Sin .: nigella damask, Chernushka sowing, chernukha, Kalindzhi, kalaunji, seydan (sedan), roman coriander, wild fennel, love in the mist, nutmeg flower, Persian jewels, Italian coriander, damsel in green, black coriander, black seed, nielle , melancion, siah dana, shoniz, krishi dzhirak, ketiach, ketchaz, karaundzhi rigam, kalaondzhi dzhiram, hubbul sauda, habbatul baraka.
Herbaceous annual plant with erect, branched stem, deeply dissected with feathery leaves and large flowers. Black cumin seeds are used in cooking as well as in medicine for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases. The scientific name of this plant is not at all “cumin”, but “nigella”, which takes its origin from the Latin word “nigellus”, the grammatical form of the word “niger” – “black”. This name of the plant was due to the black color of the seeds.
Table of contents
Black cumin is a non-pharmacopoeial plant, but is officially used in eastern countries. Of particular value in pharmacology are seeds and cumin seed black. From the seeds of the plant, an enzyme drug of the lipolytic action of Nigedaza, whose chemicals actively break down fats, is obtained. The drug is indicated for pancreatitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, chronic hepatitis and other diseases of the digestive system. Cumin seeds used in homeopathy have diuretic, carminative and menstrual-regulating effects. For many years, homeopaths have been using black cumin tincture as a universal remedy for various diseases of the digestive system. Cumin – the active component of many dietary supplements to improve lactation, the work of the digestive system. In folk medicine, black cumin is particularly popular and has a huge spectrum of action. The seeds of the plant are used as a diuretic, choleretic, expectorant, anti-asthma, painkiller, as well as a means to increase the production of breast milk, getting rid of worms. In addition, decoctions, tinctures and tinctures of cumin black have antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiallergenic, hypotonic, immunostimulating properties.
Modern pharmaceutical companies in different countries add oil and black cumin seeds to various pharmaceuticals. As pharmacological raw materials, black cumin is actively used in Arab countries, in France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and the USA. Introduction to the diet of oil cumin black perspective in the preventive and therapeutic purposes, in the complex treatment of helminth infections, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, dysbacteriosis, gastritis, enteritis, enterocolitis, colitis, gallstones, pancreatitis, biliary dyskinesia, hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, cholecystocholangitis, cirrhosis, liver steatosis. The phospholipids contained in the oil of cumin can improve the detoxification of the liver, restore the cell membranes of hepatocytes, and also prevent the development of fatty degeneration of the liver.
Contraindications and side effects
Despite its rich composition and beneficial properties, black cumin still has contraindications. Harm black cumin can have women in the last weeks of pregnancy, because it stimulates labor activity. Therefore, it is not recommended to use oil and plant seeds for pregnant women. The plant can not be used with individual intolerance. In some cases, the external use of black cumin oil can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.
Black cumin seeds, burning to taste like pepper, are used as seasoning in Arabic and Indian cuisines: in meat, vegetable and fish dishes, in canned food, in baking baked goods. Europeans also use black cumin to bake cupcakes, pies, to make jelly, puddings, compotes, since black cumin seeds have a strawberry flavor with a hint of nutmeg. This aroma of spices is loved in France, calling cumin "quatre epices" (in translation – four spices). Plant seeds are also used in sauerkraut, pickling vegetables. From the flowers of cumin prepare jam. In Turkey, some types of bakery products sprinkled with cumin seeds. Young leaves of a spicy plant are added to casseroles, salads, various first and second courses.
Beauties of the Ancient East knew about the benefits of black cumin oil and its healing properties. Today, cumin oil is popular in cosmetology around the world. The oil has an anti-inflammatory effect on the scalp, promotes cell regeneration, strengthens hair follicles, actively fights dandruff. The use of black cumin oil is appropriate for the treatment of seborrhea, the oil promotes the growth and health of hair, without causing allergic manifestations. The plant oil is present in many medical masks, hair care products (shampoos, conditioners), restores the structure of damaged hair after dyeing, permed. Black cumin oil is also used in combination with other essential oils and herbal decoctions.
In other areas
In Europe, there are up to 11 species of cumin (nigella), but only some of them are decorative and successfully used in floriculture. For example, Nigella damascena is distinguished by white or blue bright flowers among the open-cut pinworm leaves. Mostly decorative types of cumin are grown in rockeries, flowerbeds, like curb plants, on alpine hills, creating a variety of floral arrangements. The flowering of black cumin is long – almost two months. Cut flowers are long preserved in vases with water. Cumin seed boxes look spectacular in winter compositions.
Ornamental cumin seeds develop well and bloom in drained, fertile soil and in well-lit areas, they can tolerate a slight shading. Watering is needed moderate and regular, because caraway seeds suffer from waterlogging and lack of moisture.
Many varieties of black cumin are popular in floriculture: Miss Jekyll (Miss Jekyll), the most popular caraway variety, Persian jewels, Color mix (Persian Jewels), Blue dwarf, (Blue Midget) are notable for low, up to 20 cm stems, Cambridge blue (Cambridge Blue) with long, pruned stems and blue terry flowers.
Seeds of black cumin have insecticidal properties, they are used from moths to protect clothing. The plant is an excellent honey plant. Black cumin is also known as an ornamental and oilseed plant. Caraway essential oil is used in perfumery, soap making. The smell of caraway repels mosquitoes, snakes.
Black cumin (lat. Nigella sativa) is an annual herb that belongs to the family Buttercups (Ranunculaceae). The plant is widely cultivated as a spice. There are about 20 species in the genus. Some types of cumin are decorative and are of interest to flower growers.
Black cumin – herbaceous annual plant, up to 40 cm in height. Stem branched. Leaves are gray-green, pinnate, deeply dissected into linear, divergent, short lobes. Cumin flowers are large, simple or terry, white, greenish-blue shades, depending on the type. Flowering plant lasts from May to August, fruit ripening occurs in August. Each corolla blooms for about 6 days, but even after flowering, the plant does not lose its own decorative effect. Fruits of black caraway seeds are large, elongated multi-leaf boxes consisting of 4-7 follicles with numerous lumpy seeds.
The homeland of black cumin – the Mediterranean and South-West Asia. The plant is common in the Mediterranean countries, Europe, the Balkans, Asia, North Africa. In the wild form grows in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Ukraine. As a spice, black cumin is cultivated in India and Egypt. India is the main producer and largest exporter of spices to the international market. Black cumin is often found on the steppe slopes, in gardens, crops.
Procurement of raw materials
With the medicinal and food purpose harvesting plant seeds. Unripe fruits are harvested, because at full ripeness they crack and it becomes almost impossible to collect seeds. The boxes are cut, leaving long stems, which are then tied up in bunches and hung down with fruits. Then the caraway seeds are crushed, and the seeds are cleaned, sweeping away fruit residue using sieves.
Black cumin seeds contain fatty oil (up to 44%), essential oil (0.8–1.5%), glycoside melanthin, alkaloid damascein (0.1–0.3%), steroids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, lipase enzyme. Black cumin essential oil has the appearance of a yellow liquid with a spicy smell. The active substance in its composition is melantol. The oil contains saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including Omega-9 and Omega-6, 15 amino acids, in particular arginine, phospholipids, vitamins of group B, vitamin C, D, phytosterols (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, tannins substances, flavonoids, carotenoids, mono- and polysaccharides, enzymes, alkaloids, triterpene saponins.The cumin contains many micro- and macronutrients: calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. In the leaves of the plant, up to 0.43% of ascorbic acid and a large amount of carotene.
Scientists at the International Immuno-Biological Research Laboratory of South Carolina (USA) in 1997 officially confirmed that black cumin seeds and oil directly stimulate the production of bone marrow cells. And this process is an important link in the complex treatment and prevention of oncological formations. It has been experimentally proven that cumin is recognized as an effective means for the treatment of a large range of diseases, while not provoking addiction, the occurrence of allergic reactions.
In the course of a scientific experiment conducted at the Medical University in Dhaka (Bangladesh), the antibacterial properties of black cumin oil were revealed, which can compete with the five strongest modern antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, etc.). In 1898, an article about the unique properties of black cumin oil was published in a medical journal (Pakistan). Repeatedly conducted American studies of caraway, as a result of which revealed lactogenic properties of the plant. Cosmetologists conducted research on the properties of black cumin, discovered that the seed oil of the plant accelerates hair growth, and also actively fights with premature graying. The active substance of cumin timoquinone, obtained from black cumin seeds, has antioxidant properties and inhibits the development of cancer cells. In addition, timokinon destroys cancer cells, actively influencing the genetic code of cancer cells that are localized in the pancreas. According to the results of scientific experiments, about 80% of cancer cells can destroy cumin. The same component of the plant, thymoquinone, is significantly superior to the drug Fluticasone, which has anti-asthma effect. Scientists from Eastern countries believe that cumin is a promising drug for strengthening immunity due to the presence of powerful antioxidants.
Black cumin seeds are one of the richest natural sources of beta-sitosterol, whose anticarcinogenic properties are fairly well known. Cumin oil is good for heart muscle and blood vessels. The active vitamin and mineral complex of the plant strengthens and increases the elasticity of the vascular walls, reduces their fragility, prevents blood clots, lowers blood pressure, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels, and prevents the development of inflammation in the cardiovascular system.
Use in traditional medicine
Treatment of black cumin in traditional medicine is quite popular. The unique composition and beneficial properties of black cumin are widely used for therapeutic purposes in diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. In Muslim countries, the plant has gained a reputation as a panacea for almost all diseases. In official eastern medicine, black cumin is known as a choleretic and gastric remedy.
Cumin as a drug is used for dyspepsia and “colic” in children, with anemia, gastritis, to increase lactation in lactating women. The use of black cumin in the form of a decoction of seeds is advisable with increased flatulence in the intestines, colds, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer. Cumin include sedative, gastric and carminative fees. Alcohol tincture of cumin improves metabolic processes, helps to cleanse the blood vessels, eliminates bronchial spasms, is used for prostate adenoma, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, reducing high blood pressure. Cumin black is taken as a water decoction as a strengthening of the immune system and liver cleansing agent.
Oil is used for massage for pain in the muscles. Powdered ground seeds of cumin drink with diabetes, headaches, urinary tract infections, malaria. Black cumin oil is indicated for dermatitis, eczema, pustular skin lesions. Decoction of caraway helps with flatulence, tonsillitis. Roasted seeds remove intestinal parasites. The beneficial properties of the seeds of the plant are also known in gynecological practice for menstrual disorders and some other diseases.
According to modern archaeological research, the history of using black cumin oil in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East is about 3000 years old. The written mention of cumin is recorded on the pages of the Bible. Dioscorides, Pliny, Avicenna, and Hippocrates also used black cumin for therapeutic purposes. Oriental healers called black caraway seeds “blessed seed that cures any disease except death.” Muslims worship and widely used for the treatment of cumin oil, as well as preparations based on plants (decoctions, tinctures, tinctures). The ayurvedic treatises mention the beneficial properties of black cumin. Cumin in the Muslim religion was called the plant of the Prophet. The plant was grown in ancient Greece and Rome for the sake of useful seeds. The ancient Egyptians used black cumin oil as a natural cosmetic, used as part of an antidote for snake bites, to improve digestion, to get rid of intestinal parasites. Cumin black was found in the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs in the form of a vessel with healing oil, as evidenced by the importance of the plant in ancient times. At the end of the 20th century, the plant appeared in Russia, and cumin was grown on household plots.
Cumin black has a lot of popular names. Having spread to all parts of the world from Hindustan, ordinary cumin is called Kalindzhi (kalongi). The English common name for the plant is nigella, associative names are the devil in the bushes, Persian jewels. “Nigella” – translated from Latin means “black”, as evidenced by the coal-black shade of the seeds. The most romantic name of the cumin, which the British gave it is Love-in-Mist (in translation – “love in the fog”), because the plant has greenish-blue flowers that resemble mist and smoke. The Russians call the black cumin “Damascus chernushka”, “the girl in the green.”
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