material for the lesson OBZH, 11 cells. as well as can be used for extracurricular activities for high school students
Captions for slides:
AIDS and its prevention Lesson OBZH, grade 11 Klimashina
The main goal of the lesson is to formulate the position “A healthy lifestyle is the basis of HIV / AIDS prevention.” Objectives: informing students about the current epidemiological situation regarding HIV infection; discussion of the leading routes of HIV infection; discussing the ethical and legal aspects of HIV prevention.
1981 – The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report on 5 cases of Pneumonia and 28 cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma. All sick are homosexuals; 1983 – discovery of the virus that causes AIDS; 1985 – the main ways of HIV transmission were studied; 1985 – registration of the first case of HIV / AIDS in the USSR with a foreign citizen; 1987 – the appearance of the first drugs for the treatment of AIDS; 1987 – registration of the first case of HIV infection with a citizen of the USSR; 1988 – December 1 declared the United Nations World AIDS Day; 1995 – adoption of the Law of the Russian Federation from
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to the family of retroviruses (Retroviridae), the subfamily of slow viruses (Lentivirus). Currently, 7 species of lentiviruses are known, of which 6 are pathogenic for animals and only one (HIV) causes human disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated in 1983 by the group of Professor Luc Montagnier (Montagnier L.) from the lymph node of an AIDS patient at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In the same year in the USA, Professor Robert Gallo’s group (R. Gallo) isolated the virus from peripheral blood lymphocytes of AIDS patients. Both viruses were identical and in 1987, WHO adopted a single name – “human immunodeficiency virus” (HIV, English abbreviation – HIV). Currently 2 virus serotypes are described: HIV-1 and HIV-2, differing in structural and antigenic characteristics. HIV-1 is the most epidemiologically significant, it dominates the current pandemic and is most prevalent in the Russian Federation.
In Russia, in 1995, the Federal Law “On the Prevention of the Spread in the Russian Federation of the Disease Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Infection)” (from
The law guarantees: regularly informing the population about available measures to prevent HIV infection; epidemiological surveillance of the spread of HIV infection; production of means for preventing, diagnosing and treating HIV infection, as well as monitoring the safety of medicines, biological fluids and tissues used for diagnostic, therapeutic and scientific purposes; availability of medical examinations for the detection of HIV infection, including an anonymous one, with prior and subsequent counseling; free provision of all types of qualified and specialized medical care for HIV-infected; social care for people living with HIV.
The global nature of the spread of HIV / AIDS is the greatest challenge to the 21st century,
Since 1989, the state specialized service for combating and preventing HIV / AIDS has been operating on the territory of the Russian Federation. The principal structure of the HIV prevention and control service in the Russian Federation is shown in Figure 16. The work to prevent the spread of HIV infection is regulated by legal documents and, according to the recommendation of WHO, it should provide for three levels of prevention.
To combat the HIV / AIDS epidemic, a specialized service has been operating in Moscow since 1991, which currently has the following structure (Figure 17, 18)
The AIDS center carries out epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection, which includes: the identification of HIV-infected and AIDS patients; conducting an epidemiological investigation of all identified cases of AIDS and HIV infection; verification of laboratory tests for HIV.
Medical examination for HIV infection is carried out voluntarily, except as otherwise provided by Article 9 of Federal Law No. 38 of
At the beginning of the 21st century, a situation has arisen in Russia where young people do not have cultural support (social institutions that allow them to develop personal resources) that would allow them to effectively adapt to environmental conditions and cope with everyday problems and stressful situations. The adolescent presented to himself appeals to deviant and delinquent forms of behavior with which he tries to cope with the demands of the environment. Education and awareness is the most effective method of preventing HIV / AIDS in adolescents and young people. Possessing significant intellectual, organizational, methodological, informational potential, the work on HIV / AIDS prevention by means of education can not only significantly reduce the risk of contracting a dangerous infection, but also create psychological attitudes of the moral way of life and physical health of the younger generation, level stereotypes of asocial behavior and promote orientation of young people to traditional spiritual values.
Since 1996, especially since 2000, in the Russian Federation, the situation with HIV infection in women has dramatically deteriorated. During the HIV epidemic, significant changes in the ratio of HIV-infected men to women were noted. If at the beginning of the epidemic the ratio was 7: 1, then at present this figure is close to the 1: 1 ratio. According to official statistics at the beginning of 2002, out of 176068 HIV-infected women officially registered in Russia were