In the conditions of human communication, various barriers appear in the way of obtaining information.
At the same time, micro-barriers associated with the external environment in which the communicative process takes place, turn out to be in:
- information overload (too much information becomes a barrier);
- media diversity (newspapers, television, conferences, reports from consultants and
Microbarriers – these are specific communication barriers.
Different causes of their occurrence are called:
- intelligence features of those who communicate;
- unequal knowledge of the subject of conversation;
- various lexicon and thesaurus (a set of concepts from a specific field of knowledge);
- lack of a common understanding of the situation of communication;
- the psychological characteristics of the partners (for example, the extreme frankness or extreme intelligence of one of them, the intuitive perception of the world or the assertiveness of the other);
- social, political, professional, religious differences and
Communication barriers arise at the interpersonal level: in the sender’s message, in the exchange of opinions between the sender and the recipient, in the choice of carrier (e-mail, computer, official speech
In this regard, there are such barriers as: the limit of imagination, the vocabulary of the sender of information, the vocabulary of the recipient, his ability to understand the meaning of words, the amount of memorization.
The barriers associated with the communicative characteristics of the participants in the interaction have a social or psychological character. They can arise through special socio-psychological relationships that have developed between the partners (antipathy, mistrust and
From the point of view of psychology, it is very important to find out under what conditions a particular channel of information can be blocked by this filter. It is also important to identify means that help the adoption of information and weaken the effect of filters. The combination of these funds is called fascination (from the English. Fascination – charm).
They are organized to accompany information in order to reduce its losses during the perception of the recipient, increasing confidence in it. Means of fascination play the role of an additional background, an amplifier of information, which partly helps to overcome the filter of distrust. As a sample of fascination can serve as musical accompaniment of the message.
B. Porshnev identifies three forms of communication barriers, which differ in the degree of transparency: avoidance, authority, and incomprehension. The point is that, by its psychological nature, the communicative barrier is a mechanism for protecting against unwanted information. The psychological obstacle that the recipient sets in the way of undesirable, tedious, or dangerous information can be of varying degrees of transparency.
An almost opaque barrier is avoidance. It is possible to escape from unwanted information and its influence both physically (avoiding it does not involve contact with the carrier of such information), or psychologically (forgetting information or “deepening into oneself” during the hearing).
The second barrier is authority – acts as follows: information enters the mind, but on this path it is significantly devalued through a subjective reduction in the credibility of its source,
The third barrier is misunderstanding, the subtlest way to reduce the impact of information by distorting it beyond recognition, giving it a neutral meaning.
Since the causes of communicative barriers can be concealed in the content and formal characteristics of the message itself (phonetic, stylistic, semantic), as well as in the logic of its construction, there is a need to consider such barriers in more detail.
Logical barrier occurs when partners do not find a common language. That is, each person sees the world, the situation, the problem that is being discussed, from his point of view, which may not coincide with the position of the partner. In addition, the same words in a given situation may have a completely different meaning, which is always individually personal: it originates in the mind of the one who speaks, but is not necessarily clear to the one who listens. Moreover, thought itself is generated by various human needs. That is why behind every thought there is a motive, which is the primary instance in the production of speech.
Therefore, before uttering an opinion, a person first “packs” it into internal speech, and then expresses it in words, verbalizes it. The one who listens deciphers the meanings of words, thus comprehending the meaning of the verbal message.
Difficulties arise from inadequate understanding of information. The main problem that lies in misunderstanding is connected with the peculiarities of the recipient’s thinking, because the communication partner understands everything in his own way, and not as the sender said.
Often, a logical barrier arises for partners with different types of thinking. For example, one has an abstract, logical, and the other has a visual-figurative. The logical barrier may occur at the level of operational mental activity of people. It is known that such operations of thinking as comparison, analysis, synthesis, synthesis, abstraction, are used by people with varying degrees of depth.
That is, while one goes deeper into a detailed analysis of the problem, the other, having collected superficial information, already has a ready answer. Depending on what forms of thinking prevail in the intelligence of each of the partners, they communicate at the level of understanding or misunderstanding,
Experts believe that there is only one way to overcome the logical barrier: “go from a partner”, that is, try to understand how he builds his conclusions and what the differences are.
Phonetic barrier, that is, the obstacle created by the peculiarities of the language of the one who speaks arises when the participants of the communicative process speak different languages and dialects, have significant defects in speech and diction, a distorted grammatical construction of statements.
This barrier can also be caused by inexpressive broadcasting, the abuse of a large number of sounds-parasites, language – patter or a very loud conversation. For example, experts in the field of psychology have shown that when a person reports something in a raised voice, the understanding of who is listening will be blocked. And the more sensitive (sensual) personality, the more often and quickly it appears.
Psychologically, the reason for the misunderstanding lies in the fact that all the attention of the individual, to whom the flow of offensive words is directed, concentrates not on the sense of explanation, but on the one who speaks, to the partner. And as a result, a defensive reaction occurs,
Also, psychologists advise the use of methods of personal psychological protection. In particular, one can mentally analyze the peculiarities of the partner at the time of the incendiary announcement of information: “what his big eyes have become” or “how the veins swelled. Although it will be more effective to use verbal means and say, for example: "If you speak more slowly, more quietly and more calmly, then I will understand you better." This phrase allows the partner to restructure.
Semantic barrier occurs due to the lack of coincidence in the value systems of communication partners – thesaurus,
The semantic barrier is, firstly, a problem in jargon and slang; secondly, it is caused by a limited vocabulary of one of the interlocutors; thirdly, its causes may be social, cultural, psychological, national, religious, professional, group and other features of communication.
T. Dridze uses the name “effect of semantic scissors” to denote the semantic barrier and considers the communicative situations in which this effect occurs:
- a clear discrepancy between the language tools used by the communicator and the recipient’s language resources;
- the discrepancy arises even earlier – at the stage of translating thoughts into words;
- mutual understanding interfere with certain individual characteristics of the recipient, especially the ability to operate the language as a means of thinking.
At the same time, from the fact that each person has unique experience, education, his own circle of contacts, and, consequently, a unique thesaurus, it is not necessary to conclude that mutual understanding is impossible.
In order to overcome the semantic barrier, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of another person and to use a language that is comprehensible to him in conversation with him. At the same time, words that have different meanings should be explained: in what sense do you accept a particular word. It should also be remembered that the language norms, the specifics of your language should change depending on who the message is sent to.
Stylistic barrier occurs when the communicator’s style of speech does not match the situation of communication or speech style and the current psychological state of the recipient.
For example, a partner may not accept the interlocutor’s critical comment, because it was said in a friendly manner.
If the communicator uses speech: “You need,” “You must,” “You must,” and the like, there is overt or covert resistance on the recipient. This style, which is of a coercive nature, is opposed by another philosophy of relations, which is called the paradigm of the possible: “Perhaps”, “It is desirable that you”, “can”, etc.
Psychologists advise to adhere to two main methods of structuring information (this is primarily a business area): the rules of the framework and the rules of the chain.
The essence of the frame rule is that the beginning and end (goals, intentions, prospects, results and conclusions) of any conversation should be clearly outlined, because they are remembered better in the information series.
The chain rule defines the “internal” structuring of the communicative process. The point is that the information necessary for analyzing the problem must form a chain in which messages are combined according to certain characteristics. Very important is the sequence of presentation of all information in general.
So the stylistic barrier between partners in such conditions gives rise to the wrong organization of the message.
It is believed that the message is perceived better if it is constructed in this way:
- from attention to interest;
- from interest to the main points;
- from key points to objections and questions;
- answers, conclusions, summarized.
A stylistic barrier may arise under the condition that the form of communication and its content do not match each other. For example, they invited me for a conversation, but instead of dialogue there was a one-sided monologue, which caused the interlocutor not only to be dissatisfied, but also to not understand the information itself, since negative emotions that do not allow to listen effectively, interfere with focusing and perceiving what was heard.
The stylistic barrier also arises when information is transmitted by the scientific and clerical style, which are understandable during reading and difficulty in hearing.