Anxiety-depressive disorder – a disease of modern times, which significantly reduces the quality of human life. If people do not learn to observe mental hygiene, do not master the techniques of relaxation and relaxation, by 2020 TDR will be in second place after coronary heart disease by the number of years lost due to disability.
Not by chance, anxiety and depression are considered as manifestations of a single disorder. In addition, the symptoms are so similar that they are difficult to differentiate. Anxiety and depressive disorder belongs to the group of neuroses (neurotic disorders). Neuroses are psychogenically conditioned conditions that are characterized by a large variety of clinical manifestations, the absence of changes in the self-awareness of the individual, and an independent awareness of the disease.
The risk of developing anxiety depression during life is about 20%. Moreover, only one third of the patients consider it necessary to consult a doctor. But in vain – this neurosis can be treated and corrected. Now you don’t need to go to a psychiatrist to get treatment – such disorders are within the competence of cardiologists, neuropathologists, therapists.
The most basic symptom that determines the presence of anxiety-depressive syndrome is a constant feeling of vague anxiety without objective reasons. Anxiety is a constant feeling of impending danger, a catastrophe that threatens loved ones and the person himself. It is important – there is no fear of a certain threat that really exists in reality, only vague sensations of danger. The danger of this state is that a vicious circle is formed: anxiety stimulates the production of adrenaline, which in itself forces an emotional state.
Symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders are divided into two large groups: the first of them refers to the clinical manifestations, the second describes the vegetative-vascular disorders.
- persistent decrease in mood, sharp fluctuations in the emotional state
- increased anxiety, constant anxiety
- persistent sleep disturbance
- frequent fears (feelings for loved ones, waiting for failures)
- constant tension, disturbing sleep
- fatigue, asthenia, weakness
- decrease in concentration of attention, speed of thinking, working capacity, mastering new material
- heart palpitations
- tremor or tremor
- feeling of suffocation, “lump in throat”
- excessive sweating, palm moisture
- heart-like pain in the solar plexus
- hot flashes
- frequent urination
- Stomach disorders, abdominal pain
- muscle tension, pain
A lot of people experience such feelings in a stressful situation, but in order to make a diagnosis of anxiety-depressive syndrome, a patient should show several symptoms together for several weeks or even months.
If you find it difficult to assess your condition, consult a doctor. The following tests are often used in diagnostics:
- subjective assessment – Zung scale, Beck depression questionnaire (BDA)
- objective scales – Montgomery-Asberg scale, Hamilton scales for assessing depression and anxiety
Despite the fact that at risk – people with adverse social conditions of life, anxiety and depressive disorders are very common in countries with a very high standard of living. For example, in the United States, which for many years was considered a model of well-being, 10 million people suffer from this disease. Another 20 million are defeated by adaptation disorders. In the UK, this figure is even higher. And how many people did not go to the doctor, considering their condition to be incurable or afraid of being registered for psychiatric registration! There is even a special term “iceberg phenomenon of depression”, according to which only 1/3 of people go to doctors, 2/3 of them fall out of the field of vision of doctors.
Major risk groups
In the case of general depressive conditions, women are more susceptible to anxiety-depressive syndromes. Why? Because in the field of attention of the hostess and the family lady is not only her own career and professional growth (which in itself can exhaust all nerves), but also care about the house, worries about children and their health, worry about new clothes, repairs, cars and other domestic problems.
A woman herself is more emotional than a man, and if she doesn’t know how to relax and relieve tension, neuroses of one degree or another are prepared for her.
This includes such objective hormonal changes as pregnancy, menstrual cycle, postnatal state, menopause
Lack of work
The feeling of being thrown out of the working world, one’s own financial failure, the constant search for work and failures at interviews lead to a sense of hopelessness. An increased level of stress hormones in the blood leads to the first symptoms of anxiety-depressive syndrome.
Drugs and Alcohol
Drug and alcohol addiction not only destroys the person’s identity, but also leads to mental disorders. Constant depression forces one to seek happiness in a new dose, which plunges into even deeper layers of depression. Another vicious circle that is hard to break without help.
This cannot be said about one hundred percent dependence, but children with mental disorders suffer from these diseases twice as often.
This is due to the loss of social significance (retirement), raised children who have got their own families, the death of friends and the second half, deprivation in communication. The best prevention of anxiety and depressive disorder of the elderly will be participation in their lives, their involvement in the fulfillment of their duties (for example, to drive their grandchildren to kindergarten, school, hobby groups).
Low level of education
Griboedov postulated “grief from the mind,” but in the case of mental disorders it does not always work.
Severe somatic diseases
The heaviest group of patients with depression, because many of them suffer from incurable diseases, often experiencing pain and physical discomfort. Nevertheless, the work of psychiatrists and psychologists is aimed at ensuring that patients even in such a difficult situation find the strength to enjoy life.
Ways to treat depression combined with increased anxiety
The strategy of drug treatment depends on the causes of the anxiety-depressive state. Most often prescribed complex drugs – antidepressants and tranquilizers. Some of them regulate the vegetative processes in the body, normalizing them, “shake” the body and make it work, others calm the nervous system, normalize sleep, regulate the level of stress hormones in the blood. Such a comprehensive approach gives the best results. The first therapeutic effect is achieved on the 5-6th day of medication, the maximum effect occurs on 3-4 weeks of treatment.
It is worth remembering about the undesirable effects of certain drugs:
- sedation (especially when taking tricyclic antidepressants)
- with long-term use – a possible increase in body weight
- the need for long-term use, with poor control – reduced therapeutic effect and the need to increase the dose with each cycle of attacks
- withdrawal syndrome in some drugs, the need to gradually reduce the dose at the end of the course
In uncomplicated cases, the drug “Afobazol” gives a good therapeutic effect. It does not have a sedative effect, is not addictive and normalizes the patient’s condition. He is released without a doctor’s prescription, taken three times a day on a tablet. The course is 2-4 weeks.
About other drugs you can find in the article antidepressants without a prescription.
Herbal preparations (for example, Persen) can provide a service under stress, but its power will not be enough to treat depressed well.
Such habitual preparations as Valocordin, Corvalol, Valoserdin are not a good choice. They contain phenobarbital, which is removed from use in most European countries. Its side effects and high toxicity overlap the beneficial properties.
In addition to drug treatment, psychotherapy is important. The stress situation is traumatic, but a person’s reaction to events occurring is much more important. If a person
- hard going through a stressful situation, turning it over and over again in my head
- if he is dissatisfied with the current state of affairs, but prefers to worry about it, than to solve problems
- if he has a high level of stress and poor resistance to stress
The probability of developing anxiety-depressive syndrome in this case is much higher. Behavioral psychotherapy in this case will increase the effect of treatment many times. During psychotherapy sessions, a person suffering from depression will learn new scenarios for responding to a stressful situation. Under the supervision of a psychologist or psychotherapist, the patient receives stimuli that traumatize him in a normal situation and learns to nigilize their meaning.
The main thing in the treatment of anxiety-depressive state is a person’s understanding of the importance of his participation in the healing process.
Passive medication will relieve symptoms, but the likelihood of relapse will be very high: a new traumatic event will entail a new cycle of nervous breakdown. Learning to be in harmony and live a full life with such a diagnosis is possible. Just take the first step towards yourself in a new way. Just take a step.