Teachers who are just starting their professional path often do not attach importance to such an important stage of the lesson as reflection. It seems to have heard what it is, like they know that reflection is self-esteem. But in practice, often this stage of the lesson is presented in the form of banal "emoticons", leaves of different colors and other pictures that students together "mold on the board" at the end of the lesson. Sometimes the teacher is simply limited to the question: "Did you like the lesson?" All students shout in unison: "Yes!" – and all satisfied go home. It would seem that there is nothing to complain about: was there a reflection? Was! Assessment lesson set? Put! In terms of lesson plan, the stage is called a beautiful word. "reflection"? There is such! And no complaints.
But with experience comes the understanding that reflexion helps the teacher to control the class, already during the lesson to see what was understood and what was left for revision, that is, "keep abreast". Do not forget that the reflection – this is something new, what modern pedagogy strives for: to teach not science, but to learn to learn. Reflection helps the child not only to realize the path traveled, but also to build a logical chain, to systematize the experience gained, to compare their successes with the successes of other students.
In the structure of the lesson that meets the requirements of the GEF, reflection is compulsory stage of the lesson. In GEF, special emphasis is placed on the reflection of activity, it is proposed to conduct this stage at the end of the lesson. In this case, the teacher plays the role of the organizer, and the main actors are the students.
What is reflection?
Dictionaries give a clear definition: reflection is self-analysis, self-esteem, "inside look". As applied to the lessons, reflection is a lesson stage in which students independently assess their condition, their emotions, and the results of their activities.
What is reflection needed for?
If the child understands:
- for what he studies this topic, how it will be useful to him in the future;
- what goals should be achieved exactly in this lesson;
- what contribution to the common cause he can make;
- can he adequately evaluate his work and the work of his classmates,
… then the learning process becomes much more interesting and easier for both the student and the teacher.
When to spend?
Reflection can be carried out at any stage of the lesson, as well as on the results of studying the topic, the whole section of the material.
There are several classifications of reflection as a lesson stage. Knowing the classification, it is easier for the teacher to vary and combine the techniques, including reflection in the lesson plan.
I. By content: symbolic, verbal and written.
Symbolic – when a student simply assesses with symbols (cards, tokens, gestures, etc.). Oral implies the ability of a child to expressly communicate his thoughts and describe his emotions. Writing is the most difficult and takes the most time. The latter is relevant at the final stage of studying the whole section of the study material or a large topic.
II. According to the form of activity: collective, group, frontal, individual.
In this order it is more convenient to teach children to this type of work. First, with the whole class, then in separate groups, then selectively interviewing students. This will prepare students for independent work on themselves.
III. By purpose:
She assesses the mood, emotional perception of educational material. This is a reflection from the category. "liked / disliked", "interesting / boring", "was fun / sad".
This type of reflection helps the teacher to assess the overall mood of the class. The more positive, the better understood the topic. Conversely, if conditional "clouds" there will be more, it means that the lesson seemed boring, difficult, there were difficulties with the perception of the topic. You must admit that it can be boring and sad for us when we do not understand something.
How and when to conduct?
Reflection of mood and emotionality is easy to carry out even with first-graders. There are a lot of options: transfer cards with emoticons or iconic pictures, thumb up and down, raising hands, signal cards and
At the beginning of the lesson, emotional reflection is carried out in order to establish contact with the class. You can put music (picking up a motive that is consistent with the theme), quote a classic, read out an emotional poem. After that, you should definitely ask 3-4 students: "What are you feeling now? What is your mood? AND
Reflection of activity
This type of reflection is more convenient to use when checking homework, at the stage of securing the material, while protecting projects. It helps students understand the types and ways of working, analyze their activity and, of course, identify gaps.
How to conduct (examples of work organization):
- Ladder of success. Each stage is one of the types of work. The more tasks completed, the higher the drawn man rises.
- Success tree. Each leaf has its own specific color: green – done everything correctly, yellow – difficulties encountered, red – many mistakes. Each student dresses up his tree with the appropriate leaves. Similarly, you can decorate a Christmas tree with toys, decorate a glade with flowers and
Thanks to such techniques, there will always be a clear picture in front of the teacher: what they understood and realized, and what needs to be worked on.
Reflection of the content of the material
It is more convenient to carry out this type of reflection at the end of a lesson or at the stage of summing up. It enables children to realize the content of the past, to evaluate the effectiveness of their own work in the classroom.
How to conduct:
- Offer children cloud "of tags", which must be supplemented. For example, on an interactive whiteboard you can display a slide, where the options are indicated:
- today i found out.
- it was difficult…
- I realized that …
- I learned…
- I could …
- it was interesting to know that …
- I was surprised …
- I wanted … and
Each student chooses 1-2 sentences and finishes them. It is possible to carry out such a reflection orally, but also in writing (on leaflets or directly in a notebook).
- Graphic: on the board is a table with signs
In the table, the objectives of the lesson can be written down to the teacher himself (for elementary school students). With senior you can set goals together. At the end of the lesson, students pitch in front of each goal and in the column that they consider more acceptable.
Students are encouraged to name three points that they have done well in the lesson process and suggest one action that will improve their work in the next lesson.
The following examples of reflection will perfectly fit into the concept of humanitarian subjects:
For example, give a description of Woland, the hero of the novel M. Bulgakov "The Master and Margarita":
Oh – personifies justice
L – moon, black poodle and "devilry"
A – the opposite of Yeshua
N – not absolute evil
- Idiom or proverb
Pick an expression that matches your perception of the lesson: you heard it with the edge of your ear, your ears slammed, your brains wiggled, the crows thought and
A few comments on the topic, or suggestions from students
- Such techniques as insert, sinwine, cluster, diamond, PPS do not need to be clarified and have proven to be very effective. With one "but"! If the teacher uses them all the time, so that children can get used to such work. Otherwise, the creation of the same wine will be turned into a hard work, and not a positive and effective completion of the topic.
- It is desirable to adapt the form of the age of children. Naturally, in the 10th grade with dwarfs and hares you will not go. But in the lower grades you should not get too carried away with colorful pictures. Choose one option so that students are used to it and not have to explain the meanings of pictures or gestures each time.
- A note from a child was heard on one of the forums: "One teacher has a red leaflet "got it", another – "understood nothing", in the third teacher, instead of leaves, there are some asterisks-clouds. And how should I remember all this?" This is a question on the backfill. It seems that in the framework of at least the method of joining it makes sense to agree on a single meaning of the symbols / colors / signs used for reflection.
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