The material reflects the work on environmental projects with younger students
A modern school is an institution in which socialization takes place, a child becomes a personality, a place where a life position is formed, a person’s worldview.
The Federal State Educational Standard of the new generation requires the use of technologies of the activity type in the educational process and the methods of design and research activities are defined by it as one of the conditions for the implementation of the basic educational program of primary general education. One of the leading tasks of educational work in the modern school is to instill the primary research skills of younger students. In addition, design and research activities are one of the directions of student-centered learning. It allows you to create conditions in which each student can show their talents, realize their creative potential.
Design and research activities help younger students to engage in solving educational problems and gain a taste for learning. In pedagogy and psychology, “research teaching” refers to an approach to learning, built on the basis of the child’s natural desire to independently explore the world. To explore, to open, to study means to take a step into the unknown and the unknown.
The project is “five P”: P-problem – Design (planning) – Information search – Product – Presentation. The sixth “P” of the project is his Portfolio.
The younger school age is the initial stage of entering the project-research activity, which lays the foundation for further mastering it.
At present, the requirements of environmental education and culture are becoming the inalienable qualities of the general culture of the individual. More and more attention is paid to environmental education, the formation of environmental awareness, ecological culture.
The federal state educational standard of primary general education defines the structure and content of the basic educational program of primary general education, part of which is the program of forming an ecological culture and a healthy and safe lifestyle for students.
We cannot but touch upon the issues of ecological education and instilling ecological culture in our students. Human health by 20–30% depends on environmental conditions. The quality and longevity of people ultimately depends on the effectiveness of environmental education. The concept of “ecological culture” consists of interrelated elements: ecological knowledge, feelings, environmentally sound behavior, ecological thinking and consciousness. The basis of the manifestation of ecological culture is the activity of a person seeking to realize his influence on nature, the rationality of using its wealth and ways of improving the natural environment.
Forming a responsible attitude to nature is a complex and lengthy process. Therefore, it is necessary to lay the foundation of ecological culture at an early age, as noted
All good in people – from childhood!
How are the sources of good awaken?
Touch nature with all your heart:
Surprise, learn, love!
We want the earth to flourish,
And they grew like flowers, babies,
So that for them the ecology has become
Not science, but part of the soul!
When implementing an environmental design, a child goes through three stages:
first, the discovery of the diversity of nature, emotional and sensual attitude to the observed objects;
secondly, the period of the study of environmental relations (“Everything is connected with everything”);
thirdly, it is time for reflection, reflection and action.
Schoolchildren should be included in project research activities gradually, starting from the 1st grade. In the beginning – available studies performed in the lessons of the outside world, labor education, mathematics, and during off-hour work. I always remember: the topic should interest and captivate the child. Often it is concrete, narrow and is asked in the form of a question: “Why does a hedgehog have an apple?”, “Where does the cheese come from?”, “Why are we friends with the forest, why do people need it?”.
In the 1st class there are many collective projects: “Animal Alphabet”, “Flower Alphabet” (after learning the alphabet), “Islands of Joy” (design project of a flower bed). With the coincidence of interests among several schoolchildren I organize mini-groups. The teacher at all stages acts as an assistant, ensures the activities of the student: motivates, consults, helps, observes.
Independent environmental projects appear in 2 classes: “Where did houseplants come from?”, “My safety”, “Food without harm”, “Living conditioners”, “Wintering birds of our city”, “Class ecology”, etc.
In 3-4 grades, students with great interest carry out rather complex projects, under the guidance of a teacher, they carry out a collective scientific research, which can include the results of the design and research work of each student. It is possible to conduct sociological surveys, environmental campaigns, the development of projects, the implementation of which has a way beyond the class and school. Here are the themes of some of them: “It was about dust”, “In defense of weeds”, “Birch grove. SOS "," People and trash. Who is who? ”,“ School’s ecology, or School, in which I would like to study ”,“ School’s neighborhood environment ”,“ I want to speak in defense … ”,“ Children’s playground project ”. The children are actively involved in the compilation of the compilations “Commandments of the Little Prince’s Friends”, “Ecological Games” (for 1-2 grades), the release of the directory “Ecological Systems”, the preparation of the Calendar of ecological dates. Conduct environmental campaigns "Yolochka – green needle", "Hand over the battery – save the planet", etc.
I will dwell on some specific projects. A large role in environmental education and education of schoolchildren is played by practical research activities in natural conditions. The theoretical knowledge gained by the child in the classroom should be the basis for self-assessment of the processes occurring in nature, phenomena, conducting their own research, observations, the ability to summarize their observations, to promote environmentally literate, safe for nature and their own health behavior.
The implementation of the environmental project "My Tree" involves an integrated approach. At a younger age, children have a predominantly sensual, imaginative perception of the world around them, which was also taken into account when developing a program and research methodology for school children. The generalization of the material obtained is carried out in the form of essays, short stories, fairy tales, drawings, conversations using fiction.
Thus, the project work program envisages the use for the purposes of environmental education and upbringing not only special lessons of the surrounding world and ecology, but also lessons of the Russian language, literature, visual arts, technology and
The studies themselves are conducted during after-school time, thereby removing the problem of allocating extra time in the classroom. Practical research activities divide into three stages:
1 Preparatory stage. (Excursions, conversations, explanation of tasks, selection of the object of study, the name of the tree, work with parents).
2 Research phase. (Acquaintance with a tree, study of bark, trunk, study of crown, leaves, study of flowers, seeds, study of soil) For this I use various leading questions.
Stage 3 Compilation of materials (Writing essays, drafting fairy tales, drafting a tree advertising, you can also organize a tree festival. All research results are at the discretion of the student).
At the end of the project, children should be asked to make recommendations for protecting the tree, caring for it, and so on. After working on the project, the children had a positive emotional attitude towards trees, they understood the consequences of people’s exposure to the object of study, they had a natural need help your friend tree to protect it; they realized the role of trees in nature and human life.
Very interesting was the research work of Alexander Slovesnova, a 4th grade student, on the topic “Water. What do we drink? The purpose of his research, he chose to study the importance of water in human life and clarify situations with water supply in our area. The task in this paper was to check the quality of tap water and its effect on human health. As a result of the study, the child concluded that there are water purification methods that do not require large monetary expenditures. It is necessary to defend the water, filter it and only then boil it.
Or the work of Lizunov Stepan "Water is the source of life." In his work, he thought, and what is the water from the sources in our area? For this, the boy conducted an experiment. He collected water from the tap in the apartment, water from the springs in the village of Vysotskoe, water brought from the excursion from the Zhabyn spring of the Belevsky district. He distinguished water according to taste, according to the sediment on the walls of the kettle, according to the color of the brewed tea. Together with the parents, the water was taken to the laboratory to determine the quality of the water.
These works were put forward by the school for the municipal competition of projects of younger schoolchildren “I am a researcher!”.
Now I have some experience that involves the use of the project method in the educational process. For myself, I chose the following principles for the organization of project activities.
1) Taking into account the interests of children.
The situation when students are forced to do a project that they are not interested in has nothing to do with design. In the project, the child solves the problem of personal significance. If there is no personal inclusiveness, there is no project.
2) Learning through activity.
Project research activity involves the inclusion of the student in the search, research activities; systematic tracking by the teacher and the student of the work results, presentations.
3) Knowledge and knowledge are the result of overcoming difficulties.
4) Cooperation of the participants of the pedagogical process.
Here I can talk not only about cooperation between me and students, but also between parents and students, a librarian, subject teachers.
5) Free creativity in the choice of the project theme, problem solving, design and protection of the project.
Using the design and research technology in the system of lessons of the surrounding world of the School of Russia educational complex, the teacher will be able to solve educational, cognitive, developmental and communicative tasks and educate a citizen worthy of his homeland. Education using design techniques in primary school has a number of advantages. There are several groups of skills that are most influenced by project activity:
– research (generate ideas, choose the best solution);
– social interaction (to cooperate in the process of learning activities, assist comrades and receive their help, monitor the progress of joint work and direct it in the right direction);
– appraisal (to assess the progress, the result of its activities and the activities of others);
– informational (to independently search for the necessary information; to reveal what information or what skills are not sufficient);
-presentation (to speak to an audience; to answer unplanned questions; to use various means of visualization; to demonstrate artistic possibilities);
– reflexive (to answer the questions: “What have I learned? What should I learn?”; to adequately choose my role in a collective matter).
The introduction of elements of technology design research in the educational process has yielded positive results. By participating in the design and research work, younger students realize their hidden opportunities, reveal themselves as individuals in a new capacity.
Increasing the motivation and importance of their work causes positive emotions associated with the learning process. The mastery of research skills and abilities is a prerequisite for the formation of a student’s cognitive attitude to the world, holistic ideas about the world, interest and the need to "discover the secrets" of the world. Possession of basic research skills facilitates and helps students feel confident in any unusual situations.