Ticks are carriers of tick-borne encephalitis. It is especially dangerous for children, since the neurological consequences of the disease remain for a lifetime and are not subject to correction, and in half of the cases encephalitis is fatal.
In order to prevent the epidemic and create a safe environment in all countries of the world, it is possible to vaccinate children against tick-borne encephalitis. Such vaccinations so far keep the incidence threshold at an acceptable level.
What is dangerous tick-borne encephalitis
Tick-borne viral encephalitis (EEC) is an acute infectious disease characterized by the inevitable damage to the central nervous system. It is natural focal, that is, they can get sick in the conditions of the natural environment.
The tick-borne encephalitis carrier is Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus, and the causative agent is the flavavirus. It is contained in the saliva of the tick and enters the blood of humans and animals during bloodsucking.
The incubation period, when there are no symptoms, is from one to two weeks. The disease begins acutely: chills appear and the body temperature rises to 40 ° C. Fever can last from two to ten days. There is marked malaise, intolerable, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbances (nightmares). In the acute period, visible manifestations are also noticeable: hyperemia of the face, neck and chest, redness of all mucous membranes, oropharynx, injection of sclera and conjunctiva.
With an increase in intoxication, neurological symptoms, in particular paralyzes and paresis, numbness of the extremities and paresthesias (tingling, burning) appear. Changes are also observed in the consciousness – it becomes darkened, delirium and hallucinations appear, as the state grows comatose.
This is the way of the classic “acute” tick-borne encephalitis. But there are other forms – latent. When they have a short-term fever, and at the site of the tick bite appears rounded redness. This is the so-called ring erythema.
The effects of encephalitis are varied – from death to complete recovery. Neurological effects manifest as lesions of the brain and spinal cord, encephalopathy.
Measures of specific prevention of tick-borne encephalitis
Mortality from viral tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and nearby parts of Asia is about 2%. At the same time, Far Eastern encephalitis causes death in 30%.
In order to reduce this risk, the WHO provided for the possibility of specific (by the causative agent) prevention of this dangerous disease. So that by the time of seasonal activity the vaccine has already given immunity, it must be done in advance.
The following vaccines for children have been registered in the Russian Federation:
- For children from 1 year there are two vaccines: FSME-IMMUN Junior and ENCEPUR for children. Both vaccines are inactivated to avoid complications and health risks. All other vaccines are prohibited for use in babies.
- For children over 11 years old: Enceptur adult. It is also an inactivated vaccine.
- For persons over 16: FSME-IMMUN.
- For persons over 18 years old – EnceVir.
Due to the high toxicity of the pathogen in the vaccine is always inactivated, that is, does not emit a toxin. That dose of the virus, which is already contained in the vaccine, is enough to produce immunity.
Principles of vaccination
Vaccination of tick-borne encephalitis is placed subcutaneously in the shoulder. Domestic vaccines are prohibited in Russia due to non-compliance with the conditions of manufacture and storage. Vaccinations against tick imported children can be set c 1 year.
There are certain principles for vaccinating children against tick-borne encephalitis:
- the course consists of two vaccinations;
- for the greatest efficiency, it is recommended to vaccinate a child in March or April, one month before the expected season;
- between vaccinations need to observe the interval from one to three months;
- emergency prevention after a tick bite is not necessarily carried out after such a pause, it is permissible by necessity.
For vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, as well as for the rest of vaccinations, there is its own scheme, approved by WHO.
There are two vaccination schemes – standard and accelerated.