Two main types of personality tests:

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Kuhn test. Test “Who am I?” Test of twenty sayings. (

Scales: self-esteem; social, communicative, material, physical, active, perspective, reflexive self

Test assignment

The test is used to study the substantive characteristics of personal identity. The question “Who am I?” Is directly related to the characteristics of a person’s own perception of himself, that is, with his image of “I” or I-concept.

Two main types of personality tests:

Instructions for the test

“Within 12 minutes you need to give as many answers as possible to one question that relates to you:“ Who am I? ”. Try to give as many answers as possible. Each new answer begins with a new line (leaving some space from the left edge of the sheet). You can answer as you like, record all the answers that come to your mind, because there are no right or wrong answers in this task.

It is also important to notice what emotional reactions you have during the course of this assignment, how difficult or easy it was for you to answer this question. ”

When a client finishes answering, they are asked to perform the first stage of processing the results – a quantitative one:

“Number all the individual responses you made — characteristics. To the left of each answer, put its serial number. Now each of its individual characteristics rate on a four-digit system:

• “+” – the “plus” sign is placed if you personally like this characteristic; • “-” – “minus” sign – if, in general, you personally do not like this characteristic; • “±” – “plus or minus” sign – if you like this characteristic and do not like it at the same time; • “?” – “question” sign – if you do not know at the moment, how exactly you feel about the characteristic, you do not yet have a definite assessment of the answer being considered.

The mark of your assessment must be placed to the left of the number of characteristics. You may have marks of all types of marks, or of just one or two or three marks.

After you evaluate all the features, summarize:

• how many answers were received, • how many answers of each sign ”.

Processing and interpretation of test results

How to analyze identity self-esteem?

Self-esteem It is an emotional and evaluative component of the self-concept. Self-esteem reflects the attitude towards oneself as a whole or towards separate aspects of one’s personality and activity.

Self-esteem may be adequate and inadequate.

The adequacy of self-esteem expresses the degree of compliance of a person’s ideas about himself with the objective grounds of these ideas.

The level of self-esteem expresses the degree of real, ideal or desired ideas about yourself.

Self-esteem of identity is determined by the ratio of the number of assessments "+" and "-", which turned out when evaluating each of their answers to the subjects (client) at the stage of quantitative processing.

Self-esteem is considered adequate, if the ratio of positively assessed qualities to negatively assessed (“+” to “-”) is 65-80% for 35-20%.

Adequate self-esteem consists in the ability to realistically recognize and evaluate both your strengths and weaknesses, behind it stands a positive attitude towards yourself, self-esteem, self-acceptance, a sense of your own worth.

Also, adequate self-esteem is expressed in the fact that a person sets goals and tasks that are achievable and correspond to his own capabilities, can take responsibility for his failures and successes, is self-confident, capable of vital self-realization.

Self-confidence allows a person to regulate the level of claims and properly assess their own capabilities in relation to various life situations.

A person with adequate self-esteem freely and naturally behaves among people, knows how to build relationships with others, is satisfied with himself and others. Adequate self-esteem is a necessary condition for the formation of confident sex-role behavior.

There are inadequate overestimated self-esteem – overestimation of oneself as a subject and inadequate underestimated self-esteem – underestimation of oneself as a subject.

Inadequate self-esteem indicates an unrealistic assessment of the person himself, reducing the criticality in relation to their actions, the words, while often the opinion of himself in a person is at odds with the opinion of others.

Self-esteem is considered inadequately overpriced, if the number of positively evaluated qualities in relation to negatively evaluated (“+” to “-”) is 85-100%, that is, the person notes that he has no flaws, or their number reaches 15% (of the total number “+” and "-").

People with high self-esteem, on the one hand, hypertrophically assess their merits: overestimate and attribute them, on the other hand, they underestimate and exclude disadvantages. They set themselves higher goals than those that they can actually achieve, they have a high level of aspirations, not corresponding to their real capabilities.

A person with high self-esteem is also characterized by the inability to assume responsibility for his failures, is distinguished by arrogant attitude towards people, conflict, constant dissatisfaction with his achievements, and egocentrism. Inadequate self-esteem of their capabilities and an overestimated level of aspirations cause excessive self-confidence.

Self-esteem is considered to be inadequately underestimated, if the number of negatively assessed qualities in relation to positively assessed (“-” to “+”) is 50-100%, that is, the person notes that he has no virtues, or their number reaches 50% ( the total number of "+" and "-").

People with low self-esteem usually set themselves lower goals than those they can achieve, exaggerating the value of failures. After all, low self-esteem implies non-acceptance of oneself, self-denial, and a negative attitude toward one’s personality, which are caused by an underestimation of one’s success and merit.

With low self-esteem, a person is characterized by another extreme, the opposite of self-confidence – excessive self-doubt. Uncertainty, often objectively unjustified, is a stable quality of a person and leads to the formation in a person of such traits as humility, passivity, “inferiority complex”.

Self-esteem is unstable, if the number of positively assessed qualities in relation to negatively assessed (“+” to “-”) is 50-55%. Such a ratio, as a rule, cannot last for a long time, is unstable, uncomfortable.

What is behind the human use of the assessment of "±" in relation to its characteristics?

The use of the plus or minus sign (“±”) indicates the ability of a person to consider a phenomenon from two opposite sides, indicates the degree of his balance, the “weightedness” of his position relative to emotionally significant phenomena.

You can conditionally select people emotionally polar, balanced and doubtful type.

To people emotional-polar type Those who identify all their identification characteristics only as being loved or disliked by them, they do not use the plus or minus sign at all.

Such people are characterized by maximalism in assessments, differences in the emotional state, with respect to them one can say “one step from love to hate”. These are, as a rule, emotional and expressive people, whose relationships with other people strongly depend on how much they like or dislike the person.

If the number of characters "±" reaches 10-20% (of the total number of characters), then such a person can be attributed to balanced type. For them, in comparison with people of the emotional-polar type, they are characterized by great stress tolerance, they resolve conflict situations more quickly, they know how to maintain constructive relationships with different people: with those that they generally like and with those that they do not cause deep sympathy; more tolerant of the shortcomings of other people.

If the number of characters "±" exceeds 30-40% (of the total number of characters), then such a person can be attributed to doubtful type. Such a number of signs "±" can be a person experiencing a crisis in his life, as well as testify to indecision as a character trait (when it is difficult for a person to make decisions, he hesitates for a long time, considering various options).

What is behind a person’s assessment of "?" Regarding its characteristics?

The presence of the “?” Sign in assessing the identification characteristics indicates a person’s ability to endure a situation of internal uncertainty, and therefore, indirectly indicates a person’s ability to change, and readiness for change.

This mark is used by people rather seldom: one or two marks "?" Put only 20% of the surveyed.

The presence of three or more signs of "?" In self-esteem implies that a person has crisis experiences.

In general, the use of the signs “±” and “?” By a person is a favorable sign of a good dynamics of the consultative process.

People who use these signs, as a rule, more quickly reach the level of independent solution of their own problems.

How do the features of gender identity appear in the “Who am I?” Methodology?

Gender (or gender) identity is part of an individual self-concept, which is derived from an individual’s knowledge of belonging to a social group of men or women, along with the assessment and emotional designation of this group membership.

Features of gender identity appear:

• First, how a person designates his or her gender identity; • secondly, in what place in the list of identification characteristics is the mention of their gender.

Naming your gender can be done:

• directly, • indirectly • absent altogether.

Direct floor designation – a person indicates his gender in specific words that have a certain emotional content. From this we can distinguish four forms of direct sex designation:

• neutral, • alienated, • emotionally positive • emotionally negative.

Forms of direct sex marking

The presence of direct gender designation suggests that the field of psychosexuality in general and comparison of oneself with representatives of one’s gender in particular is an important and accepted internal theme of self-awareness.

Indirect gender designation – a person does not indicate his gender directly, but his gender is manifested through social roles (male or female), which he considers his own, or by the endings of words. Indirect ways of designating sex also have a certain emotional content.

Indirect Gender Ways

Designation method Examples of identity designation

Indirect gender indication talks about the knowledge of the specifics of a specific repertoire of gender-role behavior, which may be:

• wide (if it includes several gender roles); • narrow (if it includes only one or two roles).

The presence of both direct and indirect variants of emotionally positive designation of one’s gender indicates the formation of a positive gender identity, the possible diversity of role-playing behavior, the acceptance of one’s attractiveness as a representative of the sex, and allows one to make a favorable forecast regarding the success of establishing and maintaining partnership relationships with other people.

No gender designation in self-identification characteristics it is stated when the writing of the entire text goes through the phrase: “I am a person who …”. The reasons for this may be as follows:

1. the lack of a holistic view of sex-role behavior at a given time (lack of reflection, knowledge); 2. avoidance of considering your gender role characteristics due to the trauma of this topic (for example, crowding out a negative result of comparing yourself with other representatives of your gender); 3. unformed sexual identity, the presence of identity crisis in general.

When analyzing gender identity, it is also important to consider where in the response text there are categories related to gender:

• at the very beginning of the list, • in the middle • at the end.

This indicates the relevance and significance of gender categories in a person’s self-consciousness (the closer to the beginning, the greater the significance and degree of awareness of the categories of identity).

How does reflection appear when performing the “Who am I?” Methodology?

A person with a more developed level of reflection gives on average more answers than a person with a less developed self-image (or more “closed”).

Also about the level of reflection says subjectively evaluated by the person himself ease or difficulty in the formulation of answers to the key question of the test.

As a rule, a person with a more developed level of reflection quickly and easily finds answers concerning his own individual characteristics.

A person, who does not often think about himself and his life, answers the question of the test with difficulty, writing down each of his answers after some thought.

Low Reflection You can say when in 12 minutes a person can give only two or three answers (it is important to clarify that the person really does not know how to answer the task, and not just stop recording his answers due to his secrecy).

Two main types of personality tests:

About a high enough level Reflection shows 15 or more different answers to the question "Who am I?".

How to analyze the temporal aspect of identity?

The analysis of the time aspect of identity must be carried out on the assumption that the success of a person’s interaction with those around him suggests the relative continuity of his past, present, and future “I”. Therefore, consideration of a person’s answers to the question “Who am I?” Should occur from the point of view of their belonging to the past, present or future tense (based on the analysis of verbal forms).

The presence of identification characteristics corresponding to different time regimes indicates a temporal integration of the individual.

Particular attention should be paid to the presence and severity in the self-description of indicators of perspective identity (or perspective “I”), that is, identification characteristics that are associated with prospects, wishes, intentions, dreams, relating to different areas of life.

The presence of goals, plans for the future is of great importance for the characterization of the inner world of a person as a whole, reflects the temporal aspect of identity, aimed at the future life perspective, performs existential and objective functions.

It is important to take into account that a sign of psychological maturity is not just the presence of aspiration in (the future, but some optimal correlation between orientation towards the future and acceptance, satisfaction with the present. The predominance of verbal forms describing actions or experiences in the past tense in self-description indicates present dissatisfaction, desire to return to the past due to its greater attractiveness or trauma (when psychological trauma is not processed).

The dominance in the self-description of the future tense verb forms speaks of self-doubt, a person’s desire to escape from the difficulties of the present moment due to the lack of realization in the present.

The predominance in the self-description of the present-day verbs speaks of the activity and consciousness of human actions. For marriage and family counseling, it is most important how the family and marital relations are reflected in the identification characteristics, how the present and future family roles are presented, how they are assessed by the individual.

So, one of the main signs of psychological readiness for marriage is reflected in the self-description of future family roles and functions: “I am the future mother”, “I will be a good father”, “I dream of my family”, “I will do everything for my family”, etc. d.

A sign of marital and marital unhappiness is a situation in which a married man or a married woman in self-description does not in any way signify their real family, marital roles and functions.

What does an analysis of the correlation of social roles and individual characteristics in identity give?

The question “Who am I?” Is logically connected with the characteristics of a person’s own perception of himself, that is, with his image of “I” (or I-concept). Answering the question “Who am I?”, A person specifies the social roles and characteristics-definitions with which he relates himself, identifies, that is, he describes the social statuses that are significant for him and those features that, in his opinion, are associated with him.

In this way, correlation of social roles and individual characteristics talks about how much a person realizes and accepts his uniqueness, as well as how important he belongs to a particular group of people.

Lack of individual characteristics in self-description (indicators of reflexive, communicative, physical, material, active identities), specifying a variety of social roles (“student”, “passer-by”, “voter”, “family member”, “Russian”) may indicate a lack of self-confidence, a person has concerns about self-disclosure, a pronounced tendency to self-defense.

The absence of social roles with individual characteristics can talk about the presence of a pronounced individuality and difficulties in the implementation of the rules that emanate from certain social roles. Also, the absence of social roles in the identification characteristics is possible during a crisis of identity or personality immaturity.

Behind the relationship between social roles and individual characteristics is the question of the relationship between social and personal identities. At the same time, a personal identity is defined as a set of characteristics that makes a person self-similar and different from others, while social identity is interpreted in terms of group membership, belonging to a larger or smaller group of people.

Social identity prevails when a person has a high level of certainty of the “we are different” scheme and a low level of certainty of the “I-we” scheme. Personal identity prevails in people with a high level of certainty of the “I am different” scheme and a low level of certainty of the “we are different” scheme.

Successful establishment and maintenance of partnerships is possible with someone who has a clear idea of ​​their social roles and accepts their individual characteristics. Therefore, one of the tasks of marital counseling is to assist the client in recognizing and accepting the characteristics of their social and personal identities.

What does the analysis of the spheres of life presented in identity give?

Two main types of personality tests:

Conventionally, there are six main areas of life that can be represented in the identification characteristics:

1. family (kinship, parent-child and marital relations, the respective roles); 2. work (business relationships, professional roles); 3. study (the need and the need for new knowledge, the ability to change); 4. leisure (time structuring, resources, interests); 5. the sphere of intimate and personal relations (friendship and love relationships); 6. rest (resources, health).

All identification characteristics can be distributed across the proposed areas. After that, correlate the complaints made by the client, the formulation of his request with the distribution of the characteristics of identity by spheres: to make a conclusion about how represented the sphere is, the corresponding complaint in the self-description, how these characteristics are evaluated.

It is considered that the characteristics of oneself, which a person writes at the beginning of his list, are most actualized in his mind, are more aware and significant for the subject. The discrepancy between the topic of the complaint and the request to the area that is more prominent and problematic in self-description indicates a lack of deep self-understanding of the client or the fact that the client did not immediately decide to tell about what he really cares about.

What does the analysis of physical identity?

Physical identity includes a description of their physical data, including a description of the appearance, painful manifestations, eating habits, bad habits.

The designation of their physical identity is directly related to the human expansion of the boundaries of the perceived inner world, since the boundaries between “I” and “not-I” initially pass along the physical boundaries of their own body. It is the awareness of your body that is the leading factor in the human self-awareness system. The expansion and enrichment of the “image of the I” in the process of personal development is closely connected with the reflection of one’s own emotional experiences and bodily sensations.

What does an analysis of active identity?

Active identity It also provides important information about a person and includes the designation of activities, hobbies, as well as self-assessment of ability to work, self-assessment of skills, abilities, knowledge, achievements. Identification of one’s “active self” is connected with the ability to focus on oneself, restraint, balanced actions, as well as diplomacy, ability to work with one’s own anxiety, tension, maintain emotional stability, that is, is a reflection of the totality of emotional-volitional and communicative abilities, features of existing interactions .

What does the analysis of the psycholinguistic aspect of identity?

Analysis of the psycholinguistic aspect of identity includes determining which parts of speech and which substantive aspect of self-identification are dominant in a person’s self-description.


• The predominance in the self-descriptions of nouns speaks of the human need for certainty, constancy; • Lack or absence of nouns – about the lack of human responsibility.


• The prevalence of adjectives in self-descriptions speaks of a person’s demonstrativeness, emotionality; • Lack or absence of adjectives – about the weak differentiation of a person’s identity.


• The predominance of verbs in self-descriptions (especially when describing fields of activity, interests) speaks about the activity and independence of a person; the lack or absence of self-description of verbs is about lack of self-confidence, underestimation of its effectiveness.

Most often self-descriptions use nouns and adjectives.

Harmonious type linguistic self-description is characterized by the use of approximately equal numbers of nouns, adjectives and verbs.

Under identity valence the prevailing emotional and evaluative tone of the identification characteristics in a person’s self-description is understood (this assessment is carried out by the specialist himself).

The difference in the overall sign of the emotional-evaluative tone of the identification characteristics determines various types of identity valency:

• negative – negative categories prevail in general when describing one’s own identity, more are described shortcomings, problems of identification (“ugly”, “irritable”, “I don’t know what to say about myself”); • neutral – there is either a balance between positive and negative self-identifications, or no emotional tone is clearly manifested in a person’s self-description (for example, there is a formal transfer of roles: “son”, “student”, “athlete”, etc.); • positive – positive identification characteristics prevail over negative ones (“cheerful”, “kind”, “intelligent”); • overestimated – manifests itself either in the practical absence of negative self-identifications, or in answers to the question “Who am I?” The characteristics presented in superlatives (“I am the best”, “I am super”, etc.) prevail.

Availability positive valence can be a sign of the adaptive state of identity, as it is associated with perseverance in achieving the goal, accuracy, responsibility, business orientation, social courage, activity, and self-confidence.

The remaining three types of valence characterize a non-adaptive state of identity. They are associated with impulsivity, impermanence, anxiety, depression, vulnerability, lack of confidence in their strength, restraint, timidity.

The data of the psycholinguistic analysis conducted by the specialist are compared with the results of the client’s self-evaluation.

It is possible to conditionally find a correspondence between the sign of the emotional-evaluative tone of the identification characteristics and the type of identity self-assessment, which indicates that the person performing the “Who am I?” Method uses the criteria of emotional assessment of personal characteristics typical of other people (for example, the quality of “good” is evaluated as "+"). This correspondence is a good prognostic sign of a person’s ability to adequately understand other people.

The presence of discrepancies between the sign of the emotional-evaluative tone of the identification characteristics and the type of identity self-assessment (for example, the quality is “good” assessed by a person as “-”) may indicate that the client has a special system of emotional evaluation of personal characteristics that prevents the establishment of contact and mutual understanding people.

Compliance with the types of valence and self-esteem

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