Urine tests during pregnancy

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Zakome need a urine test during pregnancy?

Urinalysis during pregnancy is an extremely important study that allows to evaluate the work of the kidneys and the urinary system as a whole. This is a simple study that does not require much effort from a pregnant woman, but provides very valuable information for the doctor, who, based on the results of tests, selects and adjusts the tactics of pregnancy.

In the multidisciplinary medical center GMS Clinic in Moscow, you can pass any urinalysis and get a qualitative interpretation of the analyzes.

Urinalysis in pregnancy

Usually, a general urine analysis during pregnancy is taken at each visit to the gynecologist (at least once a month), starting from the moment of registration and up to the birth itself. For a general urine test, you only need to collect the morning medium portion of urine in a dry clean container and take it to the laboratory for research. After 20-30 minutes, the results of the analysis will be known.

Such a frequent urine test is due to the increased, almost double the load that the kidneys carry when carrying a fetus. The end products of an intensively growing organism are supplied through the umbilical cord into the mother’s bloodstream and require continuous elimination. Given that the increasing uterus can squeeze the abdominal organs located on the back wall, it is necessary to constantly monitor the work of the urinary system. Thus, the slightest compression of the kidneys and urinary tract leads to stagnant urine, edema of the organ, and ascending infection coming from the bladder. In addition, immunity weakened during pregnancy and changes in hormonal levels can trigger the development of infectious inflammation of the urinary organs or exacerbation of latent chronic diseases.

An analysis of urine during pregnancy also helps not to miss the warning signs of a specific pathology of the prenatal period – late toxicosis (gestosis), which can pose a threat to the life of the mother and child. In conjunction with certain complaints and symptoms, a general analysis of urine is important in identifying the severity of gestosis and directing the efforts of doctors to prevent this formidable pathology.

In the paid Moscow Medical and Diagnostic Center GMS Clinic, you can pass urine for analysis at any time. The result of the study will be ready on the day of the analysis. And it is possible to receive decoding of the analysis on reception of our qualified specialists of obstetricians gynecologists.

How to make a general urine test as informative as possible:

  • On the eve of collecting urine for a general analysis, it is not recommended to drink plenty of mineral water, alcohol, medicinal substances (vitamins and anti-inflammatory) to eat spicy, sour, salty and overstrain – all this may affect the result of the study and give inaccurate results.
  • The required volume of urine is 100 ml.
  • It is better to collect urine for analysis in pharmacy sterile containers.
  • Urine should be collected immediately after waking up from sleep. Nighttime urine is more concentrated, so it is best to detect any changes in the work of the urinary system.
  • It is necessary to collect a medium portion of urine, previously washed with soap.
  • The faster the urine is delivered to the study, the more accurate the analysis will be. It is usually recommended to provide urine for analysis with prescription of collection not more than two hours.

Poor urinalysis during pregnancy

The presence of a “bad” urine test during pregnancy may indicate asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnant women, gestosis, pyelonephritis of pregnant women, cystitis, urethritis and other diseases. In most cases, intense proteinuria, micro- and gross hematuria, detection of bacteria, a large number of leukocytes and cylinders in the urine require additional diagnostics (ultrasound, urinalysis according to Nechyporenko, urine culture for the detection of antibiotics) and observation of a pregnant woman in the hospital.

In the later stages of pregnancy, gestosis, that is, toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy, poses a particular danger to the mother and the fetus. When detecting increasing edema, protein in the urine, high blood pressure, a woman needs urgent hospitalization in the hospital. Launched cases of preeclampsia lead to eclampsia: the progression of edema, hypertension, the development of pain in the epigastrium, the appearance of intense headaches, passing to seizures and loss of consciousness. In some cases, even an emergency delivery does not save the fetus from death.

In addition, poor urine tests combined with high body temperature, general weakness, and lower back pain indicate an infectious disease of the kidneys or urinary tract. And the treatment of infection, as is well known, is the prescription of antibacterial drugs. In order to rule out the development of dangerous infectious complications, it is also necessary to be treated in the conditions of the obstetric department.

Therefore, if a gynecologist ascertains a “bad” urine test during pregnancy and insists on additional examination and inpatient treatment, the recommendation of a specialist should not be ignored.

Complete diagnostics of the urogenital system, including ultrasound, identify the causes of violations of the urinalysis, and not only get advice from an experienced obstetrician gynecologist and other doctors at the GMS Clinic Medical Center in Moscow.

Deciphering urine analysis during pregnancy

Decryption of urine analysis during pregnancy can only be performed by a medical practitioner. Despite the obvious indicators of the overall analysis, only a specialist with clinical thinking can evaluate the results of the study, not abstractly, but in combination with complaints, inspection data and additional diagnostics.

Urine is known to be formed in the kidneys by filtering blood plasma in the kidney glomeruli. Such a glomerular filtrate is the primary urine and contains all the components of blood plasma, except proteins: water (96%), dissolved mineral salts, a small amount of the urinary tract epithelium and cellular elements of the blood, the final products of metabolism, such as pigments, uric acid and urea. Next, the renal tubular epithelium is reabsorbed, that is, reabsorbed into the blood of 98% of the primary urine.

Interpretation of the general analysis of urine includes an assessment of odor, color and transparency, volume, acidity, relative density, microscopic examination of urinary sediment.

Colour. Urine in healthy people has a straw-yellow color, due to urochrome pigment. The urine may acquire darker coloration during edema and fluid loss, as well as in the presence of a large concentration of bile pigments in the urine (cirrhosis, hepatitis, obstructive jaundice), hemolysis. Redness of urine can be associated with the use of certain drugs and colored vegetables, as well as serious diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, in which a large number of red blood cells (nephritis) enter the blood. Whitish urine gets color with a large concentration of phosphates or fatty inclusions.

Transparency. The urine of a healthy person is usually transparent. Pathological clouding of urine appears when a large amount of salts (oxalates, urates, phosphates) or pus is excreted.

Urine tests during pregnancy

Smell. Normally, urine does not have a pronounced unpleasant odor. When there is a large amount of ketone bodies (diabetes mellitus), the urine acquires the smell of pickled apples, and the pungent smell can be associated with the consumption of large quantities of garlic and asparagus.

Daily amount of urine. The average daily diuresis in a healthy person is equal to

  • A significant drop in blood pressure and blood volume during bleeding, shock, dehydration.
  • Blockage of both ureters with stones or a tumor.
  • Acute renal failure.

Relative density of urine. The specific gravity of urine depends on the content of proteins, glucose, mineral salts and urea and is normally equal to

Reaction of urine. The reaction of urine is normally weakly acidic or acidic pH 5-7. The use of plant foods shifts the acidity of urine in the alkaline side, and the use of meat food – in acid. When kidney function is abnormal, the temperature rises, diabetes mellitus, the reaction of the urine shifts to the acidic side, and vomiting, inflammation of the bladder and the edema of the edema, the reaction shifts to the alkaline side.

Protein. In the urine of a healthy person, protein is contained in very small quantities – no more than

  • Increased muscle load
  • Eating large amounts of protein foods

Urine sediment The study of urine sediment is to identify salts and cellular elements (epithelium, red blood cells, leukocytes, cylinders). Normally, the number of red blood cells in the urine is not more than 3 in the field of view. Blood in the urine appears in the following diseases:

  • Toxic kidney damage
  • Nephrosis
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Kidney injury
  • Amyloidosis
  • Kidney tuberculosis
  • Hemorrhagic diathesis
  • Hemorrhagic fever
  • Urolithiasis disease
  • Cystitis

The number of leukocytes in the urinary sediment is normally in women up to 5 in the field of view, and in men up to 3 in the field of view. An increase in the content of leukocytes in the urine (leukocyturia) is observed in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, less often in tuberculosis and amyloidosis of the kidneys, acute and chronic glomerulonephritis.

Cylinders are formed in the tubules of the kidneys from protein under the influence of acidic urine. Therefore, cylinders appear only parallel to the appearance of protein in the urine and for the same reasons.

Epithelial cells line the urinary tract and appear in the urine during inflammatory processes in the mucosa. Normally, they are allocated units in the field of view.

The number of bacteria in the urine in healthy people does not exceed more than 2 thousand per 1 ml, and in patients with inflammation in the urinary organs reaches 100 thousand in 1 ml.

Urinalysis during pregnancy – the norm

The urine analysis during pregnancy is normal and does not differ from the average statistical norm. But, given all the features of the functioning of the urinary system in pregnant women, any deviations from the norm can be interpreted differently.

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