MOST COMMON DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF VISION
• Conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis affects up to 15% of the population and is considered a fairly common, albeit relatively mild, eye disease. • Cataract. A cataract catches up with almost half of the world’s population, having crossed the 65-year-old milestone. A significantly smaller number of cases – no more than 20% – falls on the age group from 40 to 60 years.
• Glaucoma. The disease is also associated with age: after 40 years, it affects 2-3% of the population, after 70 years – about 15%. • Myopia Myopia is the most common type of visual impairment and is particularly relevant for developed countries. It may be congenital, but more often it develops for a number of reasons, which include prolonged visual load at short distances (reading, computer work), and weakening of the eye muscles, and various visual impairments. • Diabetic retinopathy. Visual impairment, which can result in complete blindness, affects patients with diabetes mellitus; the overall incidence is up to 98% in people with diabetes mellitus for more than 20 years. The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy depends mainly on the duration and type of diabetes. • Dry eye syndrome. Dry eye syndrome implies disturbances in the pre-tear film and subsequent sensations, including poor tolerance of wind and smoke, the effect of a foreign body in the eye and
Risk factors can be divided into two varieties in accordance with the effectiveness of their elimination: non-removable and non-removable. Unrecoverable risk factors are a given, something to be reckoned with, something that you cannot change. Disposable risk factors are, on the contrary, what you can change by taking appropriate measures or making adjustments to your lifestyle.
• Age. People older than 40 years are more susceptible to various eye diseases compared to younger people; after 65 years the risk of visual impairment increases many times. • Paul. Men are more prone to eye diseases than women. • Heredity. The presence of short-sightedness, farsightedness or cataracts in your parents increases your personal risk of getting these diseases more than 2 times. In 25-50% of cataract cases, a hereditary factor has been identified. If both parents have myopia, then the probability of its occurrence in a child reaches 70%.
• Exposure to harmful factors (light, monitor, television). Working in bright or, on the contrary, too dim light, prolonged sitting at a computer (more than 2 hours a day), the habit of very often and long watching TV – all this speeds up and deepens the development of eye diseases and visual impairment as a whole.
• Overweight. Anthropometric map A pattern was found between obesity in men (especially deposits in the abdomen) and the development of age-related macular degeneration, which is one of the most common causes of vision loss.
• Improper nutrition. Test – Evaluation of Eating Behavior (EAT-26) A deficiency in the diet of a number of trace elements necessary for the synthesis of sclera (zinc, magnesium, iron, chromium and
• Low physical activity. Poor blood supply also has a negative effect on vision, and there is nothing better for improving blood supply than physical exercise, massage, any movement.
• Smoking. Fagerstrom test (degree of nicotine addiction) Smoking causes an eye disease such as macular dystrophy; in perspective, it leads to complete or partial loss of vision. In addition, smokers have a 40% higher risk of developing cataracts.
• Alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence test. Alcoholism causes damage to the optic nerves, which is expressed in their atrophy. Such changes in the optic nerves lead to visual impairment and, in the long term, to serious eye diseases.
• Diabetes. In the absence of correct treatment and adherence to a certain lifestyle, diabetes mellitus leads to the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is the main cause of blindness in diabetic patients.
• Stress. Evaluation of stress tolerance Increased nervousness, accompanied by a corresponding reaction of the body (a sharp increase and decrease in pressure, jumps in the pulse, tension of the eye nerves and eye muscles), causes the effect of a "dry eye" and can negatively affect vision.
• Minimize exposure to harmful factors. Adjust the lighting so that the light is bright enough, but it does not blind your eyes; if your profession is connected with permanent work at a computer or other eye strain, take a break every 15–20 minutes: perform simple eye gymnastics for 3 minutes, focus on distant objects (say, it may be a building outside the window). Watch TV also in moderation and with breaks: it is desirable to combine business with pleasure: for example, you can do household chores while “listening” to TV. • Increase physical activity. Move more: the rate of weekly physical activity is 150 minutes. Bring your level of physical activity to this indicator; walk more often, walk in the fresh air. • Stop smoking. Smoking cessation will allow you to minimize the risk of dystrophy of the yellow spot almost to the level of non-smokers. The risk of developing cataracts also slowly but surely reaches the usual level. • Limit alcohol intake. Give up alcohol or reduce its consumption to a minimum (20 ml of ethanol per day for women and 30 ml of ethanol per day for men). • Minimize stress and its effects on your body. Learn to control stress, try to eliminate situations from your life that make you nervous so much that it affects your health. • Control diabetes. If you have diabetes, control your disease: regularly undergo medical examinations, follow the recommendations of the attending physician, monitor blood sugar levels. With proper treatment and prevention, the negative effects of diabetes can be minimized. • Eat right. If the diet is balanced, it contains a sufficient amount of all the necessary vision vitamins and trace elements. This means that the probability of developing eye diseases is lower. • Get rid of excess weight. Overweight is a negative factor that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which, in turn, leads to a significant deterioration in vision. Put weight in order and neutralize this risk factor.
In addition to self-prevention of visual impairment, timely and professional medical monitoring is an important element of health monitoring in this area. In order to watch out for a disease that has begun to develop, or even just a worsening of the condition, in order to keep your chronic diseases under control, you should regularly undergo the following types of medical research: