Noun – the part of speech that denotes the subject. The subject of the grammar is all that you can ask: Who is this? Who is it ? or what is this? What is it ? For example: girl, car, cat, pen.
The noun in English has no grammatical ending for the expression of the gender. When replacing a noun, the pronouns he or she (he or she) are used only when they talk about people:
REPLACEMENT OF ESSENTIAL PERSONAL POSITIONS
mother, sister, girl
She is my sister
father, brother, boy
He is a schoolboy.
The words teacher, doctor, pupil, student, neighbor, friend, writer, etc. may be replaced in the sentence by the pronouns he or she depending on the meaning. When people talk about inanimate objects or animals, they usually use the pronoun it (he, she, it) to express all three genders:
– Where is the table?
– The table is in the room. = It is in the room.
The noun in English has two cases: Common (Common Case) and Possessive (Possessive Case).
All nouns have a common case; this is the form in which it is given in the dictionary. In general, the noun has no special ending.
The form of the possessive case is usually animated nouns, denoting a living being, to whom belongs some object, quality or attribute. It is formed by the ending -s, which is preceded by an apostrophe: the girl girl – the girl’s bag girl’s bag.
If the noun ends in -s, two options are possible.
Dickens novels = Dickens novels
If the plural noun ends in -s, then the possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe
workers ′ caps workers caps,
cats ′ paws cats paws,
nurses ′ toys toys nannies
Nouns that do not have the plural ending -s, in the possessive case, acquire the ending -s, preceded by an apostrophe
children’s toys children’s toys,
men′s coats men’s coats
women’s umbrellas women’s umbrellas
If the object or attribute belongs to several persons, then the apostrophe and the ending -s are put after the last of them, and if each one, then after each
Ilf and Petrov’s novel a novel by Ilf and Petrov (i.e., a novel written by them jointly),
Shelly’s and Byron’s poems verses by Shelley and Byron (i.e., written by them separately)
In complex nouns, the apostrophe and the ending -s are placed after the last element
the teacher of art’s room
art teacher’s room
the sister-in-law bag bag of the bride
Inanimate nouns usually do not have a possessive case.
the roof of this house
the roof of this house
There are, however, cases of use of inanimate nouns in the possessive case
a mile’s distance is a distance to a mile,
a month’s holiday vacation for the month
a five days ′ trip five day trip,
the world’s resources, world resources,
the Earth’s rotation of the earth
Absolute use of the possessive case
a dog of my friend’s my friend’s dog,
at her grandmother’s at (her) grandmother,
at the baker’s in the bakery
Most English nouns in the plural have the suffix -s, which is pronounced as [s] after deaf consonants and as [z] after voiced consonants and vowels
pen pen – pens [-z] pens
Nouns ending in
-o, -s, -ss, -x, -ch, -sh, form the plural by adding es to the singular form; the suffix -es is pronounced as [- (i) z]
For nouns ending in the singular of -y with the preceding consonant, suffix -es is added in the plural, and
If the -y is preceded by a vowel letter, then -y does not change
Exceptions: Some nouns retain the Old English plural form
child child – children children
Nouns ending in
-fe, when forming a plural, change -f- to -v- before the suffix
Nouns ending in
-ff, as well as some nouns ending in -f, -fe, have the suffix -s [-s] in the plural
Some nouns have two plural forms.
Nouns ending in -o form a plural with the suffix -es [-z]
potatoes potatoes (several tubers)
Exceptions: photo photo – photos photos,
piano piano – pianos piano (several),
radio radio – radios radio (several),
In complex nouns in the plural, the last element changes (a noun with a basic meaning)
In compound nouns, the first element is changed in the plural.
If the first element of a compound noun is not a noun, then the last element changes
In some nouns, the singular and plural forms are the same, and the addition of the -s suffix causes a change in the meaning
sheep sheep sheep
deer deer, deer
fruit fruit, fruit –
fruits are different types of fruit
fish fish (and one, and many) – fishes different types of fish,
hair hair – hairs hairs (individual)
Nouns family and team can mean both a single concept and individual members.
The team is here. The team is here. (unit. h.) The team are well. Team members feel good. (mn. h) This is the oldest in the county. His family (clan) is one of the oldest in the country. His family are all doctors. In his family, all the doctors
Some nouns are in the plural form only.
Others, on the contrary, have only the singular form, basically, these are uncountable nouns.
The names of all sciences, ending in -ics, coinciding in form with nouns in the plural, are always used in the meaning of the singular
Phonetics Phonetics, Economics, Economics
The word police – the police in English is always used in the plural (as a group of people)
Powers up! Police have the right to arrest you anywhere and at any time.
Noun in the possessive case serves by definition to another noun following it: the manager’s signature the manager’s signature; the captain’s cabin captain’s cabin (captain’s cabin).
Noun can serve by definition to another noun in the case when it stands before it in the general case, that is, without any change in its form. Such a noun is translated into Russian by an adjective or noun in one of the oblique cases: cane sugar cane sugar, sugar cane sugar cane, life insurance life insurance, payment agreement payment agreement, cotton market cotton market, tin trade trade in tin.
In many cases, the noun is preceded by not one, but two or more nouns in the role of definition. Some of them are translated into Russian by adjectives, and others – by nouns in one of the oblique cases: home market prices of the domestic market, meat price decrease the decrease in the price of meat.
that is, if the sentence contains several nouns in a row, the main one is the last, and the previous ones are its definitions: state power system – the system of state power.
The preceding numeral noun is usually singular: the five-year plan five-year plan, a ten-year old girl ten-year-old girl, a ten-pound note ten-pound note.