1. Sports classification. Its structure ……………………………………………… 3
2. Gymnastics, the concept and place in the system of physical education ………………. 4
3. Types of gymnastics and their classification …………………………………………………… .5
References ………………………………………………………… 13
Sports classification – the system of assigning sports titles and sports categories. There are national and international sports classification.
Modern sports classification includes more than 60 sports. The variety of sports and types of exercise does not allow to consider each of the exercises separately. This is not necessary, since many sports are close to each other on various grounds, in particular, on their influence on the musculoskeletal system of the athlete.
Gymnastics at the present stage has developed as a harmonious system of methods and tools aimed at the comprehensive physical development of people. She has a scientific theory, methodology, providing for the wide use of gymnastic exercises in different parts of the system of physical education.
The purpose of this work is to consider gymnastics as a system of physical exercises used to promote health, harmonious physical development and improve the motor abilities of a person.
Based on the goal, the tasks of the work are:
– determine the place of gymnastics in the system of physical education;
– Consider the general types of gymnastics;
– to study what types of gymnastics are sports;
– analyze the value of applied types of gymnastics.
1. Sports classification. Its structure
To compare the level of results achieved in a single sports discipline, and between different sports, a single sports classification is used.
The current sports classification includes almost all sports cultivated in the country. It is very conditional, in a single graduation in sports titles and ranks, the standards and requirements characterizing the level of preparedness of athletes, their athletic performance and achievements are presented. ”
Arrangement of information in a unified system of sports categories and titles of diverse sports (for example, marathon running
weightlifting) is combined with the scientific nature of such systematization, which relies on the statistical reliability of the established labor-intensiveness and the real terms of achieving the same rank. So, the title of “master of sports” gifted young people usually get after 6-8 years of regular and intense sports training. Actually possible deadlines for achieving the standards and requirements of individual ranks and titles are certain time points for both beginners and highly skilled athletes. Promotion of an athlete from discharge to discharge serves as a criterion for the effectiveness of the training process.
The structure of the sports classification provides for the assignment of the following categories and sports titles (from lower to higher).
Sports categories: 5th, 4th level (only in chess and checkers); 3rd, 2nd, 1st level, “candidate master of sports.” Sports discharges need to be confirmed.
Sports titles: “master of sports”, “master of sports of international class” (this title equals the title of “grandmaster” in chess and checkers). For especially outstanding sporting achievements, he is awarded the title of “Honored Master of Sports of Russia”."Sports titles are assigned for life.
To assign the specified ranks and titles in some sports it is necessary to comply with discharge standards and requirements, and in others only discharge requirements. Bit standards are usually expressed in terms of time, length, weight and other quantitative indicators. The discharge requirements are determined by the following provisions:
– take a certain place in the competitions of one scale or another;
– to achieve a certain number of victories over athletes of the corresponding categories.
Sports classification is agile, dynamic. Periodically, adjustments are made to it related to sports practice, which is influenced by progressive changes in the theory and practice of training athletes, their technical equipment, etc.
2. Gymnastics, the concept and place in the system of physical education
The term “gymnastics” first appeared among the ancient Greeks in the heyday of ancient Greek culture in the 8th century before
Gymnastic exercises in Russia existed since ancient times. They served as entertainment during folk festivals. For the first time compulsory exercise was introduced by Peter 1 in the army at the end of the 17th century.
In our time, gymnastics has firmly entered the system of physical education of people and occupies an important place in it. It is popular due to its availability. Along with the complex, even very complex, exercises that are in modern gymnastics, it has a lot of a variety of simple exercises that are quite accessible to anyone, regardless of age or gender. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of gymnastics, which along with the basic means of physical education, such as games, sports, tourism, is designed to promote health, tempering the body, educating a person’s moral and volitional qualities, restoring his physical and spiritual abilities.
Gymnastics has become today a truly popular means of physical education. In our country, every day millions of people do gymnastics. Gymnastics occupies an important place in the programs of physical education of higher and secondary educational institutions, groups of physical culture and voluntary sports societies, hundreds of thousands of children, young people and girls regularly engage in sports acrobatics, sports and artistic gymnastics.
Gymnastics is used as a means of treatment in medicine, is used as a means of recovery in rest homes, sanatoriums. In recent years, athletic gymnastics are very popular in our country. Professional-applied gymnastics is becoming more common.
The tasks of gymnastics are determined by the common goal of upbringing, which is to form a new person who harmoniously combines spiritual wealth, moral purity and physical perfection.
Wellness objectives: health promotion; the development of individual muscle groups and the entire muscular system: the elimination and prevention of functional abnormalities in individual organs and body systems; development of correct posture, gait; general development and strengthening of the respiratory organs and the cardiovascular system, improving metabolism and increasing the vital activity of the body.
Educational tasks: to promote comprehensive harmonious physical development, education of strength, flexibility, endurance, speed, dexterity, coordination and expressiveness of movements; to equip students with the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary in everyday life, work.
Educational tasks: the formation of collectivism, discipline; moral education: courage, determination, dedication, perseverance, perseverance, endurance, orientation, initiative ”.
General developmental types include: basic, hygienic and athletic.
“The main gymnastics is aimed at the all-round development and strengthening of the body, at mastering the general bases of movements, at educating the physical, moral and volitional qualities necessary in all areas of human activity. The means of basic gymnastics are: drill exercises (walking, running in various combinations); general developmental exercises without objects and with objects; floor exercise; simple exercises on gymnastic equipment; acrobatic exercises; Elements of rhythmic gymnastics, choreography, games, relay races, jumps.
Basic gymnastics, in turn, is divided into a number of varieties in relation to different groups and ages involved.
Basic gymnastics for children of preschool age (3–7 years old). The main tasks of primary gymnastics at preschool age are the protection and strengthening of children’s health, hardening of the body, the formation of correct posture, all-round physical development, the development of initial skills of personal and public hygiene.
The teacher must take into account the physical capabilities of children of this age and the whole process of physical education of preschoolers to subordinate the interests of the normal development of the growing organism. Due to the developmental features of the skeleton, muscles, internal organs, and the nervous system, the simplest types of physical exercises are needed — general developmental exercises, walking, running, jumping, throwing, climbing, balance, outdoor games, as well as the simplest rhythmic gymnastics exercises. The teacher should strive to educate children in discipline and instill the skills of organized behavior in a team.
The main gymnastics for school-age children is aimed at the general strengthening and development of the body of schoolchildren, the formation of correct posture, the education of physical, moral and volitional qualities, as well as the ability to use them in practical activities.
Along with the lesson form in the school mode of the day provides gymnastics before class. Its goal is to organize students before the start of the school day, to accustom them to regular physical exercise.
In connection with the anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics of the growing organism, the school age is divided into three periods:
a) primary school age — from 7 to 9 years old (grades I – III);
b) average school age — from 10 to 14 years old (IV – VIII classes);
c) senior school age, from 15 to 16 years old (IX – X classes).
In each of these age groups, various means and methods of physical education are used.
Athletic gymnastics is mainly done by young men with the aim of forming a correct posture, harmonious development of the muscles of the whole body, and correcting physique deficiencies. It develops such motor qualities as strength, flexibility, speed, agility and endurance.
Means of athletic gymnastics are very diverse. It widely uses various general developmental exercises without objects and with objects (maces, sticks, stuffed balls, jump ropes, rubber shock absorbers, weights, dumbbells, barbell). When practicing, you can also use household items (exercises with a chair, on a chair, with legs resting on a table, on a bed), as well as on mass projectiles and gymnastic equipment.
Currently, two forms of athletic gymnastics are used: individual and group.
Training in athletic gymnastics should be planned so that exercises with objects combined with exercises without objects. Exercises to develop strength and increase muscle volume should be combined with exercises that develop agility, speed and endurance. Pure strength exercises (presses, slow lifts) must be alternated with speed-strength exercises, and various acrobatic and gymnastic exercises – with running for short and long distances.
The purpose of hygienic gymnastics is to strengthen health, preserve vigor and high performance. Of all types of gymnastics, hygienic gymnastics are the most popular and affordable. It is useful at any age: children, young people, workers of mental and physical labor. The composition of hygienic gymnastics includes exercise, water treatments and self-massage. She can be practiced daily at home by herself, guided by methodological literature, teacher’s advice and instructions that are usually accompanied by radio and television transmissions of gymnastics.
If it is practiced systematically, it brings great benefits – strengthens the human body, improves the functioning of the circulatory, respiratory and nervous system. It is especially useful for people with weak health and elderly people. Systematic hygienic exercises contribute to the development of muscle strength, body flexibility, the formation and preservation of correct posture, increase the activity of internal organs and the central nervous system.
Currently, there are two forms of hygienic gymnastics – individual and group.
Individual hygienic gymnastics usually consists of simple, accessible to everyone, physical exercises and is carried out independently. Group classes in hygienic gymnastics, as opposed to individual ones, are organized and conducted under the guidance of a teacher, an instructor in various teams, rest homes, sanatoriums, pioneer camps, institutions, schools, universities, military units, dormitories and
In hygienic gymnastics includes general developmental exercises to increase strength, mobility in the joints, the formation of correct posture, strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and hence the whole organism.
Exercises hygienic gymnastics methodically drawn up in the form of complexes of 5-6 exercises, each of which is repeated several times. Changing the number of repetitions allows you to adjust the load in accordance with the capabilities involved.
Sports types of gymnastics include: sports and rhythmic gymnastics, sports acrobatics. These species are very popular in our country and abroad.
“Gymnastics is the most popular sport, exciting and close to young people. The inexhaustible number of constantly new and interesting exercises make it popular and tempting. Continuous advancement in sports equipment, learning new and new exercises, overcoming failures and successes, performing a number of risk-related exercises – all this strengthens the will, brings up important traits of character.
Gymnastics brings the coordination of movements, motor skills and moral-volitional qualities to a high degree of perfection, the technique of performance – to the level of skill. “
The main content of gymnastics is all-around. The men’s all-around includes floor exercises, exercises on a horse, parallel bars, crossbar, rings and support jumps. In the women’s – floor exercise, exercises on the beam, uneven bars of different heights, vault. These gymnastics all-round exercises are currently included in the program of international competitions – the Olympic Games, World Championships, European Championships, and Universiades.
In addition to these basic tools in gymnastics other types of physical exercises are used: barbell exercises, sports and outdoor games, swimming, athletics, diving, skiing and
A significant part of these exercises is used for the general physical training of gymnasts. Acrobatic and choreographic exercises, which are a valuable means of general and special technical training of a gymnast, occupy a special place in gymnastics.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a relatively young sport, its official recognition refers to 1947. It solves the tasks of general physical training, is aimed at mastering special motor skills without objects and with objects (hoop, jump rope, ball, maces, ribbon and
Most of them acquire a dance character. The means used in the rhythmic gymnastics class, the form, the content of the educational process and the requirements of the competitions contribute to aesthetic education.
Sports acrobatics has basically the same tasks as sports and rhythmic gymnastics, but differs from them in the nature of the exercises and the way they are performed. Initially, acrobatics developed in grass-roots groups, some acrobatic exercises were included in the gymnastics program. Especially extensive development of acrobatics begins in the late thirties. She during this period becomes an independent sport. According to the existing classification, acrobatics are divided into the following types: hopping acrobatics for men and women, steam room, group men and women, mixed. Recently, acrobatics on the trampoline has been successfully developing.
The development of this sport in our country is now engaged in an independent federation of acrobatics. Since 1974, international competitions have been held on this species, including the World Championship.
Along with the complex sports exercises in acrobatics, there are countless various simple exercises that allow you to conduct classes with various contingents involved. These include all sorts of rolls, somersaults, coups, the simplest pyramids, racks, “twine”, “bridges” and
Acrobatic exercises are widely represented in physical education programs. With their help, they develop coordination of movements, dexterity, jumping ability, sense of balance, bring courage, perseverance, orientation.
Most acrobatic exercises do not require special projectiles or equipment. Acrobatics lessons can be held in any hall, on any platform with simple equipment.
Exercises of applied types of gymnastics solve special tasks related to the development of physical and moral-volitional qualities necessary in professional activities of a person, as well as for therapeutic purposes.
This group includes: professional applied gymnastics; military applied; sports and applied; gymnastics at work; physiotherapy.
Applied vocational gymnastics aims to promote the development of special motor skills and skills on which successful professional activity of a person depends. In many areas of modern production from a person, in addition to general physical development, special physical and moral qualities are also required. Such training is necessary, for example, to fitter-spiderman, builder-spiderman, in vocational schools, where gymnastic exercises of various nature (climbing, climbing, pulling up, lifting, turning over) are performed not under normal conditions, but on heights. Classes give good results: students become more agile and bolder; the fear of heights disappears; labor productivity increases markedly.
Applied military gymnastics contributes to the formation of skills and the education of specialized qualities necessary for the successful mastery of military professions. This type of gymnastics is used in work with young men of the age of conscription and in the system of physical training of students of military schools. The means of this type of gymnastics include: drill exercises, various applied methods of walking, running, jumping, climbing, crawling, crawling, overcoming all kinds of obstacles, carrying partners in various ways, mastering the skills of maintaining balance in a reduced area of support, special exercises on simulators. The study of the exercises of military applied gymnastics is carried out in the open. A great place is occupied by overcoming various obstacle courses at a time.
Sports and applied gymnastics is used in the training process in all sports. It provides general and special physical preparation of an athlete, contributes to the targeted improvement of those physical qualities that are necessary to achieve the highest results of athletes in their chosen sport. The content of this gymnastics is determined depending on the content of the corresponding sport, since each sport has its own specifics of applying general developmental and special exercises. It should be said that representatives of a number of sports use some exercises on gymnastic equipment. For example: the training system of the pole vaulter includes exercises on the rings, crossbar, and rope, which help to quickly master the pole vault technique. Similarly, attention is drawn to the selection of special exercises in boxer gymnastics. Jumping with a rope is widely used as a special exercise. Football players use acrobatic exercises; swimmers, divers – trampoline exercises; skaters, figure skaters include rhythmic gymnastics and choreography exercises. Specialized gymnastic exercises are used by skiers, wrestlers, weight lifters and athletes of all other sports. ”
In the training process of a gymnast athlete, this gymnastics is usually conducted at the end of a workout and consists mainly of exercises to develop strength, flexibility, jumping ability and
The main task of industrial gymnastics is to strengthen the health of workers and increase productivity. With proper organization of industrial gymnastics, production defects, injuries and diseases are reduced. Numerous observations have shown that as a result of systematic occupations, labor movements become more dexterous, economical, and the degree of fatigue decreases. In the process of work in the human body there are significant changes that affect the quality of work skills. Special studies have established that during the work shift there are three successive periods of working capacity:
a) the period of workability necessary for an optimal working pace and rhythm of movement;
b) a period of stable working capacity — well-coordinated and economical labor movements, which allow maintaining proper labor productivity for a long time;
c) a period of reduced efficiency – lengthening the time of working operations, reducing the accuracy of movements, a feeling of fatigue appears.
Thus, based on the analysis of the dynamics of human health, gymnastics at work is carried out before work, during and after work.
The so-called introductory gymnastics is carried out before starting work for 7–10 min. Its purpose is to activate the general activity of the organism, increase readiness and speed up the transition to the labor process. Gymnastics exercises before work are used for general exposure and can be given regardless of the nature of the production: walking, jogging, general developmental exercises, jumping and
During the work held physical culture (5-7 minutes). They create conditions for active rest, reduce fatigue of long-lasting muscles, accelerate the restoration of efficiency.
The content of the physical culture pause should be established taking into account the specific type of work, the state of workers, the dynamics of their performance. For people engaged in monotonous, monotonous work, it is useful to hold two physical breaks. One – before the lunch break, the second – 1.5–2 hours before the end of the shift. Great benefits are brought by individual physical exercise pauses, which are carried out 3–5 times a day: 1–2 before the lunch break and 2–3 in the second half of the shift.
Gymnastics after work (10–25 min). The purpose of this gymnastics is to remove the residual effects of the labor process, to promote the restoration of strength and the fastest transition to another type of activity or rest. Means of gymnastics after work are simple exercises, mainly related to muscle relaxation, with an increase in blood circulation, which in turn helps to remove the decay products that have accumulated during work,
Therapeutic gymnastics is aimed at restoring health and disability, lost due to various diseases, injuries, accidents. Especially great is its role in correcting the physique deficiencies. In addition, it plays a big role in improving the general well-being of patients, in improving their vitality. Currently, medical gymnastics as a means of treatment is widely used in a wide variety of health care facilities, hospitals, clinics, hospitals, resorts and sanatoriums.
In therapeutic gymnastics, various active and passive stretching exercises, increasing amplitude, strength, flexibility, endurance, agility and
Therapeutic gymnastics classes are held in the following forms: hygienic gymnastics lesson, session (procedure) session, therapeutic gymnastics lesson, walk and
Therapeutic gymnastics is not limited to the impact on the affected organ, but pursues the overall impact on the patient’s entire body. This is accomplished by gradually training the patient and teaching him how to correctly and economically perform vital motor actions.
A type of remedial gymnastics is corrective gymnastics, its purpose: to promote the correction of such defects as deformation of the spine, chest, foot.
The success of corrective gymnastics depends on its timely and systematic use in combination with general developing exercises that strengthen the body as a whole.
Gymnastics is a system of specially selected physical exercises, teaching methods used to promote health, harmonious physical development and improvement of human motor abilities, strength, dexterity, quickness of movements, endurance, etc. The volume of exercises used allows you to work on the whole body and develop individual groups muscles and organs, to regulate the load, taking into account sex, age, level of physical fitness.
Gymnastic exercises are divided into drill, general developing, applied, free, on shells, jumps, rhythmic gymnastics exercises, acrobatic. Drill exercises (various constructions, rebuildings, opening and closing) are used for training in walking, running, developing correct posture, organizing the students and their collective actions. General developmental exercises contribute to the overall physical development, the preparation of the student for more complex motor actions. Applied exercises (walking and running, throwing, climbing, exercises in balance, overcoming obstacles, crawling, lifting and carrying loads, etc.) form the necessary skills. Floor exercises develop and improve the coordination abilities of the students. Exercises on gymnastic equipment (horse, rings, bars, crossbar) develop strength, agility and high coordination of movements. Basic and simple jumps train the respiratory organs, blood circulation, develop and strengthen the muscles of the legs, etc. In Russia, basic gymnastics (including hygienic and athletic), applied types of gymnastics (production gymnastics, vocational, athletic, etc.), sports gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and sports acrobatics.
4. The East