The diagnosis of “intestinal dysbiosis” pediatricians increasingly put children up to a year. Dysbacteriosis is a violation of the natural balance between beneficial and pathogenic intestinal microflora.
Causes of dysbiosis in infants
Dysbacteriosis is a frequent diagnosis in children under one year old.
All children, while in the womb, have a sterile intestine without any bacteria. Passing through the birth canal, the child first encounters with the world outside the placenta. It is then that the first bacteria and colonize the intestines of the newborn. If the mother was allowed to attach the baby to the breast immediately after birth, he and colostrum receive a huge amount of nutrients, lacto-and bifidobacteria. It has been proven that children who were not weaned in the first days of life grew more healthy and less likely to have had a bowel disorder.
The signs of dysbiosis in infants of the first months of life are familiar to every mother. We used to call it colic. The baby becomes restless, often crying, cannot fall asleep, his appetite worsens, or vice versa, only a child can calm down near the breast of the mother. There may be diarrhea or just loose stools with mucus. Normally, beneficial bacteria colonize the intestines very quickly, and by the beginning of the second month dysbacteriosis is safely gone. However, not always everything is so simple. In premature babies, weakened or often ill, primary dysbacteriosis may occur, which does not pass so quickly. It needs to be treated, as it causes a violation of the digestive system, causing many problems for the mother and the child. Consider the most common causes of dysbiosis in infants:
- If for some reason breastfeeding was interrupted and the child was transferred to the mixture at an early age (especially up to a month), this often leads to disruption of the macro-flora of the intestine and dysbiosis.
- Mother’s milk can also be a cause if she has taken hormones or antibiotics.
- Dysbacteriosis at a later age (after a month) may occur due to infectious diseases that are usually treated with antibiotics. After such treatment, the child will have to be treated for dysbacteriosis.
- Improper nutrition and early introduction of complementary foods also contribute to the occurrence of dysbiosis.
- The reason may be various diseases of the digestive tract or lack of digestive enzymes.
- Birth injuries and prematurity also often entail dysbacteriosis.
Signs of dysbiosis
Dysbacteriosis – manifested by abdominal pain.
The first sign that prompts mom to think about dysbiosis is a change in the chair. Moreover, the changes may be different: from prolonged liquid diarrhea to severe constipation. A chair with a greenish tinge, frothy, with the presence of lumps suggests that the work of the intestine is broken and it is not able to completely digest food.
The baby becomes restless. After eating, you can observe increased gas formation, bloating, rumbling in the stomach. Baby can not sleep, crying for a long time. A child can burp a lot. If the dysbacteriosis is severe and the child is weakened or premature, other symptoms may occur, such as allergic reactions due to poor absorption of nutrients, anemia, and thrush in the mouth. There are 4 degrees of the disease, each of which has its own symptoms:
- At first, serious violations are not observed. After eating, a child may have flatulence, which is usually removed by Espumizan, slight deviations in weight gain, light stools. The pediatrician may conclude that it is necessary to correct the diet, and no longer prescribe any treatment.
- The next degree is characterized by more severe digestive disorders. The child has abdominal pain, he does not sleep well, eats little, is worried, gases may not be good enough. The chair is unstable, characterized by diarrhea, now constipation, has an unpleasant smell, an unusual color and lumps of undigested food. The doctor may order a stool test that will detect the presence of pathogenic bacteria.
- Signs of dysbiosis increase as the pathogenic bacteria in the intestine multiply. In the third stage, diarrhea becomes chronic, the stool has a sharp unpleasant odor, the child is tormented by severe pain, he often cries, does not sleep much and eats. There are signs of anemia, the child is weakened, immunity falls, is not gaining weight well, or does not gain at all.
- The fourth stage is the most dangerous and difficult. Pathogenic bacteria multiply, causing inflammation in the body. The child has intoxication, anemia, vitamin deficiency, he is rapidly losing weight. The temperature may rise, constant diarrhea with the smell of rot. There are also headaches and nervous disorders.
If any signs of dysbacteriosis appear, the mother should report this to the pediatrician. He will conduct the necessary examination and prescribe treatment.
Diagnosis of dysbiosis at an early age
There are several methods for the diagnosis of dysbiosis. It is necessary to take tests before the start of treatment so that the clinical picture is complete. If the child has already started taking antibiotics, you can take tests no earlier than 12 hours after taking the last pill. Basic diagnostic methods:
- Symptoms First of all, the presence of dysbacteriosis symptoms is taken into account, if they are already fully manifested. These include poor appetite, anxiety, unstable stool, regurgitation, flatulence. Mom should carefully examine all the signs and tell the doctor about it.
- Anamnesis. This is no less important part of the diagnosis. The doctor collects complete information about the child: when was he born, were there any birth injuries, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, viral infections, did he take antibiotics, and when did he eat and
Intestinal microflora is prone to frequent changes and it is not always possible to examine it fully, especially in a small child. For this reason, the doctor may prescribe additional tests, as well as consultation with a gastroenterologist.
Treatment of dysbiosis in infants
Linex – a remedy for dysbiosis.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, complex and rather long treatment will be required. It is necessary to give the child sorbents that will remove the accumulated toxins from the body. This will create a favorable environment for further treatment. A pediatrician may also prescribe bacteriophages. These drugs destroy pathogenic bacteria, without affecting the beneficial.
When toxins and pathogenic bacteria are already partially removed, you can proceed to another stage of treatment – colonization of the baby’s intestines with beneficial bacteria. To this end, the doctor prescribes drugs or special feed mixtures containing prebiotics and probiotics. Some colonize beneficial bacteria, while others maintain an environment suitable for their livelihoods. The most popular probiotics are Linex, Lactobacterin, Bifikol.
Not all doctors resort to the help of probiotics. It is believed that treatment with these drugs is absolutely useless for the child. They are sold in capsules and are designed to be taken in exactly this form. The shell protects the bacteria from the aggressive environment of the stomach, allowing it to enter the intestine. Small children cannot swallow the capsule, so moms add powder to the mixture or breast milk, which is a useless manipulation. Getting in this form in the stomach, the bacteria are destroyed by gastric juice, resulting in zero intestinal benefits. Antibiotics in infants with dysbacteriosis is given only in extreme cases, if the gastroenterologist confirms the feasibility of such treatment. The most sparing preparations for intestinal microflora are selected.
In addition to medical treatment, the doctor will advise to normalize the regimen of the child’s day. He needs to walk in the fresh air and preferably away from the slopes and roads. This will facilitate a quick recovery. In no case can not feed the child through force. Babies themselves know how much they need to eat. If the child lost his appetite, then the intestine requires unloading. Feeding through power will do more harm than good. Introducing new foods and new products during treatment is not recommended. In case of deterioration, severe vomiting, diarrhea, hospitalization is necessary. Moms do not want to avoid hospitals, because dehydration is very dangerous for an infant. No one will force a mother with a child to be in the hospital unless absolutely necessary.
Good nutrition will reduce the occurrence of dysbiosis in children.
Prevention of dysbiosis should be addressed even before the birth of the child. Before childbirth (and even better before pregnancy), a woman is recommended to cure all diseases of the genital area, so that, passing through the birth canal, the child is not infected. The earlier the child is attached to the breast, the less likely the occurrence of dysbiosis. Normal diet is also very important. Some doctors recommend feeding the child on the clock, others – on request. But overfeeding is not recommended in any case. The longer the baby eats mother’s milk, the better. Early transition to the mixture and the introduction of complementary foods can disrupt the intestinal microflora.
A nursing mother needs to eat properly and fully, as well as observe the rules of personal hygiene: wash hands and breasts regularly before feeding. The child must walk daily in the fresh air. If you can not walk with a stroller, you can take walks at least on the balcony. When breastfeeding, mom should eat daily sour milk natural products: kefir, ryazhenka, yogurt without dyes and flavors. Be sure to eat meat, as it is the main source of protein. But you need to choose low-fat varieties: turkey, skinless chicken, beef, rabbit. Fatty meat can cause indigestion and allergies in a child.
Sweets, chocolate and muffins are not recommended for nursing mothers. These products enhance the fermentation processes in the baby’s intestines and can also cause allergies. From sweet can be biscuit, white marshmallows, drying, crackers. Some fruits and vegetables can cause increased gas formation in the child and increase colic. Without fear, you can eat green apples, bananas in small quantities, zucchini and potatoes, carrots, bell peppers. You can eat unsalted cheese, scrambled eggs from eggs (infrequently and better quail), cereals, dried fruit compotes, lean fish, coffee, powdered juices and soda will have to be abandoned. Complying with these rules is not as difficult as subsequently treating dysbiosis in a child.
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