About sports training in orienteering
Sports training methods
For orienteering competitions are characterized by long and difficult on the terrain of the distance. To successfully overcome them, along with such physical qualities as speed and strength, endurance is necessary, which is a determining factor in the physical training of orienteering athletes. In our book, we focus on the development of this particular quality.
With the development of general and special endurance, the exercise regime can be divided into continuous and “discontinuous” (discrete). In continuous mode, uniform, variable, control and competitive training methods are used, with discrete – interval, repeated and repeated-variable methods. Let us briefly introduce the content of each of these methods.
The uniform method is characterized by performing continuous work with little changing intensity. Effective when training in many cyclical sports. The uniform method requires a trainer and an athlete to know the physiological and psychological basis of continuous running. Briefly recall them. At the same time, we will define the terms that the reader will meet in this book.
Oxygen consumption by the body during muscular work, which lasts more than 5 minutes, increases in the first minutes and is subsequently maintained at a constant level. This condition is called steady.
Maximum oxygen consumption (MIC) is characterized by the amount of oxygen that the body consumes in 1 minute. with hard work lasting at least 3 minutes. For each person there is a border above which oxygen consumption does not increase. The magnitude of the IPC depends on the weight and is expressed in the amount of oxygen in milliliters consumed per unit time divided by the unit weight of the person. In terms of 1 kg of weight, the IPC for non-athletes is approximately 40 ml, for highly qualified athletes 80-90 ml.
BMD is an indicator of the aerobic performance of the body.
Aerobic performance – the ability of a person to provide their energy costs due to oxygen absorbed during work. The result in long-distance running in ski racing largely (60-80%) depends on the level of aerobic performance. And one of the main tasks of training an athlete is to increase this level.
At what level of the IPC do the athletes train and compete?
Swedish scientist P. Ostrandt found that only that work that requires oxygen demand up to 50% can be performed for a long time. A well-trained athlete can work at a level of 90-95% of his IPC for no more than 10-15 minutes. In everyday practice, a good indicator of the intensity of the load is the pulse rate. As an example, we present the indicators of the pulse and the IPC for skiers-racers (Table 1).
Anaerobic performance – the body’s ability to function in conditions of lack of oxygen due to anaerobic energy sources. Oxygen, interacting with glucose in the blood, releases energy. The splitting of glucose without oxygen, i.e. anaerobically, is accompanied by the release of lactic acid and other metabolic products, which, accumulating in the body, cause it to stop working ,. The incoming oxygen helps to remove these products from the body. High anaerobic performance is typical for sports with loads of submaximal power (run 400, 800 m, average distances). When training at long distances, the work performed in these conditions does not exceed 5-15% of the total volume, depending on the stage of preparation and the level of skill.
When running, the athlete uses an extensive range of speeds – from the lowest to the limiting. Endurance training in continuous mode takes into account two components of the load: the running speed and the length of the course (time). In drawing up the training plans, we will further identify the following running zones at different speeds:
1) low speed zone with energy supply mainly due to fat, pulse 100-140 beats / min; 2) medium speed zone mainly with carbohydrate energy supply, pulse 140-170 beats / min. 3) high speed zone with oxygen consumption close to to maximum, pulse 180 beats / min.
With a slow run, the ratio of fats and carbohydrates oxidized in the body is almost the same as at rest (65-70% of the total amount of energy is formed due to fats and 30% due to carbohydrates). The athlete is able to conduct such a run for several hours: in the first tens of minutes the processes of mobilization of carbohydrates and fats stabilize, then a steady state is maintained for a long time, at the end of the run a disorder in the regulation of functions and fatigue may appear. During a steady state of oxygen consumption, all the body receives 100% of its energy through aerobic metabolism. Slow running contributes to the expansion of small blood suckers (in the skin, digestive organs, liver, muscles), has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. Arterial resistance to blood flow decreases, energy substances are delivered to muscles faster, thermoregulation and excretion processes are improved. The sugar content in the blood is maintained due to its reserves in the liver. Carbohydrate reserves last for several hours, because in these conditions the body spends mainly fat reserves.
When running at an average speed, most of the energy (from 50 to 70%) is received by the body due to carbohydrates. Oxygen consumption approaches 60-80% of the maximum. This run makes more stringent demands on the body. Heart rate is kept around 150-170 beats / min. With an hour and a longer run due to an increase in body temperature, the body’s thermal control systems come into play, preventing the athlete from overheating. The maximum duration of such a run is determined by the maximum oxygen consumption. With a long run, the glucose content in the blood decreases, to which the nervous system is sensitive. There is a feeling of hunger, reduced visual sensitivity, possible violations of mental functions. The orienteer does not recommend running at this pace for more than 2 hours.
As soon as the athlete reaches the benchmark for the development of general endurance, the volume of running at low and medium speed somewhat decreases due to running in training with near-critical speed. With such a run, the pulse is increased to 180-190 beats / min, the performance of the heart (maximum blood volume per minute) increases. Running at high speed is usually carried out using the intense interval training method, the repeated method on long stretches, measurements and long distance competitions.
The variable method is to perform continuous work with a change in intensity from low to maximum. Develops aerobic and anaerobic performance. One of the common variants of this method is the fartlek, or “speed game”, which consists in running at fairly large distances (from 3 to 15 km) with variable speed.
Running from slow to competitive speed is a good basis for improving fitness. Long-term nature of the load improves the cardiovascular system. The psychological effect of a fartleck with jams on terrain with varying relief is exceptional. As part of the training program, this method is used by representatives of many cyclical sports. It is especially recommended in the initial period in the development of endurance groves.
With a fartle, an athlete trains from 1 to 2 hours a day.
The content of this workout:
1) easy run-5-10 min. (like a warm-up); 2) uniform strong running – 1-2 km; 3) fast walking-5 minutes; 4) easy running with accelerations of 50-60 m until a slight fatigue appears – 15-20 minutes; 5) easy running with the inclusion of 3 or 4 fast paces; 6) running to full ascent – 150-160 m; 7) running at a fast pace – 1 min.
The described set of exercises can be repeated several times per workout.
– a natural change of tension and rest is provided; – independent, thinking runners are brought up; – forest marshy soil reduces pain in the legs; – running through soft unfamiliar terrain produces a short elastic effective step (which is especially important for the orienteer).
– it is difficult to observe and control the training; – the free nature of the fartleck creates certain difficulties for athletes who do not have good willed qualities.
In the training of the orienteer, a fartleck is used to develop endurance in the preparatory period. Various variants of it are used as tests to assess the level of endurance of an athlete. The method is especially effective in the competitive period as a means of maintaining endurance during active physical rest and restoring mental balance.
The interval method is very popular, occupying a large place in the training of many athletes and orienteers. V. Gershler, trainer of the ex-record holder of the world in the 400 and 800 m sprint R. Harbig and Olympic champion J. Barthel, together with Dr. G. Reindel developed a technique called control-interval and aimed at developing the maximum cardiovascular system capabilities . Here is her program:
1) increase by warming up the heart rate to 120 beats / min; 2) running 150–200 m with a given effort, raising the pulse to 170–180 beats / min; 3) easy jogging until the pulse decreases to 120–135 beats / min .
Time to reduce the pulse should not exceed 90 seconds. Gerschler believes that the main development of the heart occurs during a pause, in which its stroke volume reaches the greatest value. This maximum stroke volume stimulates an increase in heart muscle. Pause over 90 sec. leads to a redistribution of blood in the blood vessels and worsens the condition of the body during subsequent repetitions of the exercise.
Proponents of the interval method claim that it increases the heart’s potential almost twice as fast as by running long distances or by using a lucky face. However, the famous running specialist T. Nett does not consider interval training a universal method. In his opinion, it is only a valuable addition to others. “Now interval training is used to solve specific problems,” writes Nett. – For example, to increase the volume of the heart in the shortest possible time. However, there is a drawback in this: “it is easy to come – it is easy to leave”, because in this case the process of increasing the size of the heart is not as stable as using long-distance running ”.
Many coaches and athletes have now increased the amount of work done by the interval method. What caused this? The optimal form of endurance training is when coordination and functional adjustment of all body systems occur against the background of increasing fatigue. This is very important from the point of view of the psychological preparation of an athlete for stressful situations arising during the competition. At the same time, when using long continuous run for runners on average and long distances, there is an increasing difference between training and competitive speeds. Increased competitive speeds of long-distance running are the result of not only an increase in the volume of workload performed by the continuous method, but also an increase in the intensity of the run. And the latter is possible with interval and repeated training.
The interval method in the interpretation of today is characterized by competitive volumes and intensity. Rest between repeated runs of individual segments of the distance is reduced from full to partial. Competitive speed during a workout is determined as follows. After the warm-up, the men pass the control segment of 1000 m with a maximum intensity, women-500 m. Naturally, the maximum speed on different days and on different terrain may not be the same. Competitive speed should be 10-12% lower than the maximum.
In this form, the interval method of training is used in the pre-competitive and competitive periods for the development of speed endurance orienteering. It is widely practiced, along with segments of 200-1000 m, running at 2000-5000 m with a competitive speed. Such an intense means of influence on the body requires careful monitoring of the results of its use. Incorrectly conducted interval training much faster than any other method can lead to mental and physical exhaustion. It is necessary to closely monitor the athlete’s well-being, his desire to continue or stop training. Interval training in the 2000-5000 m sections under the guidance of coaches is carried out only by high-class athletes.
This method at the same time helps the athlete to repeatedly focus on the successful implementation of the task with progressive fatigue and relax during rest breaks.
For the orienteer, the interval method is very good in combination with training, during which technical and tactical tasks are solved, which makes it a game, not a monotonous exercise.
To relieve fatigue, it is of great importance where the Oripetirovshchiki train. A picturesque mountain landscape or plain on the shore of a forest lake, a sandy beach contribute to a more effective impact of training loads on an athlete.
The repeated-variable method consists in repeating work with a certain variable intensity at intervals of time during which the body is fully restored (pulse 90) and the athlete can again do the same work. This method is used before the start of training with the repeated method, since it is easier to transfer, because it is easier to perform a variable intensity workout than to repeat it with maximum intensity. The load is from competitive to one and a half. Develops mainly aerobic performance of the athlete.
The repeated method is aimed at the development of speed endurance and is characterized by the repetition of a predetermined distance with maximum or maximum intensity. Rest between the passage of the segments to reduce the pulse rate to 120-130 beats / min. Sometimes the repeated work is performed in series (3×1000 m + 3×1000 m) with complete rest between them. The load is from small (5×400 m) to competitive (for example, 3×5 km, 6×2 km).
The repeated method places increased demands on the preparation of an athlete and is applied after a volume workout with uniform and variable methods in the second stage of the preparatory and competitive periods. It is recommended mainly for senior sportsmen.
Comprehensive training. As an example of such a training, let us cite the “Polish running game” developed in the early 60s by Polish athletics specialist J. Mulek. In it, training is uniquely combined with “running” tourism. All classes are transferred to the forest, to the mountains, to the sea coast. The use of natural conditions is a positive factor in laying the foundation of preparation.
Running game consists of four parts: warm-ups, rhythmic runs, tempo work and the final part. The total duration of the game is 1.5-2 hours.
Warm-up – jogging with exercises for the arms and torso on the move (swinging, circular movements of the hands, throwing light stones, twigs). Duration – 15 minutes. Then follow the exercises on stretching the muscles of the legs, replaced by easy run again. A light but intense warm-up prepares the athlete for the second part of the session.
Rhythmic runs are interval runs for short periods, repeated many times in a fast rhythm, but without undue stress. Their goal – the acquisition of speed. This exercise improves the activity of the respiratory system, contributes to the restructuring of the muscles to increase their speed-strength qualities, and preparing the circulatory system to change the speed and rhythm of running, improves motor coordination, strengthens the joints. The main purpose of jogging is to increase the speed and plasticity of the nervous system. They are carried out on very gentle slopes with a length of 80-100 m: jogging – down the slope, return – jogging. Jogging is high, hands are energetic, but this is not a sprint. The jogging begins smoothly, the speed increases on the 50-80-meter segment, until there is difficulty in breathing, after which the muscular efforts are turned off, but the rhythm of the steps remains until the transition to jogging. The number of runs – 6-10.
Warm up and rhythmic runs are conducted with such intensity that energy remains for the most important part of the workout – tempo work.
It is carried out by the interval method on segments of a length of 1000-3000 m in the preparatory period and is reduced to segments of 500 m in the competitive one. The number of repetitions – 3-8. Jogging is done on rough terrain, sometimes uphill. Pulse 160-170 beats / min. The duration of this part of the training is from 20 to 60 minutes.
The running game ends with a jogging with jumping over fallen trees, jumping with tree branches, sometimes with accelerations of 150-200 m. Duration – 30 minutes. Proper training should give athletes a sense of pleasure. Its main value is a large amount of work done of considerable intensity without excessive mental stress. In the future, the individual components of the running game can be used as independent methods of training in the weekly cycle.
Reference method. To control the development of endurance is used the so-called test run. In this case, it is necessary, if possible, to maintain all external conditions (the length of the distance and its state, time of day, position of the training day in the micro cycle). Years of experience in the application of test-run skiers and orienteers of higher grades at all stages of preparation gave excellent results. In addition to determining the level of development of endurance, it allows you to make adjustments to the plan for further training.
The competitive method is characterized by competitive intensity. It also serves as an athlete for practicing selected tactics and techniques. Competitive training is conducted, as a rule, at a distance of the main length. The physiological and psychological effect should correspond to the specifics of the competitive exercise.
Each trainer has its own options for training endurance. In complex training, the emphasis is on one or the other method. New Zealand coach A. Lydiard recommends that distance runners 4 months before the main start are more likely to use continuous running in the form of a fartleck on rough terrain. An interesting result is the survey of leading US coaches: 60% of them use various combinations of large distances, run at a high pace, and the interval method; 20% add to these combinations running in complicated conditions (on sand, soft ground) such as fartleck; 20% use only the interval method.
Thus, the only difference in training systems comes down to the preference of certain methods. It is important that they do not exclude each other. It is also impossible, having stopped at one of them, to try to improve the result due to the volume or intensity of the load, completely forgetting about other methods – by the way, a common mistake, especially for young coaches and athletes.
Circular method. Significant achievements in the field of physiology make it possible to set training loads correctly and plan the training process successfully. It was thanks to the rapid progress in this field of sports science that such an effective method of speed-strength training and increasing endurance arose, like a circular one. One of the advantages of it is the possibility of strict individualization of loads depending on the age and level of fitness of an athlete. The circular method assumes the presence of a complex of carefully selected simple exercises, consistently performed. An athlete moves from one exercise to another without experiencing fatigue. This is achieved by the correct alternation of loads on different muscle groups, loads, the most appropriate capabilities and the level of preparedness of the trainee.
In the orientation training, the circular method is used depending on the goals, organizational conditions, and composition of the students. We can recommend the following types of circuit training with a predominant focus:
1) on the development of strength; 2) on the development of endurance (an exercise is performed for 1-2 minutes, then an interval of 30-60 seconds follows; 8-10 exercises on each point); 3) on the development of speed qualities (3 series are performed circle). The total time of the assignment is taken into account, and the time of the intermediate series is recorded. Each athlete seeks to implement the established program with the maximum speed. As training increases, the time spent on a particular complex decreases; 4) a combination of circuit training and technical training (the second type of training is performed. After the first exercise, the athlete receives a card and during a 30-second pause solves the problem of choosing a path to another KP or other tasks on orientation technique).
The change in the nature of the activity and the involvement of other muscle groups in the work favorably affects the ability for physical and mental relaxation. As a means of active recreation, strength training not only contributes to the recovery of tired muscle groups, but also activates other groups. During the competitive period, such training serves as a means of active rest and maintaining mental balance.
Circular training is very convenient when simulating a competitive mode using the map. Such training can be called situational. A group of athletes three times performs a series of exercises at a high pace (pulse 170-180 beats / min). In the series – 10-12 exercises, including 300-400 m running.
Within 30-60 seconds. it is required to make a specified number of movements, in a pause, select and draw a path to the next control. After passing each lap, the coach announces the time of the participants. This creates a competitive intensity of struggle, allowing to observe the behavior of athletes in a stressful situation. At the end of the course, the coach introduces the athletes to the ways of the prize-winners of the competitions where these cards were used. Such a “game” should be carefully prepared and conducted no more than once every 10 days.
As an example, we will cite exercises for strengthening the main muscle groups included in the circular training:
1) from the position of the stop crouching go to the position of the stop lying and back: 2) lifting the body from the position of lying on the back, 3) tilting and straightening the body with the weights, 4) pushing out from the stop while lying the crossbar; 7) running jumps at 400 m; jumping out of a deep squat.
Sport games. Sports games are an important factor in the training of an athlete, since not only endurance and strength, but also the ability to make the right original decisions decide in orienteering. Games improve the accuracy of movements in space, the speed of the motor reaction. At the same time, the ability to quickly make a decision in an unexpected situation with a time limit develops. Emotional games on the terrain like “third superfluous”, “salochki”, which are characterized by variable loads, are also useful. In most sports games, the average power can be considered moderate. However, the athlete during the game can develop the work of any power. All this helps to improve the body’s aerobic and anaerobic performance. However, the main thing here is the need to urgently solve situational tasks: quickly analyze the situation in the game, find the optimal action and bring it to the end. Problem solving is complicated by increasing the speed of movement. Moreover, the load is mainly determined not by muscular intensity, but by the speed of thinking. Fatigue slows down the task or leads to errors.
Games are used at all stages of the orienteer training, especially in the competitive period, as a means of reducing the increasing psychological stress.
Technique running. As already mentioned, orientation belongs to situational sports characterized by non-standard conditions. Overcoming spaces covered with different vegetation, meadows, swamps, ups and downs of different steepness, skirting obstacles encountered on the path, the athlete continually makes non-standard movements. The orienteer must have a significant “set” of motor actions learned in the process of training: the faster he chooses a certain movement, the higher the final result. Often there are completely unexpected situations when you need to perform a movement that has not previously been applied.
The orienteer must have good cross training and a great experience of running through the forest, swamp, stony ground, mountains.
The technique of running in the cross-country is individual. The main thing – to ensure the right balance between the highest speed and maximum savings efforts. The best results gives a short economical step.
The most common mistake is running in long strides, which does not produce a sense of balance in different, sometimes heavy, sections of the course. An inexperienced orienteer usually starts the competition at a high pace and runs a long walk. In the future, slowing down, he shortens the step, therefore, violates the rhythm and dramatically worsens the result in running.
Cross training takes a big place in the orientation trainer training. The technique of running is usually studied in three versions:
1) running uphill quickly, downhill – moderately, 2) running at a steady pace uphill and downhill, 3) running from the mountain quickly, uphill – moderately.
Run uphill shortened step, knees raise higher, vigorously working hands. The steeper the mountain, the shorter the step and the higher the rise of the knees. At one of the main sections of rough terrain – the top of the climb – athletes usually involuntarily reduce speed. In a place with that, it is very important to be able to keep it or even increase it.
You will seldom see an athlete with good running technique from a slope. The main disadvantage of this is the desire to quickly reach the foot by increasing the length of the step. With such a run, you need to keep collected. The main load falls on the knees and muscles of the lower legs, the hands almost do not work. Putting the foot from heel to toe allows you to slow down at any time on a steep slope. To increase the speed of running with open safe descent, you need to “drop” your arms freely and lean more forward. In this case, you must be especially attentive.
The transition from the slope to the plain also requires the mobilization of the technical and volitional capabilities of the athlete. If competitions are held on highly rugged terrain, a certain consciousness adjustment for hard work is necessary.
Running through the swamps occupies a significant place in orienteering competitions and requires good strength training, the ability to master the change of rhythm and pace. The most effective shortened step. No need to strive to run through the swamp in a power manner. It is recommended to train in a swamp run once a week at all stages of spring and summer training.