Oligophrenia is a syndrome of a congenital mental defect, expressed in mental retardation due to brain pathology.
Oligophrenia is manifested primarily in relation to the mind, speech, emotions, will, and motor skills. For the first time the term oligophrenia was proposed by Emil Krepelin. For oligophrenia, the intellect of a physically adult person, who has not reached a normal level in its development, is peculiar.
Causes of oligophrenia
The causes of the disease are genetic changes; intrauterine damage to the fetus by ionizing radiation, infectious or chemical damage; prematurity of the child, disturbances during childbirth (birth trauma, asphyxia).
Causes of oligophrenia may be caused by trauma to the head, infections of the central nervous system, and hypoxia of the brain. Not the last role played by educational neglect in dysfunctional families. Sometimes mental retardation remains unexplained etiology.
Genetic changes can provoke oligophrenia, and according to statistics, up to half of the cases teach for this reason.
The main types of gene disorders leading to oligophrenia include chromosomal abnormalities (deletion, aneuploidy, duplication). Chromosomal abnormalities also include Down syndrome (trisomy of chromosome 21), Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Williams syndrome.
The causes of mental retardation can be triggered by dysfunction of individual genes, as well as the number of mutations of genes in which the degree exceeds 1000.
Characteristic of oligophrenia
The disease belongs to a large group of diseases associated with impaired development. Oligophrenia is considered an anomaly of underdevelopment of the psyche, the personality, and also the whole body of the patient. The rate of oligophrenia in industrialized countries reaches up to 1% of the total population, of this percentage 85% with mild mental retardation. The ratio of sick men to women is 2: 1. A more accurate assessment of the spread of the disease is hampered by various diagnostic approaches, and also depends on the degree of tolerance of socium to mental abnormalities and the degree of access to medical care.
Oligophrenia is not a progressive process, but it develops as a result of the disease. The degree of mental retardation is assessed quantitatively by an intellectual factor after applying standard psychological tests. Rarely, oligophrenics are considered an individual incapable of social independent adaptation.
There are several classifications of oligophrenia. Traditionally, the disease is classified by severity, but there is a classification by
The traditional severity is divided into the following: debility (mild), imbecility (moderate), idiocy (strongly pronounced).
The ICD-10 classification contains 4 degrees of severity: mild, moderate, heavy, deep.
Classification of oligophrenia by
The results of the works of M. S. Pevzner made it possible to understand the structure of the defect in oligophrenia, which accounts for 75% of all types of childhood anomalies, and to create a classification, taking into account the etiopathogenesis, as well as the originality of anomalous development.