Nothing in the world is done for nothing. This sure most people. Such a belief concerns not only life phenomena and patterns, but also people’s actions. Most often, actions are governed by certain motives. And we ask ourselves why in a certain situation a person acts one way or another. Perhaps revealing the essence of the concept of motive, we will be able to find answers to this question.
Motivation is the inner state of a person, associated with his needs. Motives are the driving force that activates physical and mental functions, encouraging a person to act and achieve a goal. Motivation and various types of motives make a person purposeful, since the goal in most cases satisfies the need that has arisen in something.
Different types of motifs in psychology are considered as phenomena that become a pretext for action. The motive gives a person a lot of experiences, characterized by either positive emotions associated with expectations, or negative emotions due to dissatisfaction with the current situation. Some types of personality motives are characterized by the presence of a material or ideal object, the achievement of which is the meaning of activity. In addition to the motives there is such a thing as incentives. These are the levers that motivate with. For example, the incentive for a person may be a bonus, a salary increment, and for a child an incentive is a good grade in school, for which the parents promised to buy something.
Types of human motives are divided into two levels: the motives of conservation and the motives of achievement. Most often, a person uses conservation motives in his life, where the power of emotions acts for an insignificant amount of time, and the activity is mainly aimed at not losing what has already been created. Achievement motives require constant activity from a person in order to get what they want. For completeness, consider the existing functions and types of motifs.
Functions and types of motives
The main types of human motives contain six components:
- External motives. They are due to external components. For example, if your friend acquired a new thing, and you saw it, then you will have the motivation to make money and also to acquire such a thing.
- Internal motives. Occur within the person himself. For example, it may be expressed in the desire to go somewhere and change the situation. And if you share this thought with others, then for someone it can be an external motive.
- Positive motives. Based on positive reinforcements. For example, such a motive is contained in the installation – I will work a lot, get more money.
- Negative motives. They are factors that repel a person from making a mistake. For example – I will not get up on time, I will be late for an important meeting.
- Steady motives. Based on human needs and do not require additional reinforcement from the outside.
- Unstable motives. Require constant reinforcement from the side.
All these types of motifs perform three main functions:
- impulse to action. That is, the identification of the motives that cause a person to act;
- direction of activity. The function by which a person determines how he can achieve a goal and satisfy his need;
- control and maintenance of behavior aimed at achievement. Remembering his ultimate goal, a person will adjust his activity in view of its achievement.
By the way, as far as activity is concerned, there also exists its own set of motives. It depends not only on the internal needs of the person, but also on his interaction with the social environment.
Types of motives of activity and interaction with society
Human activity is the most important vital function. Motives of activity are formed on the basis of a person’s need to achieve certain life goals. Human behavior is formed depending on what the final result of his actions he sees. Since our main activity is work, the motives here are focused on the work process itself and on its result. In the first case, the motives will be due to certain working conditions, the content of work, the quality of the relationship between employees and the ability to develop abilities. In the second case, the result of labor will depend on three main motives:
- material remuneration is, above all, monetary incomes and a person’s confidence in job security and social security;
- the significance of the work – this takes into account the opinion of the work of family, friends and the media, in other words, the prestige of the profession;
- Free time is an important motive for creative people, as well as for those who have small children or combine work with study.
Since any activity is inseparable from society, we should not forget that there are various types of motives for interaction. In other words, by their activity each person pursues the goal in any way to influence the behavior of other people united in a society. Types of social motives may be different. The most important of these is a phenomenon called social comparability. This is a person’s attempt to analyze and evaluate their abilities by comparing them with other people. Hence, these kinds of social motives of interaction arise as sympathy for another person or attraction to him.
However, above all types of motives that shape human behavior is "self-motivation". This is the inner self-perception of a person by whom he is guided in every act. For successful activity, a person needs to control himself, to provide a regime in which any activity will be fruitful. It is from self-motivation that other types of motives are born that contribute to the achievement of goals.