained only in the most remote of the taiga. Then there were no more than 50 individuals.
Today, thanks to nature conservationists and scientists, the population of the Amur tiger in Russia has increased significantly. Now in our country there are about 450 individuals.
The number of the giant shrew has been declining steadily lately. This representative of the family of shrews is quite large – up to 10 centimeters.
It dwells mainly in deciduous or mixed forests located in the south of Primorsky Krai. These animals, listed in the Red Book of Russia, prefer forests that are located in river valleys and are not touched by logging or fires. The reduction of the population of this species was affected by the feature of the shrew to bring offspring only once for the entire summer period. Until now, scientists have not been able to establish the sex ratio, as well as the number of calves in the litter. The main ration of the giant shrew is made up of earthworms, which it is able to extract even from very dense soil.
Amur Forest Cat
This formidable spotted predator, whose length can reach 1 meter, has special signs: each individual has a unique pattern on the hair, and on the forehead there are light and dark stripes. The animal lives mainly in the south of the Far East and in the Primorsky Territory.
The Amur cat reacted with a decrease in the population size to tree cutting, forest fires and other human activities. This is one of the main reasons why some species of animals disappear today. Listed in the Red Book of Russia, they get a chance to save their population. Thus, the number of Amur cat specimens has recently increased markedly.
Sakhalin musk deer
This is a small deer family artiodactyls, which today are also endangered. Their population declined sharply at the end of the last century. The number of this species today does not exceed 650 individuals and has a tendency to decrease, therefore, protection measures in relation to them are especially important.
These animals, listed in the Red Book of Russia (photos can be found in this article), live mainly in the dark coniferous forests located in the mountainous terrain of Sakhalin Island. Instead of horns, males have saber-shaped canines, whose length reaches 10 cm. The musk deer has the ability to make two-meter jumps from the spot.
The length of the body of this largest owl in Russia can be up to 70 cm. Moreover, the females are somewhat larger in size than the males. Fish eagle owl lives far from man’s places of residence, preferring to settle in mixed forests located near lakes and rivers rich in fish. In search of prey, he usually sits on a large rock and gazes at the water. Noticing a fish, the owl instantly dives and snatches it from the water. Crayfish, frogs, which they grope with their paws at the bottom of the reservoir, also serve as food for these birds. The fish owl is no less than many forest animals listed in the Red Book of Russia in need of protection, since the number of individuals is steadily decreasing.
Far Eastern Leopard
Here is another one of the representatives of the cat family, who is on the verge of extinction. The habitat of its habitat is the southern territory of Primorsky Krai, where at present no more than 50 individuals have been identified.
The Far Eastern (or Amur) leopard has some peculiarities in comparison with its other relatives. Its wool varies significantly with the season. If in summer it has a bright color and a maximum length of 2.5 cm, then by winter it reaches 6–7 cm and becomes lighter. Beautiful fur was one of the reasons for the decline in the population of these animals. Near the forests where Amur leopards live, there are villages, agricultural land, and this creates favorable conditions for poachers. Not only leopards, but also many other forest animals listed in the Red Book of Russia are destroyed for the sake of profit.
The main food for the Amur leopard is deer, the number of which in the wild decreases. It is not uncommon for owners of deer farms to kill predators who wander into their territory in search of food.
Due to the active human activity carried out in the Far East from 1970 to 1983, the habitat of the Far Eastern leopard decreased by more than 80%. Today, special conservation measures are being taken to protect the lands suitable for these animals from human influence and to increase the number of Amur leopards.
The animal world is mutable. Therefore, lists listing which animals are listed in the Red Book of Russia today may look different in a couple of years. I want to believe that many species of fauna that are on the verge of extinction will be on the green pages of this document.