It is known that almost 80% of the population is infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Because of this, papillomas appear on the body. The disease can affect people at any age. Papillomas in a child are considered one of the most common diseases at school age. Most often these are benign skin tumors. Less commonly, they are located on the mucous membranes. Our article will discuss the symptoms and methods of treatment of papillomatosis in childhood.
Epithelial growths on the body of a child appear completely unexpectedly. They can occur on the neck, in the folds of the skin, on the face, in the armpits, on the arms, soles and
Papillomas in children are of different forms:
- on the leg in the form of a mushroom;
The color of the neoplasm can be from light to dark brown. If a baby has an acquired form of the disease, then the growths are usually localized in the armpits, on the nose, neck, palms, feet, and near the nail plates.
For children with papillomatosis in congenital form, the appearance of formations in the larynx and oral cavity is more characteristic. In infants, growths can appear on the eyelid, in the auricle, around the face, or on the tonsil.
Papillomas in children can occur in the form of single tumors or multiple growths. Education can reach in the amount of 2-5 mm, and sometimes they grow so much that they occupy large areas of skin or mucous membranes. If the child’s papilloma is localized on the face, then psychological complexes can form. Less commonly, they may be malignant.
Human papillomavirus can lead to the following types of papillomas:
- Vulgar formations are common warts of small size, round shape. They have a rough cornified coating. Usually appear on the buttocks, hands, knees, back, but may be on other parts of the body.
- Flat epithelial growths – elevations above the skin surface. Usually their color is the same as that of the skin. In infants, such papillomas may itch and are accompanied by inflammation due to scratching.
- Plantar formations are small yellowish warts with dots inside. Since they are localized on the sole, they can cause problems for the child while walking. These tumors include dry calluses, which are different from warts by the absence of dots.
- Filamentous outgrowths have a thin leg and a thickening at the end. Most often localized in the armpits, on the face, neck and groin folds. The color is similar to or different from the skin color. With frequent friction, these growths can separate themselves. A drop of blood appears at this place.
- In newborns, symptoms of illness are characteristic of juvenile papillomatosis. In this case, papillomas occur in the glottis and contribute to impaired breathing and speech. This is a rare serious illness that is diagnosed in the first months of life if the baby is infected during birth from an infected mother.
- Epithelial hyperplasia. With this form, tumors can appear in the child in the mouth. These are small filamentous outgrowths that require urgent excision due to the discomfort they bring to the baby.
- Warty dysplasia. This form is manifested by red-brown spots with a rough surface, localized on the hands and feet. It is rarely diagnosed, but in 1/3 of cases it has a malignant course.
Important! Against the background of a weakened immunity, warts and papillomas in a baby may appear more than once.
Usually they do not cause anxiety, but when they are torn off or scratched, they can become inflamed and spread throughout the skin. Parents should monitor the hygiene of the child if there is growths in the area of the anus or inguinal folds. Because in this place they can often become sore and irritated.
Treatment of neoplasms in children
If a child has papilloma, it’s not worth hoping that she will fall off, you also don’t need to self-medicate. To treat the disease should only be a specialist, otherwise you can provoke a malignant degeneration of the growth or spread of papillomas to other parts of the body. Conservative, operative, and complex therapies are commonly used.
The best is considered an integrated approach to the problem. In this case, the formation is removed surgically. Since the cause of the disease is infection with the human papillomavirus, after removal it is necessary to undergo a course of effective antiviral drugs, as well as to take immunomodulating agents.
When working with children, the doctor selects in each case an individual treatment regimen, taking into account the size of the outgrowth, the depth of the epithelium lesion, the location and the examination data of the baby. If there is a suspicion that the growth is malignant, a histological analysis is carried out.
Conservative treatment of papillomas is advisable to apply in the presence of single formations that capture a small area of the skin. Vitamin preparations and immunomodulators are usually prescribed. Locally prescribed various lotions and ointments. If the disease has a mild course, then the neoplasm itself may disappear after the normalization of the state of the immune system.
There are various medications for papillomas. The doctor may prescribe one of them, given the age of the child and the size of the tumor:
- Super Celandine can cause skin burns, so it is applied with a cotton swab only on the growth. This drug is usually prescribed for older children because of its insecurity;
- Verrukacid is applied to the tumor with the help of a special applicator that comes in the kit. The drug contains ethanol, metacresol and phenol. This drug allows you to remove papillomas due to their drying. After several days of use, they disappear;
- Preparations containing salicylic acid, for example, salipod plaster or salicylic ointment, effectively help to fight plantar warts.
You can also try Panavir gel, Cryopharm, Feresol, Solkoderm, or oxaline ointment. If after a week of using the drug there is no effect, it is worth consulting with a specialist.
If conservative methods of treatment and drugs have failed, it is necessary to use radical methods, namely the removal of papillomas. This method is also resorted to when a complex appears in a child because of its appearance. Also, laryngeal papillomas are immediately removed because of the risk of suffocation. The following methods are used for this:
- laser removal.
The procedure of electrocoagulation involves the use of high-frequency current for excision of papillomas. The destruction of the cells of formation occurs under the influence of high temperatures. The disadvantage of the method is the need for anesthesia, as well as a long rehabilitation period (the wound heals for a long time). The advantages include the absence of blood, since it collapses under the influence of an electrocoagulator.
Using a laser, the tumor can be removed anywhere, at any depth. Also do not matter its size. Local anesthesia is done before removal. There is no bleeding during the operation, as the laser stops it instantly. After surgery, there are practically no complications.
This most effective method is most often used to treat children. With the help of a cryoapparatus, the doctor acts on the neoplasm for 20-30 seconds. Due to exposure to liquid nitrogen, papilloma freezes and collapses. In its place remains a slight erosion, which heals in 7-14 days.
The advantages of cryodestruction include the following:
- No need for anesthesia;
- There is no direct contact with blood, which means that the risk of infection is completely excluded;
- After the procedure and the healing of the skin does not remain scar;
- The operation itself takes a minimum of time and does not require the placement of the patient in the hospital.
Important: this method is ideal for the treatment of children of preschool age.
Excision of skin neoplasms in children using a traditional scalpel is very rarely used today. A direct appointment for such an operation is only a malignant process. In this case, it is necessary to remove not only the formation, but also the surrounding tissues to eliminate the risk of metastasis.
Also, surgical removal is resorted to, if necessary, to conduct a histological study. This should be done in the event that it is not possible to establish the exact nature of papillomas or warts.