The expression of the Gottenton morality about the principle of double standards has long been rooted in psychology. This principle of thinking is present not only among your friends and relatives, but also in politics. What it is and how it works, you will learn from the text below.
Who are the Hottentots?
The Hottentots are the South African Khoi tribe. The number of this nationality is about fifty thousand people.
The name of the African tribe Hottentot received from the Europeans, who first investigated their lifestyle. Pagans during the performance of their rites quite often uttered a spell that was heard to the Europeans as Hottentot.
Everyday speech also resembled the sounds of monkeys, so the Europeans considered them wild, similar to ancient people. From Dutch hottentot translates as stutterers. That stuttering gave the name of this tribe.
Where does the expression Hottentot ethics come from?
One day, a European missionary visited South Africa where he studied Aboriginal people. In particular, he spoke with the Khoi (Hottentot) tribe. To find out what kind of morality the locals live in, what is good for them and what is bad – he asked one of them if he knew what was good and what was evil. Hottentot replied that he knew what was good and what was bad without any doubt. Evil, according to Hottentot, is the case when your cattle and your wife are stolen, and good is when you steal someone else’s cattle and wife.
The question of the veracity of this story is controversial. Some researchers have noticed that the Khoi are very kind people. For example, the Christian clergyman Gui Tashar noted the good nature of khoi and wrote that they love to share.
In Russia, the expression of the Hottentot morality became popular after the article by S. Frank, addressed to Bolshevik immorality.
What is Hottentot ethics?
The essence of the psychology of such thinking is as follows. Everything that we do and what we do, everything that leads to our own happiness and benefit is good. And everything that brings pain and harm is evil. It is important to consider only personal desires and aspirations. What is good, only knows the subject of the relationship.
If action is beneficial to us, then it is virtuous. Everything is considered good and kind, which gives us satisfaction and happiness. But if another commits similar actions with us, then it is perceived as evil.
The African aborigine thinks that his evil towards the other is good, if it brings him joy. A completely different case, when the Hottentot is doing the same good – he does not like it.
The definition of Hottentot morality is reduced to the formula: All means are good if they are useful to me. Hottentot ethics are differently called double standards. For the one who acts according to this morality, there is a standard of actions, which is applicable only to him, to others a different standard of behavior applies. However, double standards work at higher social levels.
So, Hottentot ethics and double standards are essentially the same thing.
Moral double standards
Double standards are approaches to the characterization of the actions and rights of broad sections of the population, states, nations. Officially, these approaches are not recognized by anyone, but their existence is ubiquitous.
Following the logic of double standards, one can evaluate the same action, applying different interpretations of laws, principles, rules, and get some justified decisions (most often these are two opposite decisions).
In simple terms, double standards are a bias towards any events and their unfair assessment. Evaluate these events should be the same subjects. This is a discriminatory approach that deliberately illuminates events in a negative light for one object and in a positive light for another.
Double standards can be found in politics, journalism, economics and other humanities.
Double standards in international politics
Most often double standards are used in international relations. In the 21st century, the Hottentot morality method acts as a weapon against each other. The growth of international conflicts, aggression, terror – all this leads to wars, not physical but informational.
Double standards act as a means of hidden warfare. Politicians of warring states act in disguise, undermining each other’s authority and strength. In international relations, the subject is a state or a union of states that promotes a double standard in the international arena with respect to an object, that is, another state.
At the international level, the ethics of double standards seem to everyone as if it defends democratic ideals and struggles with imperfections in other states and countries, thereby distracting from similar problems in a state that uses a double standard. Blaming other countries for non-observance of universal rights and freedoms, such countries are often guided only by their personal benefits.
A huge role in supporting such a policy has the media, which covers this or that event, according to the required standard. This applies even to such a serious issue as terrorism. If necessary, terrorism can act as a struggle for justice and freedom, which is completely unacceptable.
Double Standard Terminology
How do double standards manifest themselves? The most common way to work is to use different words in relation to the same problem, object or action. At the same time terms become emotionally colored.
For example, the concept of war for some and others can be interpreted as a battle for peace. For us, intelligence officers are heroes of the country, and for others – spies.
Double standards are subject to any words, sentences, expressions, events. Absolutely everything can be turned in a good way for one country to the detriment of another.
Double standard policy
If we characterize the actions of the subject depending on who this subject is for us, then we will pursue a policy of double standards. Our friends will receive a more pleasant assessment than strangers. This principle implies a stricter attitude to one of the groups of people.
The policy of double standards in international relations is to blame the violation of the universal principles, rights and freedoms of any state. At the same time, the prosecutor himself violates the same principles in the framework of his international and domestic activities.
Such an approach is not an innovation, it has been around for dozens or even hundreds of years, politicians, leaders, ordinary people actively use the system of double standards.
Examples of double ethics in politics
Below are examples of the policy of double standards in international relations.
- The pro-Western orientation of presidential candidates justifies a large percentage of voters. For example, M. Saakashvili, as a pro-Western candidate, wins the presidential elections in Georgia with a large percentage. In this case, they say about the victory of democracy. The substantial percentage advantage and the victory of V. Putin from the Western point of view are framed and anti-democratic.
- They welcome the referendum in one country and oppose it in another. For example, the West agreed with the referendum on secession of Serbia and Montenegro, and did not agree with referendums in South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
- Preferential prices for resources to countries-brothers. For example, during the collapse of the USSR, everyone was against Russia supplying its resources to post-Soviet countries at preferential rates. But when, after the Orange Revolution, Russia began to supply its resources to Ukraine at prices similar to those on the world market, it was called blackmail and the economic undermining.
There are many examples of double standards in world politics. Almost every event that occurs is double standards.
Double standards at work
The policy of double standards is relevant not only in international politics. An obvious manifestation of it is the double sexual policy towards women and men.
A striking example of double standards is the hiring system. In no legislation in a developed country, you will find the fact that men have priority in hiring compared to women.
However, behind the scenes, you make sure that the employer is more willing to hire a man, even if both candidates are the same age, have the same education and work experience.
The same applies to pay. Earnings of a man in the same enterprise may differ from a female due to more efficient work of men than women, due to, for example, physical skills and
Gender policy of double standards
The reproductive role of women plays a special role in this issue. Many employers refuse to hire women because she can go on maternity leave, sick leave for children and so on. Such an employee turns out to be a lower priority only because it is a woman.
The double principle in relation to women and men exists not only in relation to work. Modern society is prolonged by gender stereotypes, when the same fact of betrayal of men is perceived by many as a normal act. Men themselves tend to consider their inadvertent betrayal to be trivial, and the betrayal of a woman is perceived as something immoral and is condemned in every way by men who have cheated.
These facts are confirmed by polls. One of four men consider abnormal betrayal of his wife. Four out of four consider the betrayal of a woman an immoral phenomenon.
This vivid example is not the only one. The policy of double standards in relation to women is quite widespread.
Double standards in personal relationships
Every person’s life is filled with double standards. And this is not only politics, media, art or science, it is also personal relationships of people.
From the point of view of psychology, double standards are not abnormal and incomprehensible. They are natural for any person who is much more favorable to himself than to others.
It is easier to understand yourself. Even when we do something wrong, we can justify ourselves, because we know exactly why we performed this or that action. But in relation to another person, we behave differently – we are more strict with his actions, because we do not know and do not want to know what prompted him to commit this or that act.
It’s easier to find a mote in someone else’s eye than to see a log in yours. All this is due to the fact that a person places himself above others and believes that he has the right to a better life, while others do not. To the maximum degree of development, it develops into a narcissistic mental personality disorder.
Thus, the Hottentot morality, or double standards, is literally inscribed in our daily privacy, in mutual relations with each other. The media — newspapers, the Internet, television — are all replete with intrusive stereotypes of thinking. The actions of politicians in the modern world cannot do without double standards. The international information warfare widely uses the method of double standards. States vigorously dragging the blanket of their justice towards themselves, constantly blaming others for what they themselves are wrong about.