Heuristics definition psychology

This toolkit is intended for primary school teachers. Presented in draft form. It reveals the purpose and objectives. The content characteristic of the concept of communicative competence is determined, the specificity of its development in younger schoolchildren is revealed. Disclosed forms, methods and means of development. A model of development of communicative competence in the organization of educational and communicative space was designed. The appendix contains material on the diagnosis of communicative competence of students, gives examples of fragments of training sessions with elements of the formation of communicative competence.

Heuristics definition psychology


"The formation of the communicative competence of younger students."

Completed Galiakbirova

primary school teacher

Heuristics definition psychology

KSU "Gymnasium No. 5 of the akimat of Shakhtinsk"

I Theoretical issues of the formation of communicative competence

junior schoolchildren

II Formation of communicative competence in younger students through a variety of forms and methods in the classroom in primary school

Performance evaluation criteria, project risks

The history of society shows that the prosperity of society does not depend on the economy and technology and even not on the general culture, but on the culture of the word

Christmas Yu. A.

"The only real luxury is the luxury of human communication."


The content of education is focused on the achievement of the results of education defined by the Standard for each student in the form of key competences:

  1. problem solving competence;
  2. information competence;
  3. communicative competence … "

State educational standard of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The credo of a modern teacher is to educate a free person who can defend their interests, freely and competently express their thoughts and feelings, express themselves, and take responsibility, as is required by modern society. At the present stage of development of education, great attention is paid to the problem of mastering competences and the formation of key competencies in particular.

The younger school age is very favorable for the acquisition of communication skills. Therefore, the formation of communicative competence of students is one of the most important tasks of the educational process at school.

  1. between the requirements of the State educational standard of education, reflecting the objective need for graduates to possess key competencies, including communicative, able to navigate the world around them, ready for communication, the formation of the communicative competence of the teacher;
  2. between the accumulated rich practice of teaching in primary school and the lack of practical use of it in the learning process.

Hypothesis: the process of developing communicative competence among younger students will proceed more efficiently if the following pedagogical conditions are implemented in the educational process:

  1. enrichment of educational content with situations of social interaction;
  2. use in the learning process of technology elements of level differentiation, a person-oriented approach;
  3. performance of individual communicative tasks, developing cognitive activity and independence of schoolchildren;
  4. use of communicative training in the educational process;
  5. systematic monitoring of the level of development of the communicative competence of students, aimed at identifying the appropriateness of the educational process to the intended result, the ultimate goal of learning.

The problem is to identify, theoretically substantiate the complex of effective pedagogical conditions for the successful formation of communicative competence among younger students.

Objective: To theoretically substantiate the complex pedagogical conditions that ensure the effective development of communicative competence among younger students in the learning process.

In accordance with the problem, the object, the subject, the goal and the hypothesis are defined the following tasks:

  1. To clarify the structure, to determine the content characteristic of the concept of “communicative competence” and to identify the specifics of its development among younger students
  2. Determine the forms, methods and means of developing communicative competence among younger students
  3. Design a model for the development of communicative competence among younger schoolchildren in the context of organizing an educational communicative space.

Object: the process of developing communicative competence among younger students

Subject of research: pedagogical conditions that ensure the effectiveness of the formation of communicative competence among younger students

  1. Understand the structure, comprehend the meaningful description of the concept of “communicative competence” and identify the specifics of its development among younger students
  2. To obtain a model for the development of communicative competence in younger schoolchildren in the conditions of organizing educational communicative space.
  3. Systematize effective forms, methods and means of developing communicative competence among younger students

I Theoretical issues of the formation of communicative

Communicative competence is the basis of practical human activity in any area of ​​life. The role of owning your speech is difficult to overestimate. Professional, business contacts, interpersonal interactions require from the modern person a universal ability to produce a variety of different statements, both orally and in writing. Teaching students oral and written speech communication (communicative competence) acquires special significance in the current situation of the development of society.

Communicative competence, according to psychological and pedagogical research, includes the following components:

  1. emotional (includes emotional responsiveness, empathy, sensitivity to another, ability to empathize and compassion, attention to the actions of partners);
  2. cognitive (associated with the knowledge of another person, includes the ability to anticipate the behavior of another person, to effectively solve various problems that arise between people);
  3. behavioral (reflects the child’s ability to cooperate, joint activities, initiative, adequacy in communication, organizational skills and

In contrast to the subject-practical activity, the action in communication is aimed at establishing relations between the subjects, and not at the creation of a materialized result.

The basic unit of communication is the speech act. According to

A person’s ability to communicate is defined in psycho-pedagogical research in general as communicativeness (

Based on the concept of communication built

  1. interpersonal communication;
  2. interpersonal interaction;
  3. interpersonal perception.

One of the principal tasks of the teacher in the formation of communicative competence is the organization of such conditions under which students acquire skills and abilities corresponding to a high level of communication.

Communication skills include:

  1. desire to come in contact with others;
  2. ability to organize communication, including the ability to listen to the interlocutor, the ability to emotionally empathize, to show empathy, the ability to solve conflict situations;
  3. knowledge of the rules and regulations to be followed when communicating with others (

Under the communicative abilities of younger students as a means of their social adaptation,

  1. a complex of individual psychological qualities of the personality of a younger schoolboy of a social orientation (contactiness, empatichnost, benevolence);
  2. the level of knowledge, skills and habits of social and communicative activities (knowledge of the laws of conflict-free communication with others,
  3. skills of culture of behavior, the ability to quickly navigate in a familiar and unfamiliar situation, etc.);
  4. desire and need to engage in social and communicative activities;
  5. the ability to analyze and adequately assess socio-communicative situations and track their condition in business and personal contacts with others.

The younger school age is the optimal period for the formation of communicative abilities, active learning of social behavior, the art of communication between children of different sexes, assimilation of communicative, speech skills, ways of distinguishing social situations.

  1. With entering the school, the child discovers a new place in the social space of human relations.
  2. Younger schoolchildren already have sufficiently developed reflexive abilities.
  3. The school makes new demands on the child’s speech development
  4. At a younger school age, a restructuring of the child’s relationship with people takes place.
  5. The implementation of educational activities is possible only if the child learns to manage their mental processes and behavior in general.
  6. Children of primary school age develop prerequisites for the formation of important social qualities.
  7. Children at this age have not lost interest in the game and, most importantly, they use the game as a training ground for training skills. Consequently, the game with can be successfully used for practicing communication skills and social behavior.

The start of schooling allows the child to take a new life stance and move on to the implementation of socially significant educational activities. At the same time, most children of primary school age form the preconditions for the formation of important social qualities that contribute to successful social adaptation. The formation of the communicative abilities of younger schoolchildren in educational activities is largely determined by the solution of social problems, which today is a very urgent task in the work of a primary school teacher.

II Formation of communicative competence in younger students through a variety of forms and methods

  1. Use of physical exercises in lessons

Elements of health-saving technologies that aim to improve the health of students, helping children to remain active and vigorous throughout the lesson, can also contribute to the development of children’s speech. For example, a complex of physical exercises recommended by SAN-Pin, if you conduct it, be sure to pronounce the text corresponding to them. I really like the guys physical space:

Animal charging. Once – sit down, Two – jump. This is a bunny charge. And foxes how to wake up with fists rub their eyes Love to stretch for a long time to stretch Be sure to yawn, yawn, covering your mouth with your palm Well, and with a tail, wag your hips in the sides And wolf back to bend in the back forward and lightly jump lightly jump up Well, bear tousled hands are half-bent at the elbows, palms are joined below the belt. Wide-spread legs with feet wide at shoulder width. One, then both, stepping and legs to foot. Long treading on the ground. to the side And to whom charging is not enough – It starts all over again! spread your arms to the sides at waist level palms up

  1. Work in groups and mini – groups.

When working in groups and mini-groups, students in a class are divided into groups in the fulfillment of an assignment to learn about the world, literature, self-knowledge, and labor training. "Speaker" groups are all students in turn. The results of each group are shown on the board. Children learn:

  1. to defend your opinion
  2. represent the work of the group
  3. to debate
  4. listen carefully to each other
  5. ability to ask questions
  6. listen to the other.

Schoolchildren increase their responsibility not only for their success, but also for the results of their common work, self-assessment and assessment of their capabilities and abilities are being formed.

Gaming technology

  1. The use of elements of technology level differentiation

The use of elements of the technology of level differentiation in the literature lessons

  1. The use of elements of student-centered developmental education

The lessons of Russian literacy and literature, self-knowledge are of great interest in the use of role-playing reading, dramatization of works, role-playing dialogues, solving problematic situations, playing by the roles of these situations. Pupils come up with a continuation of the dialogues. So, for example, when studying the topic of self-knowledge in the 3rd grade “Culture of Communication”, students solved the situation in which the hero falls, and made a reminder of the rules of communication.

Elements of student-centered developmental education

Starting from the 1st grade, many students of the gymnasium are engaged in project activities under the guidance of a teacher. The diverse themes of the projects contribute to the broadening of the students’ outlook, the development of speech and writing. Students speak at school conferences representing the defense of their work.

  1. Using proverbs, sayings in the classroom
  2. Creative approach to learning

Acquaintance with the new geometric figure in grade 1 took place first in class according to plan:

  1. Problem situation – a puzzle about a figure
  2. Comparison of the appearance of the figure with its name.
  3. Comparison of the figure with the previously studied
  4. Finding objects in the outside world that are similar or contain this figure
  5. Figure drawing (in the air, in a notebook)

Then I began to notice to the children that they were trying to invent rhymed lines for figures. So why not use children’s creativity to consolidate the material? Moreover, the process of inventing riddles, poems first requires great observation, fantasy, analytical work, knowledge of the properties of a figure, differences from others, and communication with environmental objects.

Here are just some examples of children’s creativity:

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