The nasal septum is a part of the olfactory organ that performs a number of important functions. Under the influence of various adverse factors, a bone comb can form on it. The nasal septum in this case ceases to function normally, and therefore increases the risk of developing life-threatening conditions and health. Treatment of pathology is only operative, depending on the severity of the disease, both standard and modern minimally invasive techniques can be applied.
Nasal septum: structure, function
This part of the olfactory organ resembles a peculiar plate. It divides the nasal cavity into two equal zones. The partition is represented by bone and cartilage tissue, it is covered with mucous membrane.
For the human body, nasal breathing is the most physiological. The air entering the organ of smell, forms an arc, convex upwards. At the same time most of the smallest foreign particles remain in front of the nose. Next, the air rushes to the partition. It rises in temperature and humidity. In addition, the clearance of pathogens from outside. Thus, this part of the nose helps to warm the air, thereby reducing the risk of developing various respiratory diseases.
Under the influence of adverse factors, the nasal septum may be deformed. There are several types of curvature. One of the most common is the bone crest of the nasal septum. This is a pathological condition characterized by a curvature extended in the horizontal direction. Outwardly, it resembles a comb. The main site of its localization is the bone part of the plate, sometimes it affects the cartilage tissue.
Causes of formation
The crest of the nasal septum (the photo is presented in the article) may form on the background of the following diseases and conditions:
- Improper development of the skull. If bone growth occurs unevenly, the nasal cavity also forms abnormally. At the same time its size is reduced. Due to this, the partition becomes not enough space and it begins to bend.
- Injuries. The result of a strong blow is the displacement of the bones and septum. If it is not timely to turn to a traumatologist, an incorrect splicing of the tissue will occur. Against this background, a nasal septum may form.
- Polyps and tumors of both malignant and benign nature. Against the background of the development of tumors, the respiratory process is disturbed in the affected nasal passage. Over time, the partition also begins to bend.
- Hypertrophy. This is a pathological condition characterized by the uneven development of one of the nasal conchae. On the background of hypertrophy, the plate is under high pressure. As a result, the formation of the crest of the nasal septum may occur.
- Catarrhal inflammatory process (for example, vasomotor and chronic rhinitis).
- Pathology of the nose, accompanied by the release and accumulation of purulent secretions.
In order to choose a method of treatment, the doctor must know the reasons for the crest of the nasal septum began to form.
The main signs of pathology are the following states:
- Frequent episodes of rhinitis. The patient’s breathing is regularly disturbed and the secretion of mucous secretions occurs.
- Outwardly, it is noticeable that the shape of the nose has become asymmetric. Drastic changes occur after injury.
- Regular headache. This condition occurs reflexively due to the fact that the growing crest of the nasal septum touches or even squeezes the mucous membrane of the sense of smell.
- Snoring during the night.
- Nosebleeds. The mucous membrane is penetrated by a set of vessels. Against the background of its thinning as a result of pressure, the integrity of the capillaries is disturbed.
- Decreased efficiency, rapid onset of fatigue. This occurs against the background of hypoxia – a condition in which an insufficient amount of air enters the body.
- Discomfort during nose breathing.
- Frequent episodes of respiratory diseases, accompanied by a runny nose, cough, fever, sneezing.
- Sore throat, sore throat.
- Hearing impairment. Against the background of progression of curvature (nasal septum crest) inflammatory processes develop in the ears.
- Deterioration of smell. It becomes difficult for the patient to recognize smells.
- Memory impairment
- Decreased concentration
If one or more of the above warning signs occur, please contact the otorhinolaryngologist.
At the reception, the ENT doctor needs to be provided with information on what complaints he is worried about and how long they appeared, whether there were injuries to the face in the past (in particular, the nose), whether he has used vasoconstrictor drops in his nose.
After anamnesis is collected, the specialist should examine the patient to assess external curvature.
Based on the results of the primary diagnosis, the doctor may additionally order one or more instrumental examinations. To detect the crest of the nasal septum, the following methods are used:
- Anterior rhinoscopy. The essence of the method consists in the following: the doctor enters the closed expander into the aisle, after which slowly begins to push the parts of the instrument. In this case, the patient should slightly raise the head. Pressure is not applied to the nasal septum, as this is fraught with the occurrence of bleeding. The primary doctor examines and assesses the state of the lower parts of the olfactory organ. The patient is then asked to tilt the head back so that the specialist can visualize the rest of the nose and septum.
- Back rhinoscopy. The method involves the inspection of the organ of the nasopharynx. Its essence is as follows: the doctor with the help of a special spatula presses on the tongue, due to which the patient reflexively stops breathing through the mouth, and inserts a small mirror into it. The specialist ensures that the instrument does not come into contact with the mucous membrane, since contact with the back wall of the throat and the sky can provoke vomiting and interfere with the study.
- Rhinomanometry. The method allows to assess the degree of patency of the nose. The result of the study is the coefficient of resistance – the number obtained in the process of the ratio of the pressure difference and air flow rate. Based on rhinomanometry data, the doctor can judge the degree of respiratory failure.
After analyzing the results of diagnostic measures, the otorhinolaryngologist chooses the most appropriate prompt way to remove the crest of the nasal septum. There are no conservative methods of treatment of bone formation, alternative medicine in such cases is also powerless.
Minimally invasive method – laser thermoplastic
Most patients go to the doctor only when the deformity (the comb of the nasal septum) has reached the maximum degree. In such cases, a full-fledged operation is indicated.
If the curvature is at the initial stage of development, while the cartilage tissue is more involved in the pathological process, laser thermoplastic can be carried out. This is a low-impact method of treatment, which is carried out under local anesthesia. Its essence is as follows: the doctor sends the laser beam to the pathologically changed part of the cartilage tissue, whose cells begin to evaporate.
The operation is not accompanied by bleeding, its duration is only a few minutes. Upon completion of the laser thermoplastic procedure, the patient is inserted into the nose a tampon to fix the cartilage tissue. Immediately after that, a person can begin their daily activities. The swab must be removed the next day.
It is important to understand that the appointment of a laser thermoplastic is advisable only if the cartilage tissue is involved in the pathological process and the degree of deformation is small. The power of the beam is not enough to remove the modified bone. In this case, a full operation is shown.
This term refers to the surgical straightening of the septum and the removal of the formed crest. At the same time, both bone and cartilage bases are preserved.
Before removing the crest of the nasal septum in a similar way, the doctor must identify or rule out the presence of contraindications for the patient. Septoplasty is not performed in the following diseases and conditions:
- Blood clotting disorders.
- Malignant neoplasm.
- Infectious diseases.
- The presence of any pathology in acute form.
In addition, a contraindication to septoplasty is an older age. This is due to the fact that in this category of patients the risk of occurrence of various complications increases many times.
Preparation for surgery:
- A week before the intervention, refuse to take any anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs, against the background of which blood thinning occurs.
- During the same time, it is necessary to pass a general blood test and obtain permission from a cardiologist to perform the operation.
- In women, the intervention is carried out at least 7 days after the completion of menstruation.
On the crest of the nasal septum operation is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- The patient is placed on a couch. Then anesthesia is administered. The operation is performed under general anesthesia.
- A doctor uses surgical instruments to expose the lower part of the nasal septum.
- The specialist performs resection of the ridge. At this stage it is important to prevent excessive thinning of the septum, otherwise this part of the nose will not be able to perform the support function. If a patient has applied to a medical institution that has a good reputation and a staff of highly qualified specialists, the occurrence of this error is excluded.
- The doctor holds tamponade. With its help, the partition is fixed in a physiological position. In addition, the use of tamponade minimizes the risk of hematomas and adhesions.
The result of the operation is a straight partition. In this case, the patient disappears unpleasant symptoms. The duration of surgery is from 40 minutes to 1.5 hours. Judging by the reviews, the operation on the crest of the nasal septum is well tolerated by most patients.
Under this term is meant a complex of surgical measures, the purpose of which is to eliminate the deformity and restore the normal form of the organ of smell.
The indications for the removal of the crest of the nasal septum by this method are the following states:
- Curvature of innate nature.
- Severe asymmetry of parts of the nose.
- Perforation in the plate, which is a consequence of injuries or inflammatory processes that occur with the formation of granulomas.
The operation is not carried out to persons with pathologies of the upper respiratory tract in the acute stage; oncological diseases; bleeding disorders.
Rhinoseptoplasty can be functional and reconstructive. In the first case, the patient is restored to normal nasal breathing, in the second case, the form of the olfactory organ is additionally corrected. The choice of methodology is carried out by the doctor, based on the data of anamnesis and the results of instrumental studies.
The operation can be performed under local as well as general anesthesia. When choosing anesthesia, the doctor takes into account the degree of deformity.
Functional rhinoseptoplasty is carried out, as a rule, in a closed way. This means that the surgical procedure is performed almost blindly, but at the same time it is possible to avoid incisions and, accordingly, scars. The open method allows you to control the process and resection of even a large number of pathological tissue, while maintaining the main function of the septum.
The duration of the intervention is approximately 1 hour. According to reviews, the operation on the crest of the nasal septum is well tolerated. But at the same time the healing process is very painful.
After surgery to remove the nasal septum, treatment with conservative methods is not required. In order to quickly heal and minimize the risk of complications, it is enough to follow some recommendations:
- In the first 3 days after surgery it is forbidden to consume hot drinks and food heated to high temperatures.
- Tampons should be changed immediately after they are completely soaked with blood.
- Avoid staying in places with high air temperature (such premises include, for example, baths and saunas).
- Homes need to be wet cleaned twice a day.
- The room where the patient lives constantly, needs to be aired regularly.
- It is forbidden to contact infectious patients. It is recommended to avoid large crowds, especially at the peak of the common cold.
- After 2 months, you need to visit an otolaryngologist.
Features of the recovery period:
- After surgery, the patient is in the hospital for 3 days under the supervision of a physician. If the complications do not develop, the person is discharged.
- In the first 3 days marked pronounced nasal congestion, due to the presence of edema of the mucous membrane. In addition, minor bleeding may occur periodically. These conditions are normal and do not require immediate medical attention.
- The sense of smell after the operation is restored after about 1 month.
- If surgical intervention was carried out in a closed way, the aesthetic appearance of the sense of smell is restored after 2 weeks, open – after 1-1.5 months.
If not treated?
Deformation not only worsens the appearance, but also contributes to the development of pathologies that are dangerous to health and even life.
The following conditions and diseases may occur due to the crest of the nasal septum:
- On the background of the curvature disrupts the process of normal breathing. This leads to inflammation of the auditory tube, otitis, sinusitis. Every runny nose is protracted, complications often occur.
- Against the background of deformity, vasomotor rhinitis progresses, which can turn into a hypertrophic form.
- Due to an insufficient amount of oxygen, diseases of the cardiovascular system develop first.
- Apnea episodes may occur at night. These are short-term respiratory arrests, which also entail the occurrence of dangerous diseases.
- Both upper and lower airways are inflamed.
In addition to the deterioration of overall health, the patient has an unpleasant smell from the mouth, which significantly reduces the quality of life.
The crest of the nasal septum is a type of deformation of the plate that divides the cavity of the olfactory organ into two equal parts. Curvature leads not only to all sorts of diseases, but also to the deterioration of the appearance of a person. Pathology treatment is carried out only by operational methods. The choice of method depends on the degree of deformation.