Gingival fistula or fistula on the gums is a serious and acute disease. It is associated with the formation of inflammation in the oral cavity, which often complicates dental problems. Such a painful lesion on the mucous is always accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Many patients underestimate the danger of pathology, risking the health of the whole organism. But self-medication and unwillingness to follow the prescription of a specialist can result in surgery, leading to the destruction of the jaw bone tissue.
Why does inflammation appear?
A fistula on the gum is a small channel that passes through the inside of the mucous membrane. It starts from the place of formation of the abscess in the root of the teeth and allows the inflammatory fluid to come out. Outwardly, it can be a practically invisible hole or an open wound. Before the suppuration breakthrough, a compacted bag of whitish or red hue is observed.
Dentists claim that such a painful fistula equally often appears in children and adults, does not have a clear predisposition. Toddlers are brought to him, elderly and young patients are being treated. Among the main causes of pus formation in the gums are:
- Improper dental treatment in which the root or soft tissue is damaged by the instrument. After exposure to harmful staphylococci or other dangerous bacteria, infection begins to develop rapidly.
- The unwillingness of the patient to treat caries, periodontitis or other dental diseases in a timely manner. The teeth begin to deteriorate, a void appears, in which an ideal environment for inflammation is created.
- The discharge of the seal, under which there may be a gap. Microorganisms penetrate it with saliva, the process of decay begins.
- The formation of a lump and inflammation of the cyst – a soft sac at the root.
- Problems with the eruption of third molars (wisdom teeth).
- Poor cleaning and sealing channels.
Doctors note that there are several indirect factors affecting the appearance of a fistula on the gums. Constant stress, nerves and nutrition with insufficient amounts of vitamins severely undermines the immune system. Pathogenic microflora in the body dramatically activated. Any wound in the mouth quickly inflames and, without proper treatment, develops into an abscess.
Fistulas are often formed with poor daily hygiene, with not enough good brushing with dirty brushes. Bacteria multiply more actively with excessive enthusiasm for sweets and carbohydrate foods, addiction to smoking or constant hypothermia.
Symptoms of the disease
On examination, the dentist will easily see a fistula on the gum with blood or pus. It can go outside or on the inside closer to the tongue. Pathology is always accompanied by other characteristic symptoms:
- severe redness of the jaw area under the teeth, where fistula formed;
- bad breath when talking or breathing;
- swelling, which is felt when the jaw is closed;
- pain and discomfort, easy mobility of adjacent teeth;
- mucosa is slightly hotter than other sites;
- pain may become "jerking" in nature, weakening after the release of pus;
- a solid fistula appears on the gum, resembling a vial of fluid.
Against the background of such symptoms, the patient often has general weakness and lethargy, the temperature rises to 38 °. When fistula cheek only slightly increases in volume, but the inflammation can produce protruding lymph nodes from the side of the patient area.
Many of the symptoms resemble the signs of periostitis or pulpitis, so even an experienced dentist doesn’t have to do a visual inspection. He makes an x-ray to find the center of suppuration. He needs to make sure that the process has not affected the fragile tissue of the periosteum and has not turned into more dangerous osteomyelitis.
Possible health complications
If you turn to the dentist at the first signs of the disease, you can quickly get rid of the fistula without consequences. Otherwise, the patient increases the risk of blood poisoning by decay products, the appearance of sepsis. Toxins are spread through the lymphatic system, causing strokes or heart attacks, severe myocarditis and infecting other organs with bacteria.
In more complex situations, a compaction is formed in the root – granuloma. Gradually, it involves the bone tissue of the jaw or part of the periosteum in the inflammatory process. Fistula destroys it from the inside, which leads to the loss of perfect healthy and strong teeth.
Gum fistula treatment at the dentist
After examination and diagnosis, the doctor decides how to treat a fistula on the gums with drugs. If pus has accumulated in the root, it is necessary to open or uncomplete a tooth, to remove the remnants of the cementing substance. If a pustule is formed outside, it may be necessary to cut the soft tissues and put a small drainage of rubber to drain the accumulated fluid. Then the specialist selects medicinal anti-inflammatory drugs:
- pressure washes the wound with the addition of a disinfectant solution;
- processes Miramistin or Chlorhexidine;
- prescribes applications from pieces of sterile cotton wool, on which Metronidazole medical cream is applied;
- prescribes daily rinsing with Furacilin diluted in water;
- recommends drinking a course of antibiotics to rule out any complications.
Effective ointment for fistula on the gums – Metrogil Dent. It gently relieves pain and improves blood circulation in the affected area, destroys bacteria and neutralizes the effects of pathology. She is treated with gum at home several times a day. It is recommended to apply compresses from cheesecloth soaked in natural oils and infusions.
In a difficult situation, the dentist has to perform a small operation: he needs to remove the part of the periosteum in which the strong suppuration began. It is especially difficult to remove all the liquid when metal pins and prostheses are installed. Therefore, sometimes you have to remove bridges and carry out additional procedures. The last stage is the irradiation of the oral cavity with a special laser device that destroys bacteria, neutralizes toxins and promotes rapid healing of wounds on the mucous membrane.
Usually, the rehabilitation is carried out in the conditions of the dental office, which the patient will have to visit for several days in a row. At home, the doctor will explain how to rinse the inflamed gums and how to care for the open fistulous channel.
Folk recipes for treatment and prevention
If there is a fistula on the gum and there is no possibility to immediately visit the dentist, you can use the old proven methods to eliminate inflammation. For this, formulations of herbs and other useful components are prepared by themselves. The patient can follow these recommendations:
- After eating, be sure to rinse your mouth with warm decoction of chamomile, sage or dried oak bark. Herbs can be used separately or mixed in equal proportions.
- Prepare a mixture of refined sunflower and eucalyptus oil, add a spoonful of onion gruel. Put on a clean gauze and put on a ripening fistula.
- Apply a clean sheet of aloe or kalanchoe, a piece of propolis or baked onion.
Do not use tinctures on alcohol to avoid painful burns of the mucous. It is useful to strengthen the immune system with the help of natural fruit drinks from the berries, to take Echinacea or Eleutherococcus. After recovery, be sure to cure teeth from caries, put fillings and more carefully care for the oral cavity.