Almost at every occurrence of a respiratory infection in a child, the symptoms of the disease are associated with pharyngeal inflammation – pharyngitis. SARS and influenza, which often develop in children during the cold season, are caused by viruses that affect the upper respiratory tract and, above all, the nose and throat. Treatment of pharyngitis in children is an important task, because in the absence of the necessary measures, the pathology can easily become chronic.
The development of the disease in children
In children, often ill, acute pharyngitis occurs in 50% of cases of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis in a child may appear after 2-3 episodes of acute illness, which often will happen due to inadequate therapy. Almost always viral pharyngitis is combined with one of the other pathologies of the respiratory system – with rhinitis, tracheitis, laryngitis, and sometimes with bronchitis, which occurs against the background of a tendency to diffuse damage to the respiratory tract in a child.
Thus, up to 90% of acute inflammations of the pharynx in childhood are associated with the penetration of viral agents into the body:
- flu, etc.
Less commonly, the pharyngeal mucosa is affected by bacteria – streptococcal, pneumococcal, staphylococcal, chlamydial infection, and occasionally infection with pathogenic fungi, protozoa, becomes the cause of the disease. Pharyngitis can be a bacterial complication of sinusitis, rhinitis, adenoiditis. Sometimes a child is diagnosed with symptoms of allergic pharyngitis caused by drug, food or other types of allergies.
The cause of chronic pharyngitis becomes a sluggish streptococcal (less commonly, staphylococcal or mixed) infection. Factors contributing to the chronization of the disease and its subsequent exacerbations are:
- frequent hypothermia;
- reduced immune defenses;
- the presence of severe systemic pathologies;
- passive smoking;
- living in adverse conditions;
- stress, physical, nervous stress in a child;
- difficulty nasal breathing;
- the presence of chronic adenoiditis, sinusitis, rhinitis, pulpitis, tonsillitis;
- presence of reflux esophagitis;
- abuse of vasoconstrictor drops.
Symptoms of pharyngitis and how to diagnose it
In children, the symptoms of acute pharyngitis are usually more severe than in adults. The body temperature is often elevated because it is caused by a respiratory infection. The temperature can reach 38-40 degrees with the flu, 37.5-38.5 degrees – with other acute respiratory viral infections. Sometimes the temperature remains normal, especially if the pharyngitis is caused by rhinoviruses.
The first sign of the disease often becomes a runny nose and nasal congestion, going hand in hand with pharyngitis. Later, parents notice the following symptoms of the disease in a child:
- coughing up;
- complaints of tickling, burning, itching in the throat;
- capriciousness, crying child;
- increase in regional lymph nodes;
- occasionally conjunctivitis.
Sore throat with pharyngitis is usually not severe, sometimes not sharply manifested during the ingestion of food or saliva. A cough during pharyngitis by 2-3 days becomes strong, dry, but after a couple of days already goes into a wet. If a child has enlarged adenoids, pharyngitis and rhinopharyngitis almost always cause an exacerbation of adenoiditis, the main symptoms of which are running down mucus along the back of the throat, nausea, sometimes up to vomiting. Learn the features of the treatment of rhinopharyngitis in a child
Acute pharyngitis in a small child can proceed very hard, like a sore throat. Temperature and intoxication are pronounced, the baby refuses to eat, he has trouble sleeping with a strong dry cough and pain in the throat. How long does the temperature hold during pharyngitis should the doctor say: with ARVI, the temperature usually passes in 3-4 days, with the flu – in 4-6 days. During bacterial pharyngitis, the body temperature may initially be normal, but increases only by 2-4 days of illness, lasts a long time, but drops immediately after the start of antibiotic therapy.
Diagnosis of pharyngitis is based on data from pharyngoscopy, and if bacterial pharyngitis is suspected, it is based on smear analysis data from the posterior pharyngeal wall. In acute pharyngitis in the child are found:
- throat redness;
- swelling, pharyngeal infiltration;
- grit, friability of the mucous membrane of the posterior pharyngeal wall;
- hyperemia of palatine arches, soft palate, lateral ridges;
- the presence of inflamed follicles in the pharynx in the form of red grains;
- sometimes – the appearance of point hemorrhages on the back of the pharynx.
In chronic pharyngitis, the child has the following symptoms: the pharyngeal mucosa is loosened, hyperemic in areas or diffuse (chronic catarrhal pharyngitis). In children, chronic hypertrophic and atrophic pharyngitis are rare. These types of pathology cause the growth of throat tissue or its thinning (atrophy) and are diagnosed mainly in adolescents. Learn how to treat chronic hypertrophic pharyngitis
Pharyngitis should be differentiated from angina catarrhal, diphtheria, pharyngolaryngitis, and other infectious diseases of the oropharynx. Often, in chronic pharyngitis, a child needs advice from an allergist, immunologist, and gastroenterologist.
In order to cure pharyngitis faster, you need to follow general guidelines for any type of disease:
- Do not give your child annoying throat food – hot, cold, sour, salty, etc .;
- provide abundant drinking regime, including – to take alkaline drinks;
- to air the room more often, to humidify the air in it.
If pharyngitis is diagnosed in children, treatment should first of all include etiotropic drugs – antiviral, antifungal, antihistamine or antibiotic drugs. Prescribe a course of medication should only be a doctor, especially when it comes to babies up to a year, since the methods of treatment vary greatly depending on age. Since most often at home you have to treat acute viral pharyngitis, therapies and drugs will be as follows:
- Antipyretics (if the temperature is above 38 degrees) – Nurofen, Paracetamol, Cefecon, Nimesulide. If the child cannot bring the temperature down, it is better to call an ambulance. In case of spasm of the vessels (cold hands and legs), the kid is given a pill No-Shpy.
- Antiviral drugs – Tsitovir 3, Izoprinozid, Viferon, etc.
- Drugs for dry unproductive cough – Sinekod, Libeksin.
- Preparations for a wet dry cough, cough, mucolytics, thinning mucus – Ambrobene, Mukaltin, Lasolvan, Althea root syrup.
- Homeopathic medicines – Sinupret, Tonsilgon.
- Inhalation with saline, mineral water with an alkaline composition.
- Gargling with broths of sage, chamomile, calendula, Furacilin solution, Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, Rotocan, and eucalyptus oil solution.
- Lubrication of the pharynx with oil Chlorophyllipt.
- Rinsing the nose with seawater solutions such as Aqualor, Aquamaris, etc.
- Resorption of tablets with antiseptics (Falimint, Faringosept), irrigation of the pharynx Tantum Verde, Yoksom.
- Instillation in the nose of immunomodulators – Grippferon, Derinat.
- In frequently ill children, the use of local antibiotics in the form of sprays and lozenges – Bioparox, Grammeadin is justified.
Antibiotics for pharyngitis in children are prescribed infrequently, only if the bacterial nature of the disease is clearly established, or in case of stratification of bacterial complications (laryngitis, tracheitis, etc.). The most common treatment for bacterial pharyngitis at home is recommended with drugs from the group of penicillins (Amoxicillin) or macrolides (Sumamed).
Chronic pharyngitis at home should be treated with inhalations, foot baths with mustard, vodka compresses on the neck, irrigation and throat lubrication with antiseptic and regenerating preparations. Also popular treatment of pharyngitis in children folk remedies. Fully curing the chronic type of the disease is possible only with the elimination of risk factors – removal of the tonsils, adenoids, cure of antritis, sick teeth, etc.
Treatment of folk remedies
At home, they will help to cure acute pharyngitis inhalation, rinsing, as well as the intake of some folk remedies inside. The following recipes are time-tested, but hot inhalations can only be done after the temperature has normalized:
- Brew a glass of water with a spoonful of such a collection: combine 10 g of sage leaves, coltsfoot, plantain, eucalyptus, wild rosemary, St. John’s wort, chamomile flowers. After the tool has cooled, filter it, and then give the child to drink 50 ml four times a day.
- With a high body temperature baby can be given warm diaphoretic tea. For its preparation, 200 ml of boiling water is boiled over a spoonful of collection (2 parts of raspberry berries, 2 parts of currant leaves, 1 part of oregano and coltsfoot), insist, cool to a warm state.
- Coughing for pharyngitis can take infusion of the collection. 1 spoonful of plantain leaves, birch leaves, dandelion flowers, pine buds mixed, pour 2 spoons of the mixture with 500 ml of boiling water, leave for 2 hours. Give your child to drink 100 ml three times a day.
- Brew a spoonful of oak bark with a glass of boiling water, leave for 1 hour. After strain and apply for gargling.
- Boil the potatoes until done (in the peel), drain the water, then put the child in a saucepan, cover his head with a towel. The patient must breathe over the steam from the potatoes for at least 10 minutes. In children up to 7 years old, steam inhalation is dangerous to use!
- Squeeze the juice from the potatoes, these juice gargle up to 5 times a day.
- Finely chop the garlic, take 2 times more honey per 100 g of garlic. This means to warm in a water bath, cook for 20 minutes until the garlic softens. Take a thick syrup in half a teaspoon, dissolving in your mouth like a pill. This tool is suitable for the treatment of pharyngitis, as well as laryngitis, tracheitis.
- Mix a teaspoon of honey and lemon juice, throw a little cinnamon and a clove bud. Leave for 20 minutes, after a little warm up, give the child to drink this mixture during the day in small portions.
Treatment of pharyngitis folk remedies in more detail in this article.
Chronic pharyngitis can also be treated with folk remedies. It is useful to carry out such procedures for the throat:
- Mix 1 spoon of honey and the same amount of aloe juice, apply a means to lubricate the throat three times a day for up to 10 days.
- Combine 1 teaspoon of propolis tincture, 1 tablespoon of honey and 2 tablespoons of peach oil. Use as in the previous version. Read more about the treatment of pharyngitis propolis
- Boil 20 g of propolis, cut into pieces, 500 ml of boiling water, put the infusion in a thermos overnight. The next morning, strain the remedy, give the child gargle.
- Brew blackberry leaves (1 spoon) with a glass of boiling water, let it stand for 3 hours. After use for rinsing from chronic pharyngitis.
- Mix equally mustard powder, honey, vegetable oil, vodka, add flour until thick dough. Attach the dough to the child on the neck area, excluding the thyroid gland zone, leave for 1 hour, securing it with a film and a warm cloth. Compresses can be done daily for 5 days.
Prognosis and possible complications
Usually, acute pharyngitis with adequate therapy, as well as with the addition of treatment with folk remedies, takes place in children after 7-14 days. The prognosis is usually favorable: the disease is rarely chronic, serious complications are also relatively rare. In children up to 3-5 years old, with late initiation of therapy at home, as well as with reduced immunity, tracheitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis can develop. In chronic pharyngitis, the prognosis depends on the timeliness of elimination or correction of the cause that influenced the occurrence of the disease (restoration of nasal breathing, removal of adenoids, etc.).
Complications are more common in the development of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillopharyngitis. Among them, children are diagnosed:
- peritonsillar and peritonsillar abscesses;
- purulent otitis media;
- purulent mediastinitis;
- laryngotracheitis with stenosis of the larynx;
- acute rheumatism;
- brain damage;
- myocarditis, endocarditis.
Viral pharyngitis with a severe course in a child up to 3-5 years old can also provoke the spread of inflammation in the larynx and the appearance of edema with laryngospasm (laryngeal stenosis with an attack of suffocation). Sometimes complications arise when taking antibiotics as their side effect (allergic reactions, bowel pain, etc.).
How not to harm the child with pharyngitis
When treating acute pharyngitis in children at home, it is not possible to perform any thermal procedures during the period of high temperature. Favorite mustard plasters, compresses and soaring of the legs can be carried out only after the reduction of acute phenomena, but with bacterial pharyngitis, they are completely prohibited.
At a temperature, a small child should not be given too many diaphoretic teas and infusions at a temperature that can provoke dehydration. It is also forbidden to use acetic acid spirits, against which babies may develop vascular spasms. In addition, infants alcohol evaporation can generally be harmful during inhalation.
Wrapping a child with a wet cloth or cold baths can cause serious consequences – hypothermia, angiospasm, febrile seizures. In acute and chronic pharyngitis, a child should not consume irritating oropharyngeal food, give the child hot drinks, spicy, acidic foods, coarse vegetables and fruits.
- Hospitalization of the child may be necessary in such situations:
- development of purulent complications of pharyngitis (abscesses, phlegmon);
- severe course of the disease in a small child, as well as the occurrence of tonsillopharyngitis or laryngotracheitis against pharyngitis;
- the presence of certain pathologies of the organism (diabetes mellitus, nephritis, heart defects) or concomitant infectious diseases treated in the hospital (scarlet fever, diphtheria).
Prevention of pharyngitis in children, if the disease occurs against the background of SARS and influenza, is very difficult due to the high prevalence of infections in the epidemic season. But still, there are rules that, if observed, will help reduce the likelihood of pharyngitis in a child (acute and chronic):
- wash hands more often after visiting public places;
- maintain full body hygiene;
- wash your nose after attending kindergarten, school;
- use prophylactic agents against viral infections – systemic (Amiksin, Immunoriks), local (Namely, oxolinic ointment, interferon ointment);
- isolate the ill family members from the child;
- stop smoking in the house in order to prevent passive smoking by the child;
- hardening, water sports;
- often walk in the air;
- sanitize foci of infection throughout the body, cure gastropathology;
- prevent overdrying of the air in the apartment;
- varied and eat right.
And in conclusion, we offer to watch a video in which you will learn why it is necessary to monitor your diet and do not abuse hot and carbonated drinks? Let’s consult with the otorhinolaryngologist of the highest category Morozova Olga Nikolaevna.
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