The causative agent of mycoplasmosis – mycoplasma – a microorganism that occupies an intermediate position between bacteria and viruses.
Of the 40 species of mycoplasma known to science, humans are dangerous: mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, mycoplasma pneumonia, and ureaplasma ureliticum. Mycoplasma is a parasite living at the expense of an organism infected with it, it receives the necessary nutrients from it, and in response it “thanks” its breadwinner with various pathologies and diseases.
Mycoplasmosis can cause:
- Inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system and men and women.
- Inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages.
- Bacterial vaginosis.
- Causes changes in the structure of sperm, fraught with male and female infertility.
- Pathologies of pregnancy, fetus and newborn (missed abortion, miscarriages, premature birth. An infected fetus may cause eye damage and / or pneumonia, develop mycoplasmosis of the urinary system).
Numerous studies have found that 50-60% of people who have diseases of the genitourinary system, there is mycoplasmosis ; and in 10-15 people, the disease is asymptomatic, but activation is possible with a decrease in immunity, amid stress, during pregnancy. Since the disease can cause serious pathologies for the development of pregnancy and the fetus, when planning a pregnancy, a woman needs to have a mandatory examination for mycoplasma.
When the asymptomatic course of the disease is diagnosed late, which often leads to the development of complications in the form of chronic inflammation of the uterus, bladder, prostate gland. The neglected form of the disease complicates and prolongs the treatment, worsens the prognosis.
Causes of infection
It has been established that the infection is transmitted in the following ways: sexual, oral-genital, prenatal and natal (infection of newborns when passing through the birth canal of my mother infected with mycoplasmas). Moreover, infection of girls occurs much more often than boys. So, mycoplasma hominis is detected in approximately 25% of newborn girls. Often, newborns have self-healing, especially often in boys. As for adults who are sexually active, 20 to 50% of women and about 20% of men are carriers of mycoplasma hominis. In men, there are cases of self-healing, women need to undergo a course of treatment.
Cases of infection through the household through common objects are extremely rare. The incubation period lasts an average of 15-20 days.
In women, the urethra and paraurethral passages, the small and large vestibular glands, the vagina, the ovaries, the cervix and body of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, the pelvic peritoneum are affected. In men, the urethra and paraurethral passages, bladder, testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland. In this case, men may have discharge from the urethra, and in women from the vagina, a clear, white or yellowish-transparent color.
There are painful sensations during sexual intercourse, burning during urination, redness and itching at the external opening of the urethra. In a complicated form, pain in the scrotum, perineum, rectum may occur, women may have lower back pain and lower abdominal pain and intermenstrual (ovulatory) discharge of blood. In both men and women, skin rash, liver pain and frequent exposure may occur. catarrhal diseases.
Mycoplasmosis is difficult to diagnose due to the absence of signs characteristic only for this disease, and the mycoplasmas themselves are so small that they cannot be detected by microscopy. If a disease is suspected (for example, a patient complains of one of the diseases that causes mycoplasmosis) a patient takes a swab, which is examined by the method of polymerase chain reaction or by the method of immunofluorescence. Another effective diagnostic method is blood test from a vein for the presence of antibodies to mycoplasma.
The disease is treated with antibiotics: tetracyclines, macrolides, azalides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones. Despite the fact that these drugs are quite effective and allow you to achieve the disappearance of clinical manifestations, many experts warn that in about 10% of cases, the elimination of the pathogen does not occur.
In this case, and with a complicated or chronic form, a more prolonged, and in some cases, combined antibiotic therapy is carried out. Concomitant treatment – instillation of the urethra, the use of interferons (Genferon, etc.), physiotherapy, immunotherapy. Also, the scheme of antibiotic therapy is determined depending on the type of mycoplasmosis – this may be the carriage of mycoplasmosis and mycoplasmosis – symptoms of inflammation in the urinary tract.
An alternative method of treating mycoplasmas is homeopathic preparations. But to cure a disease in such a way is not easy – only very qualified and experienced professionals take it.
When mycoplasmosis is detected, the patient’s sexual partner must undergo the necessary examination and subsequent treatment. Otherwise, re-infection can not be avoided, since resistance to mycoplasmas does not occur.