Not all patients in the dental clinic ask themselves what materials are available to fill the tooth. But this factor directly affects how long the filling will last. In addition, the health of the tooth depends on the type of material, as well as the level of complexity of the process of its treatment. Today we will talk about how to choose the material for the seal. Types of seals, their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed in this article.
General requirements for dental fillings
First of all, we define: what is a filling in dentistry? This is a medical material, characterized by viscosity and plasticity, which with time or under the influence of external factors hardens in the cavity of the tooth.
There is a specific list of requirements for any kind of fillings:
- Security. The material must comply with established hygienic standards.
- Firmness – the seal should not wear off or sit down in volume.
- Should harden in a short time.
- The material can not change color, painted.
Types of materials for tooth filling
In modern dentistry, various materials are used for the production of dental fillings. Each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Some materials are offered in free public clinics, while others have a fairly high cost. So, what are the main types of fillings? At the moment there are three:
Each of the species includes subspecies, depending on the substances that make up the material for sealing the tooth.
Such types of fillings for teeth are usually prepared from a powdery substance and a liquid acid. As a result of mixing the components, a chemical reaction occurs, during which a pasty mixture is formed, which has the ability to solidify after a certain period of time.
Cement fillings, in turn, are also divided into subgroups depending on the substances in the composition, namely:
- zinc and phosphates;
- silicates and phosphates;
- glass ionomers.
The first four subspecies of seals are chemical. And the latter can harden under the influence of acid, and with the help of light waves.
Cement fillings have such advantages:
- Low cost.
- No need to use during the sealing of special devices.
- Simplicity in the technique of performing the installation process of the material.
They have such seals and significant drawbacks:
- quickly lose their shape, volume;
- need a long period of time for complete hardening;
- over time or under the influence of external factors easily crack, crumble;
- if the filling process is carried out incorrectly, a healthy tooth may be pricked;
- does not protect against the reappearance or spread of caries;
All subspecies of cement fillings, except for glass ionomers, have more or less such defects. This material is widely used in modern medicine, including in private clinics. Such a seal is not toxic. It contains fluoride inclusion, which protects the tooth from the further spread of carious areas. In addition, the material not only physically fills the tooth space, but also enters into chemical reaction with enamel. Due to this process, the glass ionomer seal is held for a long time.
What are metal types of dental fillings? These are the so-called amalgams – solutions based on metals, which have the property of hardening. There are silver, gold and copper.
Metal fillings are highly durable; they do not dissolve under the action of saliva. Despite this, in modern dentistry such material is practically not used. What are the disadvantages? There are several:
- To install such a seal, you need special professional equipment that is not available at every clinic;
- the metal slowly solidifies;
- the filling is significantly different from the natural color of the tooth;
- possible development of caries;
- Often recorded cases of itching, metallic taste in the mouth.
What seals are used in modern dentistry? Types of fillings are different, so the doctor chooses those that perform their function most effectively in a particular case. But plastic materials experts are less likely to recommend to their patients. Although just a few years ago, such a seal was an innovative alternative to metal. Why plastic did not keep its high rating among the popular materials for the installation of dental fillings?
The thing is that such a solution is quickly erased, shrinks in volume, changes color. In addition, plastic fillings often cause severe allergic reactions in patients in the form of a rash, redness in the oral cavity. In addition, such materials are toxic.
A common type of fillings are composites. Both organic and inorganic substances are included in their composition. Hardens composite material under the influence of chemical processes, as well as with ultraviolet radiation.
Staging of composites requires knowledge of the technology of preparation of the tooth to this procedure. Since the violation of any processes, the quality and durability of the seal is significantly reduced.
The undoubted advantage is the presence of a wide color palette of such materials, which allows you to perform a dental procedure and for aesthetic purposes.
Often, due to brochures, potential clients of the dental clinic for the first time become acquainted with such a concept as photopolymers. What is it really? Everything is very simple – these are the same composites or glass ionomers that are installed using a special UV lamp. These types of fillings in dentistry are used more often than others.
Today it is difficult to find a clinic that does not offer such a service as photopolymerization. What are the advantages of these types of fillings for teeth?
- Easy to install.
- Quick result.
- The absence of toxic substances in the composition.
With the help of photopolymers is the restoration of the front teeth. Material properties allow you to "sculpt" the correct beautiful shape, and then absolutely painless to fix the result with ultraviolet radiation. Thus, it is possible to carry out the procedure on several teeth in just one step.
But distant teeth are difficult to fill with this method – it is simply impossible to reach the necessary part of the oral cavity with a lamp.
Often, a dentist is faced with the need to install a temporary filling for therapeutic purposes. The requirements for such a material are low: it must close the hole in the tooth for a period from several days to a week, after which such a seal could be easily removed.
Temporary fillings crack and pour out, sit down, so they are not set for a long period.
Often in such materials add drugs. Therefore, the occurrence of unpleasant taste or smell from the mouth.
- intended for therapeutic treatment;
- seals for prosthetics.
And how are teeth filled with children?
Many parents do not even think about the fact that the child, as well as an adult, needs a routine dental check-up. Why treat your teeth if they still fall out anyway? In fact, the state of the permanent depends directly on the health of milk teeth. Therefore, it is necessary to fill the teeth of children immediately, as soon as there are indications for this procedure.
In this case, it is important to choose safe materials. In pediatric dentistry, fillings containing fluoride are used (in order to prevent further formation of caries). It is much more convenient to use materials that harden under the influence of ultraviolet radiation – in the treatment of children, such fillings are most often used. Types of fillings, which today are very popular in pediatric dental practice, are represented by glass ionomers and composites.
Colored baby fillings: what is it?
Multi-colored children’s dental fillings have become a novelty in the dental practice. Types of such materials are determined by manufacturer.
Bright, plasticine-like fillings cause genuine interest, thereby reducing fear of the dentist in babies.
Such material also differs in high durability. In most cases, it is held in children until the change of teeth. In addition, the colored filling is well polished, it is plastic, and its installation takes a short time.
What to choose fillings? Types of fillings required in each specific medical case should only be recommended by a specialist. Since it is necessary to professionally assess the situation, various factors and determine which material is best suited for this particular patient.