Dictionary of Social Studies from A to Z.
Absolute truth is the complete correspondence of the form of the psyche (for example, judgment, image, etc.) and the object of knowledge.
Absolute error is the complete discrepancy between the form of the psyche and the object of knowledge.
Authoritarianism is a political regime in which the ruler controls only certain areas of society.
Agency services are a type of contract under which the agent for a fee is obligated to perform legal and other actions on behalf of the other party (principal) on his own behalf, but at the expense of the principal.
Socialization agents are individuals, groups or organizations that provide training and help a person master roles, such as family, school, media, a group of teenagers.
The campaign period is the period during which election campaigning is permitted.
Agnosticism is a theory about the fundamental impossibility of knowing the world around us, since the world around does not exist, but only our consciousness and our sensations exist.
Addictive behavior is the behavior that consists in escaping from reality by taking various psychotropic drugs – alcohol, drugs, toxins, and smoking tobacco.
An administrative offense (offense) is an act or omission that encroaches on public order, the rights and freedoms of citizens.
Axiology is the science of values.
A stock is a security sold to an investor for money that is spent on the development of a firm, and giving him the rights to co-owner of the firm’s property and to receive the firm’s future profits (dividends).
The ordinary action is such an action that gives the right to participate in the management of the enterprise and receive a part of the net profit.
A preferred share is a share that gives the right to receive dividends of a fixed value regardless of the amount of profit, but does not give the right to participate in the management of the company.
Altruism is the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of other people.
An amnesty is an exemption from further serving the sentence of certain categories of persons (but not personally), which is declared by the State Duma in connection with a significant date or event.
A questionnaire is a duplicate document containing several dozen questions.
Anomia – a state of lawlessness, lack of rule, which exists in modern large cities, occurs in a country during a period of revolution or rebellion.
Antisocial behavior – this is the behavior, which is the commission of actions contrary to ethics and morality.
Philosophical anthropology is the doctrine of man.
Apartheid is a system of separation of white and "colored" in South Africa in the recent past.
Apeiron (according to the theory of Anaximander) is infinitely divisible.
Aporia (translated from Greek) is a hopeless situation, a logical contradiction or a puzzle.
Apostles are the disciples of Jesus Christ.
Lease is a type of contract under which the landlord undertakes to provide the tenant with property for a fee for temporary possession and use.
Aristocracy is a form of government in which there is the power of a good minority of citizens.
Artifacts are the creations of human hands.
Asceticism (from Greek “I exercise”) is the ultimate limitation of one’s needs.
An atheist is a person who does not believe in the existence of God; he is an atheist.
Atman (in Buddhism) is emptiness, God.
A bank is a financial intermediary for accepting deposits, providing loans, arranging settlements, buying and selling securities.
Bankruptcy (insolvency) of an enterprise is the inability to repay debts to creditors.
Barter is a direct natural exchange of one commodity for another commodity.
Non-cash funds are the amounts in the accounts of citizens and organizations in the bank, while the calculations are carried out by changing the records in the accounts.
The unemployed are people who are willing and able, but not able to work because they cannot find a job.
The biosphere is the shell of the Earth, it is an open system created by living organisms.
Behaviorism (from English behavior – behavior) – is the science of behavior.
Economic benefits are the means to satisfy human needs.
Bohemia is a culture of artists and artists.
Marriage is a voluntary union between a man and a woman for the purpose of creating a family.
The bourgeoisie is a class of entrepreneurs.
The state budget is an estimate of government revenues and expenditures.
Budgetary (fiscal) policy (from the ancient Roman fiscus – money basket) – use of the state budget (and it consists of taxes and expenses) to regulate business activity, stimulate economic growth, overcome a recession, combat inflation, and the like.
The budget deficit is the excess of government spending over income, either covered by loans or by issue of money
Bureaucracy is a hierarchical organization built on administrative control and backstage struggle for power clicks.
Gross national product (GNP) is the aggregate market value of all goods and services produced in a country in a year.
A bill is an obligation of one person to another to pay a fixed amount of money at a certain point in time.
The size of the proposal is the volume of a certain type of goods in the physical dimension, which sellers are willing and able to offer for a certain period of time at a certain level of market price.
Verification procedure is a test of philosophical concepts for scientific, for compliance with the facts.
A veto is the right of one authority to adopt or reject proposed decrees, decrees or laws passed by another authority.
Guilt is a negative judgment about yourself.
Political power is the ability to exercise social control over the activities of people in the political sphere.
Perception is an image consisting of several sensations.
Elections are a democratic procedure by which performers as president, deputy or governor are determined.
The highest or exploitative (in Marxist terminology) class is a group of people who are controllers in society.
The heliocentric theory is a theory about the rotation of the Earth and the planets of the solar system around the sun.
Geographical direction in sociology is a theory whose representatives believed that geographical factors influence society.
Geopolitics (from the Greek land + state affairs) is a social science of control over space.
A geocentric theory is a false theory about the rotation of the sun, planets, and stars around the earth.
Geo-economics is a global economy.
Gerontocracy is the board of old men.
Herusia is the council of the elders (in Greek, geronts).
Hypnosis is the suggestion of norms of behavior through a person’s immersion into a trance.
The global society is a modern society all over the globe, when instead of a multitude of isolated local civilizations a single earth civilization arose.
Gnoseology is a theory about the knowledge of the world by man.
Homeostasis is the process of maintaining balance.
The state is a political organization that controls the activities of citizens in society.
A civil plaintiff is a person or organization who suffered material damage from a crime and demands compensation for it.
A civil defendant is a person or organization that by virtue of the law is liable for damage to a civilian.
Civil society is a collection of people, groups and non-governmental organizations that should be able to control the activities of the bureaucracy.
Group marriage is a marriage between several men and several women.
Movement is movement in space for a certain period of time. Social movements are active groups of people whose goal is to establish a new order of life.
Devaluation is the depreciation of the national currency.
Deviant behavior is abnormal behavior.
Deduction is a condescension from the abstract to the concrete, from axioms to consequences and predictions that should be checked.
Capacity is the ability to enter into transactions and contracts
The current crowd is an aggressive crowd.
A demagogue is a person who can influence a crowd in personal, unseemly interests.
Demography is the science of population size, composition, and change.
Democracy is a political regime in which the ruler can control only the political sphere, but within the framework of the constitution.
Extreme democracy is a form of government in which power belongs to the majority of citizens and rules badly.
Polis democracy or polity is a form of government in which the power is in the hands of the majority of citizens, which rules well.
Dumping – selling goods at reduced prices in order to ruin competitors, and becoming a monopolist, the company begins to inflate prices and more than compensate for the loss of profits from dumping.
Money supply is the sum of all cash and non-cash money in the country.
Monetary policy (monetary policy) – measures of the central bank aimed at increasing or reducing the money supply in the country in order to regulate the economic situation, curb inflation, stimulate economic growth, and the like.
Money is a special product that is accepted by all people in exchange for any other goods.
Deposits are deposits in a bank.
Deficit – this is the situation on the market, when buyers at the existing level of prices are ready to buy a larger volume of goods than sellers are willing to offer.
The government budget deficit is the excess of government spending over revenues.
Default is a gross deception, the refusal of the government to pay its debts to its creditors.
Price discrimination is the sale of the same product in the same market to different buyers at different prices.
Dialectics is the art of argument.
Dictatorship is a strong power, which often means tyranny.
Dynamics is a description of the sequence of stages in the development of the structure of a social organism, that is, the emergence of more and more new organizations and groups.
Trust property management is a type of contract according to which the founder of the management transfers the property to the trust manager for a certain period of time in trust management and the trust manager undertakes to carry out management in the interests of the founder.
A contract is an agreement of two or several persons on the establishment of civil rights.
A strike (strike) is a way of maintaining administrative conflict on the part of employees, which means stopping work until the employer agrees to a pay increase.
A loan and a loan is a type of contract according to which a borrower takes money from a bank and undertakes to return the amount received and pay interest on it.
The law is the norm and the rule of behavior.
A pledge is a value (for example, gold and valuables) that a creditor can acquire in a property when the debtor has violated the terms of the contract.
Total costs – the cost of acquiring the resources necessary for the production of a certain volume of products
Mortgage – a pledge of land, enterprises, buildings, structures, apartments and other real estate.
Id is the instinctive core of personality.
Subjective idealism is a theory according to which things are complexes of our sensations, not things exist, but only our consciousness.
Ideology is a theoretical system that justifies certain values and norms.
Excess goods (overstocking) – the situation in the market when sellers offer the volume of goods more than buyers can buy.
Isomorphism is the semblance of various systems.
The social hierarchy is a pyramid.
Empire is a country built by conquest.
Impeachment (eng. Impeachment – accusation, conviction) – the procedure for the removal from office of the president of the country by parliament.
Import is the purchase of goods abroad.
Investments are the capital invested in production.
Investing is the direction of money to acquire additional capital.
Induction is the ascent from the concrete to the abstract, from experimental data to theory.
Industrialization is the creation of industry.
Instinctiveness is the theory that social processes are explained by people’s instincts.
Symbolic interactionism is a theory whose representatives believe that people exchange information, conflict and control the activities of other people with the help of symbols – gestures, acting out scenes and creating an image.
An introvert is a person whose interest is directed towards himself; he is guided in his behavior only by internal principles.
Intuition is the perception of the surrounding world by a man or an animal with the help of the unconscious, when, based on past experience and without any reflection, a ready-made recipe for solving a problem or a ready-made plan of action emerges from the depths of the subconscious.
Inflation (from the Latin “swelling”) is the process of raising the general price level in a country, leading to a depreciation of the monetary unit.
Economic infrastructure is the construction of a transport network, ports, communications, gasification and electrification.
Irrationalism is a trend in philosophy that insists on limiting the role of reason in history and cognition, where the main role is not played by reason, but by instincts, intuition and feelings.
Art is a specific form of reflection of the surrounding world with the help of artistic images.
Corrective labor is a deduction from the earnings of a convicted person within the time specified by the court to the state in the amount established by the court sentence.
Truth is affirmation, consistency and efficiency.
An inventory is a book of taxpayers.
Physical capital is equipment, machine tools, buildings, structures that are created by the labor of people.
Capital is immaterial (invisible) – it is knowledge, skills and information (patents, licenses, copyrights, skills of people, trademarks).
A cartel is an agreement between the oligarchs about dividing the sales market, coordinating sales volumes and the price level for each of them.
Category is a concept.
Castes are groups of people in the social hierarchy where social elevators are completely turned off, so people have no opportunity to make a career.
The qualification of a crime is the conformity of the crime and articles of the criminal code.
The import quota is the maximum amount of import per year from a particular country.
The social class is a large group of people who occupy a certain place in the system of social control.
A clique (from the French “gang”, “gang”) is a small group of allies who are closely knit together to achieve unseemly goals at any cost.
A Clear is a hierarchical pyramid of priests with severe discipline within this pyramid.
Coacervates are protocell, organic structures surrounded by fatty membranes.
A code of laws is a set of laws describing the norms of behavior in a certain area of activity — in the economy, the family sphere, and so on.
A collective agreement is a legal act regulating the relationship between an employer and employees in an enterprise.
A command economic system is a way of organizing an economy in which land and capital are in state ownership and the distribution of resources is in the hands of state central bodies in accordance with state plans.
A commission is a type of contract under which the commission agent undertakes, for a fee, on the instructions of the other party (committent) to make one or several transactions on its own behalf, but at the expense of the committent.
An inferiority complex is a deep, all-pervading sense of inferiority compared to other people.
The communist movement is one of the directions of the socialist movement, the communists actually follow Lenin’s example and seek to seize power without elections or cancel free elections after they come to power in elections, establish tyranny or oligarchy instead of representative democracy, and abolish private property and the market.
Competitiveness increase is an increase in quality and reduction in the price of goods.
Market competition is an economic conflict for the right to obtain economic resources.
A conservative movement is such a movement, whose representatives are aimed at restoring public order, sometimes even returning to the past, preserving the power of the old elite, bureaucracy or aristocracy, preserving traditional moral, family and religious values.
Contracting is a type of contract under which the producer of agricultural products undertakes to transfer the crop to the supplier for processing or sale.
Counterculture is a kind of culture, the norms of which contradict the norms of the dominant culture.
Social control is a type of social interaction in which the controller forces the control object to comply with the norms through the threat of positive or negative sanctions, through the introduction of stereotypes.
A confederation is a form of territorial organization where almost all powers and tax revenues remain at the periphery.
Social conflict is a type of social interaction in which participants try to defeat their opponents using various means in order to physically destroy the enemy, turn it into an object of control or conquer someone else’s sphere of influence and resources.
Conflict school is a school in sociology, whose representatives believe that social conflicts are inevitable, but they need to be settled.
Conformity is a person’s willingness to submit to pressure or threats.
Commercial concession is a type of contract under which the right holder grants the user the right to a company name and trademark for a fee.
Market conjuncture is the ratio of supply and demand.
A corner is a secret agreement between merchants or manufacturers on the temporary withdrawal of some of their goods from the market in order to artificially create a temporary shortage and increase in prices for this product, after which the scarce goods are thrown onto the market, and the collusion participants receive increased profits.
Indirect intent in the process of a crime is such an intent when a person did not want to, but allowed for the dangerous consequences of his actions.
Lending (from the Latin "creditum", that is, "loan", "debt") – is the provision of funds for the temporary use of commercial organizations for a certain price.
The creditworthiness of borrowers is the ability and ability to repay a debt to a bank.
Blood feud is the custom of the members of the primitive tribe to assist each other in the process of avenging the damage done by strangers.
Xenophobia is fear and hostility towards other cultures and other people’s customs.
A cult is a system of rituals, symbolic objects, musical instruments that have the function of an impact enhancer in the hands of a priest.
Culture (from the Latin “colere” – to cultivate or cultivate the soil) is a system of values, ideas about the world and rules of behavior common to a certain group of people.
Material culture is the material values created by members of society, from weapons to cars.
Intangible culture is a world of ideas created by members of society from altruism to Buddhism.
Purchase and sale is the exchange of goods for money.
The laconic style of speech (from the name of the region in Sparta – Laconia) is a concise and clear style in the expression of thought.
Legitimate is legal.
The liberal movement (from the English word liberty – freedom) is such a movement, whose representatives have the goal of carrying out gradual peaceful reforms and the introduction of political freedoms.
Leasing (financial lease) is a type of contract according to which the lessor undertakes to acquire the property specified by the tenant from the seller defined by him and provide this property to the tenant for temporary possession and use for business purposes.
A foreign trade license is a state issued permission to import or export certain types of goods from the country.
Liquidity of stocks or money is the confidence of buyers that they will be able to sell them at any time.
Lobby is pressure groups.
Formal logic is the science of the laws of correct thinking.
Lies are unconfirmed, inconsistent and ineffective.
A lockout (from the English “slamming the door in front of someone”) is the closure of the enterprise for several weeks without saving wages for employees.
Love is the attraction between a man and a woman.
The lumpen proletariat is a social group to which the lower classes of society belong – criminals, vagrants and beggars.
The majoritarian system is an election system in which voters vote not for parties, but for specific candidates.
Macroeconomic policy is the regulation of economic activity by influencing the level of consumption and investment, as well as money supply by means of fiscal and monetary policy.
A maximalist is a person who wants to get everything from life or nothing, he does not accept half measures.
A small group is a small number of people – from 2 to 15 people, between whom moral leadership relations are established.
Margin (from the Latin "margin", that is, "border") – is the bank’s income received for providing credit to commercial organizations, which is spent on the costs of a banker for doing business and the profit of a banker.
Marketing is the study of supply and demand in the market.
Mass is the non-creative majority of people, it is a collection of people who are concerned about the same problem, but they are not in close proximity to each other.
Matter is everything that surrounds us, except for ideas and feelings, this substance and physical fields.
Melancholic (from the Greek "molass chole" – black bile) – this is a weak type of temperament.
Meritocracy (from English merit – “merit”) is “the power of honored people.”
Mechanism in sociology is a theory whose representatives believed that society is like an aggregate of elements, each of which can be studied independently of each other.
Mysticism (from Greek – “secret”) is a supernatural phenomenon and spiritual practice aimed at communicating with the other world and supernatural forces.
Social mobility is the movement of people along the social “ladder”.
Vertical mobility is the movement of people up or down the social “ladder” during life, with an increase or decrease in social status.
Horizontal mobility is moving along one step of the social ladder without changing social status.
Fashion is the desire of the lower classes to imitate the elite.
Fashionable things are identification marks indicating membership of the elite.
Monetarism – is the direction of economic thought, denying – in contrast to Keynesianism – the need for state regulation of economic activity. Prefers anti-inflationary policies aimed at maintaining the stability of the monetary system.
Monogamy is the marriage of one man and one woman.
The monopoly of foreign trade is a situation where only the state, and not private firms, has the right to enter into foreign trade transactions for the export and import of goods.
Monotheism is monotheism.
The multiplier (in Keynesian theory) is a coefficient characterizing the increase in national income as a result of the amount of money originally spent – government spending or investment.
Cash is paper money and loose change.
Taxes are mandatory payments levied by tax authorities on organizations and individuals for the purpose of financing the state and municipalities.
A nationality is an ethnos that has managed to create its own state.
Naturalism in sociology is the point of view that social phenomena are subject to laws, inherent to nature – laws of physics, mechanics, biology, and geography.
The nationalization of enterprises is the redemption or removal of state-owned enterprises from private owners.
Science is a human activity to obtain, systematize and test knowledge
A nation is an ethnos that has managed to build a capitalist society — a common national market, democracy, private property, the rule of law, and national culture.
An incapable citizen is a citizen who, due to a mental disorder, cannot understand the meaning of his actions, only a court can recognize a citizen as incapable.
Arrears – the amount of unpaid tax.
An unfinished crime is a preparation for a crime or an attempted crime.
Minors are persons who are under the age of 18 at the time of the crime.
Penalty, fine, penalty – this is a certain amount of money determined by the contract, which the debtor is obliged to pay the creditor in case of violation of the terms of the contract, for example, in case of delay in payment of the debt.
The lower or exploited (in Marxist terminology) class is a group of people who are the object of control in society.
Nirvana (in Buddhism) is the achievement of a state of complete equanimity and indifference, supreme bliss, happiness and tranquility.
Nomenclature – this term originally meant "list of posts", and later began to mean the ruling stratum under socialism.
The noosphere is the shell of the Earth, which is the result of human activity.
Normal goods are goods, the demand for which increases with the growth of incomes of the population.
Norms are rules of behavior.
Morals are a system of taboos, they distinguish between due and inappropriate,
The accused is a person at the trial stage.
A bond is a security document certifying that its owner lent a certain amount of money to a firm or state and has the right to receive it back along with some premium.
Exchange theory in sociology is a theory whose representatives believed that in the process of social interaction people exchange goods, services, information, and thanks before they enter into social interaction, people weigh future rewards and costs.
Society is a progressively developing system consisting of groups and organizations, which is built on the relationship of conflict and control between people.
The customs of the people – this is the moral norms that distinguish between correct and offensive.
Mandatory work is the performance of free socially useful work by a convicted person in his / her free time.
Restraint of liberty is the maintenance of a convicted person who is over 18 years old, in a special institution without isolation from the public under the conditions of his supervision.
Oligarchy is a form of government where the power is in the hands of few and unworthy citizens – oligarchs.
Homonyms are words that have not one, but two or more meanings.
Opposition parties are those that lost in the last election.
The exit poll, or exit poll, is an informal proposal for those who have voted to record their choice to monitor the actions of the election commission.
An organization is a system of interconnected and specialized statuses. Organicism in sociology is a theory whose representatives believe that society and the organism are similar to each other.
Orthodoxy is the desire of some scientists for backwardness.
A convict is a person after a court conviction.
Ostracism is the extreme sanction of the group, expressed in refusal to speak, bullying, persecution.
An open system is a system that has an entrance and an exit, exchanges substance and energy with the environment and maintains internal balance.
Relative truth is a partial correspondence of the form of the psyche and the object of knowledge.
Okhlokratiya (from the Greek Ohlos – the crowd) – this is the power of the crowd, rabble, gangsters.
Sensation is the most elementary form of sensory cognition.
Memory is a person’s ability to save and reproduce the received information to a wound.
Pan-Slavism is a cultural and political movement among the Slavic peoples, which is based on ideas about the ethnic and linguistic community of the Slavs, the need for their political association.
Punks (from the English. Punk – scum, scum) – counterculture, a characteristic feature of which is the love of fast and energetic rock music (punk rock) and freedom, protest against the establishment, conservatism, authoritarianism, nationalism and radical capitalism, as well as commitment ideals of anti-racism and anti-fascism
Paradigm (from the Greek – "sample", "template") is a scientific principle, model or model for conducting a study or a scientific formula.
Parliament is a legislative body.
A parliamentary republic is a state where the government bears full responsibility for its activities before parliament.
A party is an organization created to win elections and master government leadership.
Passionality is passion, the will to live, strength of character.
Patriarchal marriage is a form of marriage where a husband has more power over other family members,
Pacifism is the pursuit of peace and the prohibition of war.
The fundamental principle in ancient Greek physics is that of which everything consists.
Peripatetics (from the Greek “strolling”) is a school in Greek philosophy to which the disciples of Aristotle belonged.
A permanent revolution is a global, continuous revolution along the chain in different countries.
Plagiarism is the “theft” of ideas in science.
A tribe is an ethnos that has managed to streamline the reproduction of people, exclude cases of the appearance of children with hereditary diseases caused by incest and create their own dialect, customs, conquer their territory.
Pluralism is ideological diversity.
Acquisition – buying competing firms that knock the price of a monopolist.
The suspect is the person at the investigation stage.
Contracting is a type of contract, under the terms of which the contractor undertakes to perform work on the instructions of the other party (customer) for a fee.
Polyandry is a marriage of one woman and several men.
Polygyny is a marriage of one man and several women.
Polytheism is polytheism.
Political science is the science of the political structure of society.
A pardon is an exemption from further serving the sentence, which the president announces to individuals.
Concept is the designation and name of things.
Understandings are citizens who are not interested in a lawsuit, who are called by an investigator in the amount of not less than 2 people during the search and inspection.
A victim is a person who has been harmed by the crime.
Customs duties are taxes in favor of the state, collected from the owner of the goods when he crosses the border in order to sell the goods within the country.
Law is a system of norms and rules of behavior established by the state, the execution of which is ensured by the force of state coercion.
The rule of law is a state where the law rules, and not an official, where even the official, even the president of the country is obliged to abide by the law.
Ownership is the right to own, use and dispose of your property.
Legal capacity is the ability to have rights, it occurs at the time of birth of a person and disappears at the time of death.
The ruling parties are those that won the last election.
Pragmatism is a philosophical theory, from the point of view of which, thought is true to the extent that faith in it is beneficial for our life.
Entrepreneurial activity is an independent activity aimed at systematically obtaining profits from the sale of goods or the provision of services.
Representation is an image of a subject previously perceived or created by the imagination.
A presidential republic is a state where the president who wins the general election is the head of the executive branch and the legislative power is concentrated in the hands of the parliament.
A crime is a socially dangerous act provided for by criminal law.
Profit is the excess of the amount of income from the sale of goods over the sum of the costs of producing these goods.
Privatization is the transfer of state property to private ownership through the sale at an auction of state enterprises into the hands of private owners.
Progress is a complication, the appearance of new links and elements in the system.
Progressive income tax is a tax that is collected according to the principle: the greater the amount of income of the taxpayer, the greater the percentage of income tax charged by the tax authorities.
The cost of living is a “basket” of products and clothing that provide a person with the necessary minimum for simple survival.
Labor productivity is the quantity of goods produced per unit of time.
The arbitrariness is illegal actions of the authorities.
Rental is a contract under the terms of which the landlord undertakes to provide movable property to the tenant for temporary possession and use.
The proletariat (in Marxist terminology) is the class of wage workers.
A proportional system is an election system that determines the rating of political forces, in proportion to which seats in parliament are distributed.
Protectionism is a policy of protecting domestic producers from competition from foreign producers.
Surplus – is the excess of income over expenditure in the state budget
Interest rate – fee charged for the money provided on credit.
Direct tax is a fee to the state, charged from every citizen or organization. Direct intent in the process of crime is that the person wanted to achieve the dangerous consequences of their actions.
Psychologism in sociology is a trend whose representatives believe that the laws of society can be reduced to the laws of psychology.
Development is a complication or simplification of the system.
A revolution (from the Latin revolution – a turn, a change) is a social way of changing the social structure, in which innovations are often carried out from below through mass riots or armed seizure of power, this is a process when one social group takes away political power from another social group
Regression is a simplification of the system, the disappearance of some links and elements from it.
Reincarnation – the myth of the transmigration of souls.
Raiding is a forceful seizure of a competing enterprise with the help of criminals.
Rating is the level of popularity.
Rent is a type of contract when one party (the recipient of the rent) transfers the property to the other party, and the rent payer undertakes to pay the rent periodically in the form of a certain amount of money.
A respondent is a person to whom questions of a sociological questionnaire are addressed.
A referendum is a popular vote on any issue.
The reform (from the Latin reformo – I transform) is social – this is the way to develop the social structure in which innovations are conducted from above, by the government, in a peaceful way.
Recession (from Latin recessus – retreat) in the economy is a moderate decline in production, characterized by zero growth in gross national product or its decline over more than half a year, recession is one of the phases of the economic cycle following the boom and alternating depression
Rigidity is the inability of a person to adapt to new people or to a new environment,
Ritor is a teacher of oratory.
Rhetoric is the science of eloquence.
The social role is the behavior expected from someone who has a certain social status.
The stock market is a stock market.
A ruble is a legal means of payment throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
Self-realization is the highest desire of a person to realize his talents and abilities.
Sanguine (from the Latin "sanguie" – blood) is a strong, balanced, mobile type of temperament.
A sanction is a reward or punishment, so sanctions can be positive or negative.
Sansara (in Buddhism) is a circle of rebirths in the process of reincarnation.
Savings are a part of income not spent on consumption that can be used for investments.
A fee is a mandatory fee charged to organizations and individuals in exchange for the issuance of rights or permits.
Political freedom is the absence of arbitrariness of the authorities.
Transactions are the actions of citizens and legal entities to establish, amend or terminate civil rights and obligations
Segregation is the separation of African-Americans from whites in the southern states of the United States in the recent past.
A family is a group of people based on kinship, marriage or adoption, connected by common life and responsibility for raising children.
The Senate is the legislative assembly of aristocrats in ancient Rome.
Symbols – this is all that carries a special meaning, recognized by people of the same culture.
The system is the sum of the elements and the connections between them.
A political system is an open, developing system that consists of elements such as a government, parliament or other legislative body, political parties, army, court, police, and bureaucracy.
Skinheads – skinhead culture (from English skinheads).
Layers are groups of people in the social hierarchy, where social “filters” do not create any artificial obstacles for those who want to make a career; the only condition for this is the applicant’s talent and financial means.
Estates are groups of people in the social hierarchy, where strict “filters” severely restrict social mobility and slow down the movement of “elevators”.
Sophists (from Greek sofos – wisdom) are paid teachers to think, prove and speak beautifully.
Social Darwinism is a theory whose representatives believe that the mechanism of social evolution is no different from the mechanism of biological evolution, therefore the strongest survives in society.
Socialization is learning to play social roles.
The socialist movement is such a movement, whose representatives promise to improve the position of wage workers, they have achieved the introduction of benefits for poverty, old age, disability and unemployment.
Sociometry is a method for identifying the composition of small groups and person leaders.
Speechwriters are people who write speeches for too busy politicians.
Rush demand is a demand that arises in case of fears of a rapid rise in prices, when people take any goods for the future.
The middle class is a group of people who are outside the control system or occupy an intermediate position in the social control system.
Stagflation period is a period when prices are rising extremely fast and at the same time there is a decline in production.
Statics is a social structure or anatomy of a social organism at a given historical moment, as a system of organizations that resemble organs in the body.
Social status is the position of a person in society; this status has an appropriate list of rights and obligations.
A stereotype is a role model that is embedded in people’s minds through the media and culture.
Cost is the amount of money that is paid or received when buying or selling a product.
Strata are social strata.
Social stratification is a stratification of society.
Streaming (from English stream – stream, stream) – this system of sorting students in Britain into four streams, depending on success in school (on test results).
The social structure is a system of social groups and organizations, roles and statuses.
Shame is a painful feeling that other people do not approve of our actions.
State sovereignty is the independence of one country from other countries.
Suicide is suicide
Sublimation is a way to get rid of anxiety through the safe release of energy through other channels (through playing sports, art, politics, and so on)
A judgment is the affirmation or negation of the connection between two concepts.
Subculture is a kind of culture, the norms of which do not contradict, but differ from those of the dominant culture.
Superego – is the moral side of the personality, which is acquired in the process of socialization, that is, learning.
Scholasticism (from the Greek "school philosophy") is a medieval philosophy, like a synthesis of Christian theology and logic of Aristotle, it is a philosophy that sought to find common ideas – universals, and from them to deduce and explain all the richness of the surrounding world
Taboo – a strict ban on primitive people.
Tautology is a circle in the definition.
Theocracy is a form of government in which the church controls the government, it is the power of the priests.
Theology (theology) is the theoretical basis for the existence of God and the human soul.
The theory of rational expectations is the anti-Keynesian direction of economic thought, it justifies the senselessness of state intervention in the work of the market mechanism in order to regulate economic activity.
Technocrats are people who believe that the development of technology will solve all environmental, economic and other problems,
Technological determinism is a trend in sociology, whose representatives believe that technology develops independently of the will of man according to the law of endless improvement of technical parameters.
Technophobes are people who believe that humanity will die from technology, for example from a bad environment or as a result of a war of people against robots, so you need to break the equipment or escape from it to an uninhabited island.
Timocracy – the power of the military.
Tyranny is a form of government in which the power is held by one person who abuses his position for vested interests.
The product is a subject for exchange for other goods.
Prestigious products are products that people use to demonstrate their success in life.
Products of the lowest category are such goods, the demand for which may decrease with an increase in buyers’ income, these are goods for the poor.
Goods of inelastic demand are such goods, the demand for which increases less than the price of this product decreases.
Elastic demand goods are such goods, the demand for which increases more than the price of this product decreases.
A crowd is a large number of people facing the face.
Trade is a voluntary exchange of goods and services for money in the form of purchase and sale.
Totalitarianism is a political regime in which the ruler controls all spheres of society
Trusts are associations of various enterprises in order to coordinate among themselves the volumes of raw material purchases, the conditions for obtaining financial resources, and the sales volumes of goods.
Labor is the activity of people in the production of economic goods.
An employment contract is an agreement between an employee and an employer, according to which the employee undertakes to perform work in a particular specialty, and the employer undertakes to pay wages and ensure good working conditions.
Inference is the derivation of a new knowledge, a new judgment from two or more initial judgments.
A unitary state is a form of territorial organization where the entire amount of taxes collected in the country and all powers are concentrated in the center.
Urbanization is the creation of cities and the relocation of a significant part of the population there from the countryside.
Services are employment based on employment or in exchange for goods.
Utopia is social (in translation from Greek it is “a place that does not exist”). – This is an impossible dream, a fairy tale for adults about social order, a false theory that calls for a regression of the social structure and the violent abolition of great social inventions.
Utopians are thinkers who justified the possibility of building a utopia in the future.
Factors of production are the resources used by people to create life benefits.
A fanatic is a person who blindly believes in an outwardly attractive idea and ignores all the facts and arguments that contradict this idea.
A federation is a form of territorial arrangement where powers and tax revenues are divided as a result of a budget agreement into three parts between the center, the state, and the city.
Ancient Greek physics is the study of nature and the search for the fundamental principle of all things, that is, of what everything consists of.
Physiocrats are such economists who believed that the only source of wealth is nature, therefore, the more a nation produces agricultural products, the richer it is.
Individuals are individual citizens. Philosophy is translated as love of wisdom.
A firm or enterprise is an organization that produces goods for sale.
Phlegmatic (from the Greek "phlegm" – mucus) is a strong, balanced, inert ("inhibitory") type of temperament.
Phobias are fear and anxiety.
Folklore is a folk culture.
The form of government is a form of supreme power in the country.
Formal logic is the science of right thinking.
Formations are stages in the development of society.
The phratries are the original genera, which later broke up into secondary genera.
Functionalism is a theory whose representatives believe that every organization, every custom, idea or belief has a function in society.
Charisma is a leader’s ability to instill faith that he can perform miracles, that he is a god or a “wizard”; this is grace, the gift of God, the gift of miracles and prophecy.
Natural economy is an economy without the exchange of goods and trade.
Choleric (from Greek “chole” – yellow bile) is a strong, unbalanced, with a predominance of arousal type of temperament.
Industry holdings are buying a controlling stake in competing firms, which allows them to negotiate sales volumes and prices.
The kingdom is a form of government in which one eminent person has power.
Property qualification is the minimum limit of a person’s condition in monetary terms, which allows you to take a position.
Censorship is a state organization that monitors the media, art and science in order to ban criticism of the dominant ideology.
The equilibrium price is the price that allows you to sell the entire volume of goods that manufacturers are willing to offer at that price.
A security paper is a document certifying property rights.
Values are fundamental norms and requirements (imperatives) in society about dignity, beauty, piety, these are cultural standards of good and bad.
Civilization is a society built on a specific set (list) of great social inventions. One civilization differs from another civilization by a set (list) of these inventions.
The cycle in the development of society is the alternation of progress and regress.
A check is a monetary document containing a written order to the bank to pay a certain amount of money to the beneficiary at the expense of the money on the account of the drawer.
Man is a rational animal with the ability to engage in instrumental activity, oral speech and abstract thinking.
Finks (from the German “breaking strike”) are temporary workers who agree to work for the same pay instead of the strikers, for which the strikers considered them traitors.
An egalitarian family is a family where power and rights are almost equally divided between husband and wife.
The ego is a rational part of the personality whose task is to draw up a real plan of action in accordance with the limitations of the outside world in order to satisfy the requirements of instincts, on the one hand, and to ensure its security on the other.
Selfishness is the desire to love only oneself, not other people.
Existentialism (from the English existence – “existence”) is a direction in the Western philosophy of the 20th century. From the point of view of which, a person is internally free from technology and economics, he searches for the meaning of life in this meaningless world, this meaning of life is revealed to man in the period of deep shocks.
A forwarding transport is a type of contract under which the forwarder undertakes to perform the following services for a fee: receiving documents, sending and receiving goods, performing customs formalities, loading and unloading.
Economy is 1), (household) a way of organizing people’s activities to create the goods they need for consumption, 2) science that studies the behavior of participants in a process of economic activity.
Economic growth is the growth of gross national product.
The economic cycle is a regular change in the phases of rise and fall in the level of business activity in a market economy.
Export is the sale of goods abroad.
An expressive crowd is a dancing crowd that forms when religious sects arise.
An extrovert is a person whose interest is directed outwardly, he is guided by external circumstances and public opinion.
Political extremism is movements and organizations that have the goal of seizing power without elections.
The elite is a layer of the best people who occupy the status of controllers in society.
An embargo is a ban on trade in your country for entrepreneurs from another country in order to force this country to make certain concessions.
The issue of money is the issuance of an additional amount of money in circulation.
Ethics are reasoning about morals, about what is good and what is bad.
Ethnos is a group of people related by blood.
Ethnocentrism is the desire to judge other cultures from the standpoint of the superiority of their own culture.
Economic efficiency is a way of organizing production, at which production costs are minimal.
Effective demand is the effective demand for goods and services for consumer and industrial purposes.
A legal entity is an organization that owns property and is liable for its obligations with this property, it can enter into contracts and transactions, bear obligations, be a plaintiff and a defendant.
Language is a means of transmitting culture using symbols.