The development and formation of speech in each child occurs individually, depending on many factors. You should not compare one baby with another, but it is necessary to clearly understand the difference between the norm and pathology in development. When alarms appear in the child’s speech delay, you may need the help of specialists if you do not manage to cope with the problem yourself.
What are signs of delayed speech development in children under 3 years of age? And when is it worth sounding the alarm? This will be discussed in the article.
The norms of speech development in a child
Initially, every healthy baby is born unable to speak. All communication with his parents occurs through a different intonation of crying. And only with time and with proper care does the formation and development of speech occur, which consists of a number of stages. Each of them is important, and without completing one, the child will not be able to master the next. The main task of parents is to recognize and help in time if the child has difficulties.
Normal speech development is considered if at the age of 2 to 5 months the child begins to roar. From three to five learns to pronounce individual syllables, entering the period of babble. From 11 months, the first words appear. At the age of 2-3 years, the child is able to build the first simple sentences. From three years old, a child is able to build his thoughts into a coherent small text, to memorize and retell short poems.
Formation of speech in the first year of life
The first year of life is very important for the correct process of formation of the child’s speech. During this period, he actively develops the brain, hearing, organs of speech. The harmonious combination of these components allows you to talk about the health of the baby. Hearing someone else’s speech, he tries to copy the speaker’s intonation first, and then make similar sounds and syllables.
The first months of life, the child utters sounds unconsciously, gradually training his speech apparatus. Then he begins to pronounce these sounds in a singing tone, turning into a stage of quenching. From the age of three months, the baby responds, imitating the adult, in separate syllables, and by the first half of the year he makes distinct sound combinations distinctly. By 9 months baby babbles. During this period, he develops articulation, he tries to repeat certain words as adults. Speech hearing, perception of objects, understanding of an adult’s addressing to him are being improved.
By the end of the first year of life, the baby is already able to repeat individual words. His vocabulary has about 10 words, consisting of the same type of syllables. The range of recognizable items has expanded. He learns by the names of loved ones, is able to discern who is depicted in the picture.
Speech development from one to three years
From the year the child begins to actively move in space, interact with a large number of objects. This can not affect the development of his speech. The first words appear, denoting actions, while in a generalizing form. Passive vocabulary is becoming wider, gradually the words from it become active. A child with the help of an adult learns to generalize them when interacting with various objects.
After a year and a half, the first simple sentences, often consisting of two or three words, appear in the child’s speech. Then the baby learns the plural, and by the age of two uses forms of the case. Delayed speech development in children 3 years old is diagnosed if the child does not know how. But is it worth it to panic right away? To start, it is important to find out the cause.
Reasons for rejection
Why is there a delay in speech development in children? The reasons may be different. To effectively correct problems in the child’s speech, it is necessary to clearly identify the problem and contact the right specialist. Scientists identify the main reasons:
- Development problems in the prenatal period.
- Birth injuries.
- Head injury at an early age.
- Psychological trauma, delayed neuropsychic development.
- Hearing problems.
- Limited communication between an adult and a child.
It is not a secret for anyone that the health of a child is laid during the pregnancy of a woman, when all organs are formed, the brain develops, which is responsible for the formation and development of speech in the future. Infectious diseases, injuries, antibiotic treatment, unhealthy lifestyle of the expectant mother can adversely affect not only the health of the baby, but the development of his psyche. Numerous studies also prove the negative impact on the child’s speech arising from birth injuries. It is then that there may be a delay in speech development in children 3 years and older.
Head injuries at an early age, concussion, severe infectious diseases with complications, stress, and neurosis can all affect the development of the child’s body as a whole, and speech in particular.
Hearing problems are very detrimental to the development and formation of speech. In this case, there is a delay in speech development in children 3 years. It is impossible to teach a child to reproduce sounds if he does not hear them and does not understand. Perhaps this is just a temporary phenomenon associated with a disease, ear inflammation, or the presence of a sulfur plug. Or is it a serious illness, for example, as a hearing loss. Depending on the degree of the disease, the correct treatment is prescribed by an otolaryngologist.
It is known that the delay of speech development in children 3 years old is eliminated by its constant contact with adults. Parents talk to their child long before he learns to answer them. These they stimulate the brain, positive emotions, and hence speech. It is noticed that those children who for some reason are deprived of the opportunity to communicate, much later begin to talk.
Speech development of children of 3-4 years: the norm and the delay
Up to three years old diagnosis "speech delay" (ZRR) is very rare, in most cases with various associated diseases. If there are reasons for concern, then timely referral to a specialist can completely solve the problem. Special attention should be paid if the baby does not seek to interact with other children. He is not taken into the game, because his speech is incomprehensible to others. The child is in too much of a hurry and swallows some of the words. He cannot answer simple questions. Does not recognize and can not name simple objects. If these symptoms are present, the child needs help. It is likely that these problems may disappear after simple exercises with parents. If there is no result from the classes after a short time, contact a specialist.
Delayed speech development in babies up to five years
After 4 years, there is a high probability of a transition from delayed speech development to delayed psychoverbal development (SURR). This is explained by the fact that underdevelopment of speech inhibits the development of thinking, and vice versa, problems in mental development inhibit the normal development of speech in a child. Success in the development of speech depends on the chosen methods for the treatment and correction of RRD. However, it is noted that after the age of five, the chance for the complete eradication of deficiencies in speech drops sharply. And after 6 years, it makes up only 0.2%.
Signs of a problem
How to find out that a child has a delay in speech development? How to recognize deviations? Scientists and experts identify 10 main features:
- The lack of a “rebirth reaction” for an adult up to 4 months.
- Lack of babble up to 9 months.
- Problems with chewing and swallowing up to one and a half years.
- The lack of simple words and a lack of understanding of elementary teams up to one and a half years.
- Vocabulary does not expand to two years.
- The inability to make simple sentences of two words by 2.5 years.
- Inaudible, hurried or too slow speech to three years.
- Inability to make your own sentences in 3 years or the use of mirror phrases of an adult.
- Failure to understand simple explanations of an adult after three years.
- Constantly open mouth and excessive salivation, not associated with teething.
Delayed speech development – when you need to sound the alarm?
The development of speech has a rather blurred boundaries. Do not constantly compare your child with other children. The process of the formation of speech is purely individual. Scientists also found that boys start talking a little later than girls. However, the percentage of delays in the development of speech in boys is higher.
If a child at the age of three perfectly understands an adult, fulfills his requests, and he has no delays in mental development, then there is no need to panic. If the baby suffers only speech, then the reason lies in the individual readiness for the formation of speech. If the child does not speak at all or very little after three years, or his speech is incomprehensible, then this is a serious reason to turn to a specialist.
Methods of therapy and correction
Treatment methods for delayed speech development:
- Classes with experts.
If during the examination by specialists, for example, a children’s neurologist, the child will be diagnosed with a brain injury, then, as a rule, a drug treatment is prescribed. It goes along with classes with a speech therapist, massage therapist, child psychologist, if the situation requires it.
Specialists to help children with speech development delays
Parents should not panic, because the delay in speech and speech development in a child is treated. A number of specialists deal with this:
Each parent should know when and why it is necessary to consult a doctor. Speech therapists help to put the right sound pronunciation, massage the musculature of the muscles, improve diction.
Defectologists often work in tandem with a speech therapist, the main task of these specialists is to eliminate developmental problems in children with mental and / or physical disabilities.
A neurologist will diagnose and help determine or eliminate brain damage. Psychologists help to develop memory, attention, fine motor skills of hands, to cope with psychological traumas that caused delays in the development of speech.
A audiologist is a doctor who helps in the treatment of hearing problems.
The delay in speech development in a child of 3-5 years is extremely unpleasant for the whole family. The most effective work to prevent the described problem is constant communication with the mother, adults, creating good conditions for the development of the child as a whole, constant communication with his child, reading books to him, learning poems. An important role in the development of speech is played by fine motor skills of hands – drawing, modeling from plasticine, finger and didactic games. All of these methods are available for home implementation. Even if the signs of delayed speech development in children under 3 years of age are completely absent, a maximum of communication is still necessary to avoid problems in the future.