Speech is the most important function of the psyche. It depends on how developed, rich and correct the child’s speech is whether he can easily, openly and freely express his thoughts, learn the world and fully communicate with surrounding children and adults.
The violation of speech in one degree or another is always reflected in the behavior and activity of the child. Children suffering from delayed speech development, beginning to realize the shortcomings of their speech, often become withdrawn, silent, indecisive. Especially important is the correct, clear pronunciation of sounds and words by the child during the period of preparation for school, since written speech is formed on the basis of oral speech, and imperfections of speech can lead to academic failure in elementary grades.
Meanwhile, as the practice of pedagogical activity shows, the use of traditional speech development techniques for senior preschoolers in kindergarten does not always lead to high results. First of all, because progressive activities for the development of speech in children cannot and should be limited to the framework of the calendar plan for the conduct of didactic games. In the work on the development of speech, in addition to traditional methods, it is necessary to use other, innovative methods and forms of pedagogical activity.
As my teaching experience shows, speech games, fairytale therapy, and especially sand therapy are of particular interest to preschoolers.
It is noticed that sand games stabilize the emotional state of a child. Playing with sand, a child can express his spiritual experiences, is freed from fear, contributes to getting rid of psychological stress. The kid draws with interest on the sand – animals, letters, numbers, freely and without fear of mistake, because such errors can be easily and repeatedly corrected.
Such games are especially important for children with delayed speech and mental development. Such preschoolers are often characterized by increased anxiety, high levels of aggression, shyness, low self-esteem, distracted attention.
It is no secret that the development of fine motor skills in the hand contributes to the development of speech in the child. In this regard, sand therapy is an indispensable method in the prevention of speech disorders in preschool children.
Sand lessons are always a joint work of a teacher and children. I will tell you about several techniques and methods that I use most often and fruitfully in my practice.
The game “Draw a fairy tale.” The teacher asks the child to draw on the sand something, any object, or draws himself. For example, the sun. Next, the tutor invites the children to draw a story about the sun, drawing characters, for example, a girl, a rain, an umbrella, a rainbow and
The game “Sounds on the sand.” This game can be successfully used for the formulation or automation of certain sounds, the study of sounds and letters. The course of the game: the teacher draws on the sand any object on a given letter, for example, a fish on “P”, and asks to draw objects and name words that have the sound “p” in the sound – at the beginning, in the middle, at the end.
“Erase too much.” Good training of logical thinking, also aimed at the development of the child’s speech. The teacher draws on the sand three objects – geometric shapes, simple objects, easily recognizable by their outlines, for example, a leaf, a flower and a fish. Children are invited to erase the extra object, explain why this particular object is “superfluous” and, if desired, continue the series (for example, leaf-flower-tree).
“Rock Garden”. Children love to play in the sand with all sorts of pebbles, shells and other improvised material. I usually start the game like this: I propose a general theme for creativity, for example, the “sea”. Children are happy to lay out stones figures of fish, waves, ships, simultaneously telling their “sea” stories. Someone shares memories of sea bathing, someone plays “in the pirates”, arranging a real shipwreck. So, in the process of an exciting game, there is a development of speech, creative imagination, fine motor skills.
“My world”. In this game, the sand is not so much a material as a background for the design of children’s fantasies. Children are encouraged to create their city on the sand using a variety of available tools (colored buttons, small toys, beads, artificial flowers, shells and
The latter method is especially well used in the process of diagnosing the child’s speech and psychological development. A similar technique, called the Technique of the World, is described in detail in the book of the English psychologist Margaret Lowenfeld, the founder of the London Institute of Child Psychology.
Being engaged with children, the teacher must not forget about working with adults. At meetings with parents, you can hold seminars on the forms and methods of development of speech of preschoolers, to arrange special speech therapy workshops. This is necessary so that the parents clearly understand the level of the child’s speech development, be aware of their individual characteristics and can themselves help their children at home – to develop and consolidate the skills learned in classes in kindergarten.
Grabenko, TM, Zinkevich-Evstigneeva, T. D. Miracles in the Sand. Sand game therapy. – SPb .: Institute of Special Pedagogy and Psychology, 1998. – 50 p.
Grabenko, TM, Zinkevich-Evstigneeva, T. D. Miracles in the Sand: A Workshop on Sand Therapy. – SPb .: Speech, 2005. – 340 p.
Author: Pospelova Irina Gennad’evna, educator of the State Educational Institution No.2 of a general developmental type, Kronstadt district of St. Petersburg.
The article is posted in the author’s edition.