In this section, we will try to consider types of research, as well as existing types of research projects of schoolchildren of general education and pre-school institutions with the aim of more accurately defining the goals and objectives of the work.
Research works are also divided into types of research works or types of research projects, such definitions and differences in types must be known and understood at the preparatory stage of research activities.
The types and types of educational work listed below apply to research projects and projects of students (schoolchildren, students).
Types of student research and projects
There are three main types of research:
2 Experimental work. The basis of your research work is an experiment. It must be remembered that the experiment involves not just observation, but observation with variable conditions. The result is the conclusions made on the basis of the analysis of the data obtained during the experiment.
There are also experimental works performed on the basis of an experiment already described in science and having a known result. Such works are more illustrative in nature, they imply an independent interpretation of the results depending on changes in the initial conditions.
Three types of experiments are distinguished:
- Natural experiment. Monitoring the object at home or in natural conditions for the object.
- Laboratory experiment. This is the most common type of experimental work. The result is the data obtained in the experiment, which are placed in the form of tables, diagrams, graphs and then analyzed, compared and draw conclusions.
- Computational experiment. Due to the high development of information technology, students have the opportunity to demonstrate their level of proficiency in various computer programs. You can write a program that simulates a phenomenon and conduct a study based on this program. Sometimes a study of any dependence is carried out with the help of mathematical applications and finished programs. You can create an animation of a phenomenon.
3 Theoretical and experimental work. This is the highest level of research. The experiment is preceded by a theoretical calculation. The experiment should confirm or refute the theoretical results you obtained. Maybe the opposite. First, you conduct an experiment, and then confirm the results with a theoretical calculation.
Types of student research and projects
In accordance with the method and method of research that dominates the work, the following types of student research projects can be distinguished:
one. Problem-abstract work (descriptive) – analytical comparison of data from various sources in order to highlight the problem and design solutions to it.
A variety of problem-abstract work is comparative in which work is carried out with the source, comparison and conclusion.
2 Analytical work (naturalistic-descriptive) – observation, fixation, analysis, systematization of quantitative and qualitative indicators of the objects, processes or phenomena under study.
One of the varieties of analytical and systematizing work is naturalistic descriptive work, directed to the observation and qualitative description of any phenomenon or object. May have an element of scientific novelty.
A distinctive feature is the lack of a correct research methodology. One of the varieties of naturalistic works are works of social and environmental orientation.
3 Problem search work – search for information, interviews, interviews, collecting opinions, studying archival documents, media, participation in expeditions, analysis.
four. Diagnostic and prognostic work – the study, tracking, explanation and prediction of qualitative and quantitative changes in the studied phenomena, processes or systems.
five. Invention and innovation work – improvement of existing and design of new devices, mechanisms, devices.
6 Experimental research (experimental work) – test assumptions about the confirmation or refutation of the hypothesis experimentally, by experiment.
7 Design and research work – formulation of the problem and ideas, expertise, implementation of a real project.
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