5 minutes Posted by: Elena Smirnova 6709
Diagnosis of diseases with the help of ultrasound is a method that is widely used in many areas of medicine, including cardiology. Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) has a number of prerogative aspects in relation to other methods of studying internal organs. The main ones are: the harmlessness of ultrasonic waves, high diagnostic accuracy. In addition, according to the technique of conducting, there is no long-term preparation for the study. Ultrasound of the heart has no contraindications, is performed at any age and an unlimited number of times.
When is training needed?
The patient’s ultrasound diagnosis is guided by the combination of the following symptoms:
- regular soreness in the chest and chest area;
- disruptions of the rhythmic work of the body (rapid or slow heartbeat);
- swelling of the ankles, not related to the violation of the kidneys;
- consistently high blood pressure;
- respiratory distress, impaired depth and respiratory rate, especially during physical activity;
- stable cold lower limbs;
- the blue color of the mucous membranes and skin, resulting from oxygen starvation (cyanosis);
- hyperthermia (fever), followed by hypoxia (lack of oxygen).
In addition, the doctor prescribes an examination: with abnormal ECG results (electrocardiograms), if during auscultation (listening with a stethoscope) sounds such as creaking, whistling and other noises are determined. The procedure of ultrasound diagnostics is mandatory for people with chronic diseases:
- congenital or acquired defect of the heart and large vessels (heart disease);
- pathology of connective tissue in the shell of an organ of inflammatory nature (rheumatism);
- postinfarction period;
- damage to the heart muscle is not inflammatory (myocardial dystrophy);
- angina pectoris;
- diagnosed tachycardia or bradycardia (rapid or slow heartbeat);
- the presence of tumors;
- diffuse systemic disease of connective tissue – lupus erythematosus;
- hypertension stage II and III.
The appointment of echocardiography to an adult patient is made by a cardiologist or general practitioner. The child is directed, as a rule, by the pediatrician. For children, the following symptoms are indications for ultrasound of the heart: difficulty in breathing without evidence of bronchopulmonary diseases, short-term loss of consciousness, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, noticeable pulsation of the veins (especially in the neck and in the right hypochondrium).
The list continues to abandon the breast for no apparent reason (changing the taste of milk, nasal congestion), congenital developmental anomalies, the presence of extraneous sounds during auscultation. Routine examinations are performed on infants and one-year-old children. Ultrasound of the heart is recommended for a child at puberty, since the heart muscle often lags behind the growth of a teenager.
In women in the perinatal period, ultrasound of the heart is not included in the mandatory screening, but can be carried out in the following cases: the presence of diabetes, spontaneous abortion in history, hereditary predisposition to cardiovascular diseases. A full examination, including an ultrasound diagnosis of the heart, is prescribed if a woman was infected with rubella while carrying a child.
Dependence of measures on the type of ultrasound diagnosis
According to the technique of conducting there are three types of ultrasound diagnostics:
- standard trastorakalnaya;
- transesophageal (SPEHO-KG);
- stress echocardiography.
The vigor of the movement of blood is established with additional research to the ultrasound – doppler sonography. The choice of procedure is determined by the attending physician individually for each patient. Transthoracic diagnosis is carried out in the traditional way for ultrasound when the doctor moves the sensor over the body surface (chest). Advanced research methods allow one-dimensional, two-and three-dimensional ultrasound of organs. The latter provides an opportunity to make a complete analysis of pathological changes of the heart, and to make the most accurate diagnosis.
CHPECHO-KG is produced by inserting an electrode through the esophagus to fix the rhythm of the cardiac activity. It is prescribed on the assumption of the presence of an infection in the heart sphincters (valves), in the post-stroke and post-infarction period, in patients with heart implants, professional athletes, before planned heart surgery. When stress echocardiographic procedure is used, physical or pharmacological (drug) load to force the contraction of the myocardium in a speeded-up rhythm.
Unlike other types of ultrasound of the heart, there are a number of contraindications to stress EchoCG associated with previously diagnosed diseases: stenosis (narrowing of the lumen of the aorta), bulging of the vascular wall (aneurysm), severe diabetes mellitus and ischemia, inflammatory processes of the myocardium and the lining of the heart ( myocarditis and pericarditis). The procedure is not performed for women in the perinatal period.
Preparation for ultrasound of the heart is simple and does not require much time. Preparing specifically for changes in diet or the use of medical drugs is not necessary. However, the fulfillment of certain conditions may provide more objective results of the procedure.
The patient must observe the following procedure rules:
- Two days before the examination, limit physical activity as much as possible. Exercises in the pool and gym, morning gymnastics are excluded.
- Before ultrasound, you need to refuse to take medications that affect heart activity. This is done to optimize the indicators that should not be adjusted drugs. What medicines to eliminate for people suffering from chronic diseases should be determined by the physician referring to the ultrasound.
- 24 hours before the examination should be excluded from the diet of coffee and energy and alcoholic beverages.
- It would be useful to tune in psychologically before ultrasound diagnostics (do not be nervous, to avoid heart palpitations).
- On the day of the ultrasound, you must stop smoking.
To questions whether it is possible to eat before the study, doctors give a negative answer. The last meal is carried out no later than four hours before the procedure. CHPECHO-KG assumes a fasting interval of at least six hours. Drinking any liquid at this time is also not recommended. Immediately before the procedure, you must notify the radiotherapy doctor:
- an alleged or existing pregnancy;
- the presence of a pacemaker;
- taking medications (from which you can not refuse);
- chronic diseases (not only of the heart system, but also of other organs).
In contrast to the electrocardiogram, on which the activity of the cardiac activity is recorded, the speed of circulation of blood flows, the structure of the organ, its shape and size are determined with the help of ultrasound. For the diagnosis of pathologies of the heart the best option would be the integration of both procedures.