Nosebleeds always occur as a result of damage to blood vessels. Most often this phenomenon is recorded in children under the age of 10 years and in adults after 50 years. Doctors identified several dozens of causes and factors that can provoke nosebleeds – they can be accurately determined only with a full examination of the patient. This will be dealt with in medical institutions, but the rules of first aid for abundant nosebleeds and the principles of general care in such cases need to be known to everyone.
Causes of nosebleeds
The most common cause of nosebleeds is vascular fragility. Some people notice the appearance of blood from the nose, even with normal sneezing, and more often such a reason is detected when examining children under 10 years old – the body is still growing, so over the years the described syndrome disappears. People complain of spontaneous bleeding from the nose and people with sustained high blood pressure, this syndrome almost always appears when there is a trauma of the nose. In general, medicine distinguishes two large groups of causes of nosebleeds – local and systemic.
Local Causes of Nose Bleeding
- nose injuries;
- inflammatory processes that develop directly in the sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis);
- acute respiratory viral infections;
- progressive tumors of benign or malignant nature in the nasal cavity;
- use of an oxygen catheter due to medical indications;
- surgery carried out in the nasal cavity or in its sinuses;
- drug use – this refers to cocaine and glue, which are inhaled by the nose;
- The use of nasal sprays is not all, but some medicines for a cold have a negative effect on the state of the blood vessel walls.
Please note: it is not necessary that the above factors certainly lead to the discovery of nosebleeds, but they can provoke it. For example, some types of nasal injuries are characterized by a lack of blood discharge, but the presence of puffiness, difficulty breathing and other signs of developing pathology.
Systemic causes of nosebleeds
In this case, the general state of health and certain chronic pathological processes will influence the appearance of nosebleeds. Systemic factors that can trigger nosebleeds include:
- diagnosed allergy to any external or internal irritant;
- hypertension is not a periodic increase in blood pressure, but steady hypertension;
- the use of alcohol in large quantities and often – drinks containing alcohol in their composition dilates the vessels;
- chronic liver disease and inflammatory or infectious heart disease;
- long-term use of certain drugs – in this case, nosebleeds will be classified as a side effect;
- excessive physical exertion, sunstroke, overheating – bleeding from the nose in such a case begins suddenly and is short in duration;
- hormonal disorders – a similar factor relates to a greater extent to women, it is not surprising that complaints about the described syndrome come from pregnant women;
- infectious diseases – with measles, scarlet fever, flu, the permeability of blood vessel walls increases.
In addition, nosebleeds can be associated with barometric pressure drops – a similar syndrome inherent to divers, pilots, climbers.
Classification of nosebleeds
The considered syndrome is differentiated in medicine as anterior and posterior nasal bleeding. If a person has anterior nosebleed, then you should not worry – it stops on its own (as a last resort you will need to apply simple methods of self-help), it is never long and does not pose a health hazard. Quite another is the rear view nosebleed. It occurs as a result of damage to large vessels, so a large blood loss is a reality.
Important: back nose bleeding never stops on its own and always requires professional help.
In addition to these two main types of the described syndrome, doctors differentiate the degree of blood loss. She may be:
- easy – the person practically does not feel any problems, the bleeding stops independently and is short-lived;
- middle – blood from the nose is intense, while the person feels slightly dizzy, nausea may be present;
- severe – the blood from the nose does not stop even after taking emergency measures, the person becomes ill: severe dizziness, pallor of the skin, sticky cold sweat appears on anyone, complaints of nausea are received.
Nosebleeds in children
Medicine has deeply studied the nature of nosebleeds and singled out this syndrome, which occurs in children in a separate category. The fact is that if the child periodically opens anterior nosebleed, this means that he simply has not fully formed blood vessels located in the nose. The described syndrome, which appeared for precisely this reason, is absolutely safe – the blood quickly stops, there are no consequences or complications in the child.
Bleeding from the nose associated with problems in the trachea, stomach, esophagus is characteristic of childhood. Parents should be alerted by the dark color of the blood coming out of the nose, it will resemble ink and be distinguished by the presence of small clots. This means that the dangerous pathology of the internal organs is actively developing.
If the child has posterior nasal bleeding, then it can lead to a sharp deterioration in health – weakness, pallor of the skin, dizziness, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, loss of consciousness.
Important: in some cases, the blood in the back of the described syndrome runs down the throat, and the child swallows it. In this case, nose bleeding can be detected only by the presence of blood in the vomit. Abundant back bleeding often leads to critical blood loss and death of the child.
Emergency care for nosebleeds
Both children and adults need to know the rules of first aid in the described syndrome – in this way it will be possible to help both myself and an ordinary passer or neighbors, acquaintances and colleagues.
What to do when anterior nasal bleeding
The first thing to do is to land or put the victim (in the prone position, be sure to slightly raise the head).
Please note: it is not necessary to lift the head, as this can lead to swallowing blood.
Then you need to apply one of two means:
- 3% hydrogen peroxide;
- vasoconstrictor nasal drops (eg Naphthyzinum).
These means should be moistened with a cotton swab and inserted into the nostril from which blood is flowing (or both), the nasal passage with the swab should be slightly squeezed with fingers and remain in this position for a maximum of 15 minutes. It is possible as an additional help to attach cold to the bridge of the nose – even ice from the refrigerator will do.
If there is no first-aid kit on hand, then you can quickly stop the non-intensive bleeding from the nose of the front view with a usual handkerchief – soak it in water and attach it to the bridge of nose.
Important: in case of continuation of bleeding from the nose after the measures taken and when the blood flows out with a stream, with clots, you should immediately seek medical help.
What to do with back nose bleeding
In this case, it is impossible to do without the help of specialists, so you need to call the ambulance team and go (or send the victim) to the hospital. What can doctors do at a hospital?
First, experts direct their actions to stop bleeding. For this purpose, swabs moistened with specific drugs are injected into the nasal passages. Such a tamponade can last more than 1 day. At the same time, doctors can carry out hemostatic injections, which will help speed up the process of restoring the normal functioning of the nose.
Secondly, if the above measures did not give any effect for 2 days, then surgical intervention is prescribed – the surgeons will coagulate to stop the bleeding, restoring the integrity of the damaged vessel. Such an operation doesn’t mean anything terrible – specialists work with state-of-the-art equipment and you will not need an opening of the nose.
Third, after providing emergency care, a full examination of the patient will be carried out, the causes of nosebleeds will be identified and specific drugs will be prescribed (for example, to strengthen the vascular walls). It is much easier to undergo a course of therapy and then only follow the recommendations of the attending physician than to fight blood loss each time.
Please note: all of the above activities are carried out in hospitals only to those patients who went to the doctor’s office without visible signs of ill health. In all other cases, an emergency examination of the patient is carried out – ultrasound and X-ray studies will enable doctors to understand what is happening in the patient’s body in general.
Many people are trying to cope with the protracted nasal bleeding on their own, using popular recipes. Consider that such behavior is fraught with serious consequences:
- visible bleeding may become less, in fact, the blood just drains down the pharynx to the esophagus and stomach;
- if the described syndrome is associated with a nose injury, then stopping the bleeding may mean a fracture of the far bones of the sinuses, the penetration of their fragments into the skull box;
- the loss of blood is so great that it can be very sad for the patient.
Nosebleeds often turn out to be a harmless syndrome that even a child can cope with. But one should be attentive to one’s own health and with a recurring syndrome (more often than once every two months) one should consult a physician for a full examination. Even if there is bleeding in children and it is not intensive, then a specialist consultation does not hurt – this syndrome may indicate a banal vascular fragility, but it may also be a sign of serious pathologies of internal organs.
Yana Alexandrovna Tsygankova, medical reviewer, general practitioner of the highest qualification category.
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