In the 16th century, the territory of the United States was inhabited by Indian tribes, and during this period the first Europeans appeared here. By the 18th century, the entire North American continent was colonized by Europeans, as a result of which three zones of influence were formed. The British zone appeared in the areas of the Atlantic coast, the French zone appeared in Louisiana and the Great Lakes region, and the Spanish zone appeared on the Pacific coast, in Texas and Florida.
In 1774, 13 British colonies began military operations in the struggle for independence and reached their goal on July 4, 1776 — the date of the formation of the new sovereign state of the United States of America. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was adopted with the main convictions of the democratic formation of the country. The approved Constitution contained the rights of “free” states with a powerful state power.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the territory of the United States increased due to the acquisition of Louisiana from the French, Florida from the Spaniards, and the conquest of colonies of other lands, such as California. The seizure of local states was accompanied by either the forced eviction of the Indian people on the reservation, or the complete destruction of the population.
In 1861, disagreements arose between the southern and northern states related to economic and cultural issues, as a result of which a Confederation of 11 southern states arose, announcing its secession. At the beginning of the civil war, the Southerners won several victories, but in the end it ended in victory for the northern states and the preservation of the federation. In 1867, the United States bought the Aleutian Islands and Alaska from Russia. The end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century was distinguished by the grandiose rise of the United States in a strong economic state, thanks to the influx of immigrants from other continents. By 1914, the population of the state was already 95 million inhabitants.
April 4, 1917 America entered the First World War. Until that time, the state preferred to take a neutral position in relation to the events that took place at that time in Europe, since the United States was engaged in creating zones of influence in the countries of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, as well as Central America. At the end of the war, the US Senate refused to vote for the Treaty of Versailles.
After the war in 1929, a sharp jump in the country’s economy gave way to a terrible crisis. During the Great Depression, production dropped significantly, and unemployment increased. On December 7, 1941, the US Army entered World War II with Japan due to the bombing of the American base by Japanese fighters in Pearl Harbor. After December 11, 1941, America entered into a military conflict with Italy and Germany. The Americans deployed all their military actions mainly in the Pacific Territory. After the Tehran Conference on June 6, 1944, the US Army was involved in the defeat of the German army on the Atlantic coast of France. The fighting against Japan successfully took place in Southeast Asia and on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. On August 6, 1945, the Americans dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, and on August 9, the bomb was dropped on another Japanese city, Nagasaki. On September 2, 1945, the capitulation act was signed by the Emperor Hirohito of Japan.
After the war, the strongest world state of the USA contributed to the restoration of the economy to the countries of Western Europe and launched a “cold war”, preventing the spread of communist influence throughout the world, and especially in Europe. At the end of the 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s, directly inside the country, the American authorities pursued all those suspected of participating in the communist movement.
In the future, America, one way or another, got involved in international conflicts: Cuba, Vietnam, the Arab-Israeli war. In the United States, a pacifist movement against hostilities against the Vietnamese arose, which coincided with the struggle of African Americans against racial discrimination. In April 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated, convincing the Afro-American population of a peaceful resolution of the question of asserting his civil rights. His constructive political activities did not pass without a trace, since subsequently there was an integration of African Americans into the American public.
In the 70s, there was a significant political turnaround – the resignation of President Nixon, aided by the Watergate scandal. In 1979, China’s relations with the United States, whose president during this period was J. Carter, normalized. This, in turn, favorably influenced the signing of a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. But, since an unsuccessful operation was carried out to free American citizens who were hostages at the US embassy in Tehran, the democratic party failed in the elections. Owing to these events in 1980, R. Reagan was elected President of the United States. Thanks to negotiations with the USSR, initiated by R. Reagan and picked up by George W. Bush, who took the presidency in 1989, the localization of the arms race came and the cold war ended.