Cyst – This is a disease in which a densely walled area is formed in the human body, inside of which dead cells or bacteria are most often found. The wall of the cyst consists of a thin layer of cells that produce fluid and inflate the cyst from the inside. The immune system, trying to protect the body, creates a kind of barrier around the affected cells. If a cyst is not detected in time, inflammation will begin to develop, and pus will also form.
In most cases, the cyst is located at the root of the tooth. The cause of its occurrence may be the ingress of harmful microorganisms or injury. Also, the occurrence of cysts contributes to chronic rhinitis or sinusitis.
Types of cyst teeth
Cysts are of different types, depending on the location and cause of the occurrence. Doctors refer patients to x-rays, since the size of the cyst and its type can be accurately determined from the image.
Cysts differ in their causes:
- Keratoquist (primary cyst) is formed in the body due to the remnants of the shed tissue in violation of the development of a tooth at the stage of formation of the body.
- A teething cyst appears in children during a tooth change.
- Residual cyst appears inside the bone due to complicated tooth extraction.
- Radicular (odontogennaya) – the most common of all species. It appears due to complex pathological processes, and in most cases due to untimely treatment by a doctor.
How to recognize a tooth cyst?
The only way to detect a cyst is to take an x-ray. Not every dentist is able to detect it without special equipment. However, there are symptoms by which one can guess the presence of a cyst in the oral cavity.
Symptoms of the appearance of a tooth cyst in the oral cavity will depend on what stage the inflammatory process is. During the chronic stage, a person may experience an unpleasant sensation in the tooth during solid food intake, perhaps a slight displacement of the tooth or its darkening. When the body can no longer fight inflammation, the cyst enlarges and the chronic process is exacerbated.
During purulent inflammation, a fistula is formed, the infection spreads, the appearance of severe edema is possible, and painful sensations increase. As a result of this process, the patient appears unwell, headache, fever, as well as an increase in lymph nodes.
How is a tooth cyst treated?
Depending on the place of origin and the reason for the appearance of a cyst, treatment can be either therapeutic (conservative) or surgical. Under surgical treatment is the removal of a tooth cyst. If the root canals were not sealed, or they do not need to be filled, then you can do without prompt removal. Also in this way it is reasonable to treat the patient if the size of the cyst is less than 1 cm in diameter.
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Surgical treatment of a doctor is used in cases when:
- There is a crown on the tooth
- Cysts over 1 cm in diameter
- Frequent pain and swelling
In modern medicine, there are 3 ways of surgical removal of cysts:
- Cystectomy – one of the most difficult methods of treatment. During the manipulation, the doctor removes the cyst completely, together with the shell and the damaged part of the tooth root. After the procedure, the doctor sews up the wound, prescribes a course of antibiotics and rinsing the mouth with solutions.
This method of cyst removal is shown in such cases:
- Cyst formed due to epithelial malformation
- There are no teeth in the cyst formation zone, and it is large.
- It formed within 2 teeth.
- If a cyst forms on the upper jaw and is not inflamed
- Hemisection. This method is simple to perform, but it is less gentle, since during the operation the doctor removes it along with the root and part of the tooth above it. The affected enamel surface is also cleaned, and the tooth is covered with a crown to hide the effect.
- Cystotomy. This operation is not difficult, however, differs a longer postoperative period. During the operation, the doctor removes only the front wall. This type of operation is shown in cases where:
- The cyst is large, and in its projection are from 3 healthy teeth.
- The cyst is on the upper jaw.
- The palatal plate and the bone floor of the nasal cavity are destroyed.
- The cyst is located on the lower jaw, and the base of the jaw is very thin.
Therapeutic treatment of cysts it is distinguished by its duration, and consists of many stages:
- The doctor works with the root canals of the tooth. If they have not been previously filled, then at this stage pulp is removed from the tooth and root canals are processed. In case the channels were sealed, the doctor conducts the procedure for sealing.
- Due to the content of pus in the cyst, it is necessary to repeatedly flush the root canal with antiseptics
- With the help of special dental instruments, the doctor removes medicine for the top of the root.
- The doctor seals the canals with a temporary paste that has an antiseptic effect.
- Repetition of points 3 and 4
- The patient is directed to take an x-ray to make sure that the procedures are effective. If the efficacy is confirmed, the doctor proceeds to continue treatment.
- If the cyst has noticeably decreased within a few months, the doctor seals the root canals completely.
- Stamping the tooth crown.
Tooth removal by laser
Recently, dentists are increasingly used to remove a tooth cyst with a laser. This is a modern way to rid the patient of the neoplasm. This method is considered the most effective, and also has several advantages, including:
- Painless procedure. The laser does not touch the nerve endings, so you can do without anesthesia. However, if the procedure requires the removal of nerves, the doctor selects the necessary anesthetic.
- Complete disinfection of the affected area. When removing a cyst with a laser, you do not need to use additional antiseptic agents, since the laser itself performs this function.
- Fast wound healing. The laser has a biostimulating effect, so cells are generated faster. Most often, the root canal can be closed with a filling immediately after the cyst is removed.
- No complications
- Tooth is stored completely
- No bleeding
How is the procedure for removal of a cyst of a tooth by a laser?
First of all, the doctor unseals the tooth, opens and expands the channels. Next, a laser is introduced into these channels, and by pointing the laser beam at the cyst all microbes are destroyed, and the cyst seems to disappear. The great advantage of using a laser to remove a cyst is that after it there are rarely any complications – the tissues heal quickly and this prevents the spread of the pathogenic bacteria.
The cost of laser removal of a tooth cyst will be slightly higher than that of a conventional surgical procedure. But it is worth it, if only because, as our practice shows, patients are much more comfortable with the laser procedure. The main thing to remember is that a tooth cyst requires immediate treatment. This is not a problem that can be ignored.
If the cyst continues to grow after the performed manipulations, the doctor performs an apical surgery. The essence of this procedure is that the doctor removes the contents of the cyst or granuloma, as well as the infected tip of the tooth root, which is attached to the cavity. This will be followed by sealing the tooth from the inside and suturing the incision. If in the future a patient has a cyst in the same place again, the doctor removes the tooth and places the implant.
Many patients are interested in the question of the complications of a tooth cyst. First, if the cyst was not removed in time, the person may have edema, it will be painful for him to chew and bite. This is followed by an abscess, periostitis, and phlegmon – purulent inflammation, which is life threatening.
And even if the cyst does not cause you great anxiety, it is still necessary to regularly undergo a dental examination. Better not delay, but rather sign up for a consultation. To remove a tooth cyst, the price in our clinic is one of the most affordable.