Numerous theories of child development have been proposed by psychologists, including cognitive, psychoanalytic and behavioral theories.
Child development, which occurs from birth to adulthood has largely been ignored throughout most of the story. Children were often viewed simply as reduced versions of adults and little attention was paid to many advances in cognitive abilities, language use, and physical development that occurs in childhood and adolescence.
Interest in the field of child development finally began to appear at the beginning of the 20th century, but this rule focused on abnormal behavior. In the end, researchers are increasingly interested in other topics, including the typical development of the child, as well as factors affecting development.
Why is it important to learn how children grow, learn, and change? child development is very important, because it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social, educational and growth that children go through from birth and in early adulthood. Some of the basic theories of child development are known as great theories; they try to describe all aspects of development, often using a phased approach. Others known as mini-theories, they instead focus only on a rather limited aspect of development, such as cognitive or social growth.
The following are just some of the many theories of child development that have been proposed by theorists and
Psychoanalytic Theories of Child Development
- Sigmund Freud The proposed theories of Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of childhood experiences and experiences, but almost exclusively focused on mental disorders and what normal functioning. According to Freud, child development is described as a series псих stages of psychosexual. In Three Sketches on Sexuality (1915), Freud described these stages as oral, anal, phallic, delayed, and genital. Each stage involves the satisfaction of libido desire and may further play a certain role in the adult personality. If the child is unable to successfully complete the stage, Freud has suggested that he or she will develop a fixation, which will later affect the adult personality and behavior. Read more in this article at the Freud stage. psychosexual development .
- Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Theorist also proposed a theory of developmental stage, but his theory embraces human growth throughout its entire life cycle. Erickson believed that each stage of development was aimed at overcoming the conflict. For example, the main conflict in adolescence involves creating a sense of self as a person. Success or failure in resolving conflicts at each stage can affect overall functioning. In adolescence, for example, failure in personal development leads to confusion
Theories of cognitive development of the child
Theorist Jean Piaget suggested that children think differently than adults, and proposed the stage of the theory of cognitive development. He was the first to note that children play an active role in the knowledge of the world. According to his theory, children can imagine themselves as “little scientists” who actively build their knowledge and understanding of the world. More in this article on the Piaget stage of cognitive development.
Behavioral theories of child development
Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interactions affect behavior and are based on theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner. These theories deal only with observable behavior. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, incentives and
Theories of child social development
- John Bowlby There is a lot of research on the social development of children. John Bowbly proposed one of the earliest theories of social development. Bowlby believed that early relationships with caregivers play an important role in the development of a child and continue to influence social relationships throughout their lives. Find out more in this attachment theory review.
- Albert BanduraPsychologist Albert Bandura suggested what is known as the theory of social learning. According to this theory of child development, children learn new behavior from observing other people. Unlike behavioral theory, Bandura believed that external reinforcement was not the only way people learned new
As you can see, some of the most famous psychology thinkers have developed theories to help explore and explain various aspects of a child’s development. Today, modern psychologists often rely on many theories and perspectives in order to understand how children grow, behave and think.