A course of lectures on the subject “History of Pedagogy”
Topic 1. The origin of education, school and pedagogical thought in primitive and slave-owning societies.
2. The concept of the origin of education.
3. The origin of education in primitive society and its formation as a purposeful process.
4. Education in slave society:
a) Education and schools in the countries of the Ancient East (India, China, Egypt).
b) Education in the states of ancient Greece (Sparta, Athens).
c) Education and school in ancient Rome.
d) The educational practice of the ancient Slavs (Ideas of folk pedagogy).
The history of pedagogy is a major discipline of pedagogical educational institutions, occupies an important place in the general pedagogical education and upbringing of future teachers. Studying the history of school and pedagogy is an important condition for the formation of a general and pedagogical culture, since it gives knowledge about the development of the theory and practice of education, education, and contributes to the development of worldview and pedagogical professionalism.
Appeal to the history of pedagogy and school allows us to more fully understand the course and results of the interaction of society, on the one hand, schools and pedagogy – on the other. There is a system of knowledge about how school and pedagogy reproduced communities and civilizations, how acquired cultural values were consolidated in the field of education and training. An idea is being formed that school and pedagogy have always been a noticeable (though not the only) engine of cultural and social evolution.
School and pedagogy are the arena of collision of economic, class-class, political, ethnic and other public interests.
The study of the history of pedagogy helps to master the modern science of education, provides valuable and irreplaceable knowledge about society and man, about the origins of today’s world pedagogical process. The history course of pedagogy covers the entire history of upbringing and education (primitive epoch, antiquity, the Middle Ages, the New and the Newest time), which allows us to characterize the main directions of development of the upbringing and education of human society.
I. World science offers several concepts of the origin of education.
The traditional ones include:
1. Evolutionary-Biological Representatives of this Concept
2. Psychological concept. From the standpoint of this concept (presented by Amer. Scientist
3. Biosocial concept (labor) Authors of biosocial concept (
Many modern researchers, agreeing to take into account when considering the origin of upbringing, the continuity between the forms of rational activity in some higher animals and in humans, emphasize the qualitatively social characteristics that distinguished human education when it originated as a particular type of activity, consider that social the function of education is the deliberate and purposeful transfer of social and historical experience to the younger generation, in ADEN them practical employment skills and to develop ethical standards of behavior and experience.
Ii. The origin of education in primitive society.
Thousands of years separate us from the time when a man of modern physical type appeared on Earth. This period (40–35 thousand years ago) includes the birth of education as a special type of human activity.
Parenting originated as both physical, mental, and moral-emotional maturation. Raising primitive people seemed haphazardly, spontaneously. Its content and techniques were complicated as the enrichment of public experience and consciousness. The ancestors of modern people should be well aware of the edible plants, the terrain, the habits of animals, the ability to hunt, kindle fire, cook food, make tools, weapons and
Iii. Education in the slave society.
a) Education and schools in the countries of the Ancient East (India, China, Egypt).
The beginning of the history of school and upbringing as special spheres of social activity dates back to the era of the civilizations of the Ancient East, the birth of which belongs to the 5th millennium before
The civilizations of the Ancient East gave humanity invaluable experience, without which it is impossible to imagine the further development of the world school and pedagogy. During this period, the first educational institutions emerged, the first attempts were made to understand the essence of upbringing and education. The pedagogical traditions of the ancient states of the Two Rivers, Egypt, India, China influenced the genesis of upbringing and education in later times. A common feature of all slave-owning states was the upbringing and training of mainly children of slave owners and some stratum of free citizens. Schools were different in their orientation and location.
In India, there were three higher castes: priests (brahmans), warriors, churchmen (farmers, artisans, merchants). The fourth and lowest caste was hired workers (servants, slaves).
The greatest privilege was the caste of the Brahmins (priests). For their children, priestly schools were opened. The basis of education was moral, mental and physical qualities. The leading qualities of the personality were considered righteousness and purity of thoughts. Brahman education was primarily of a religious nature, including, however, grammar and other “auxiliary sciences” (rules of conduct, the science of numbers, astrology, snake science, ethylology, logic, etc.) Pupils had to comprehend absolute truth and reality – Brahman. was 12 years old.
For community members, community schools were opened, they taught writing, reading and writing, raised diligence and patience.
Future soldiers were brought up with strength and courage, with the lower caste – patience and obedience. The transition from family to social education began with 8, 11, 12 years. There were also higher schools in India. Few young men from very rich families received education there. They studied religion, poetry, literature, philosophy, grammar, mathematics, astronomy.
In Ancient India, zero and counting were first introduced with the help of 10 characters, which were later borrowed by Arabs and Europeans.
The caste system left a specific imprint on the development of education and training in ancient India. An important factor in the genesis of upbringing and education turned out to be religious ideology: Brahmanism (Iduizm), and later Buddhism (the Buddha or Shakya-Mani was at the beginning of the Buddhist tradition (623–544)
According to legend, the Buddha began to educate the forest school near the city of Benares. Around him a hermit – guru (teacher) gathered students, whom he taught his teachings.
In China, for centuries the pedagogical ideal has developed, which provided for the education of a well-read, polite, possessing inner self-control of a person who knows how to “look deeply into oneself and establish peace and harmony in one’s soul”. The basis of educational relations lay respect for the younger ones to the elders. Mentor was revered as a father. The activity of the teacher was considered very honorable. The acquisition of education was extremely important.
According to ancient books, the first schools in China appeared in the 3rd millennium before
The main purpose of the training was the development of hieroglyphic writing. The ability to use hieroglyphics was inherited. They wrote on turtle shells, animal bones, on bronze vessels (10 in. To
The approach to schooling in ancient China was reduced to a brief but succinct formula: ease, agreement between the teacher and the student, the independence of schoolchildren. The mentor took care of teaching his pets to independently set and solve various issues.
China is among the ancient civilizations where the first attempts were made to theoretically comprehend upbringing and education. The main philosophical schools formed in China to the VI. before
Among the first teachers to unite the experience of teaching and education and theoretically interpreting it was the famous Chinese sage Confucius (551–479 to
Confucius was the first in the history of the elevation of man; he was a teacher of humanity. His thoughts, words, humanize a person to help make sense of his life. The training aims to develop the spiritual sensitivity of the student. Great accomplishment begins with small deeds. The great teacher Coop understood: in order to educate a person, you need to help him develop freely. He first began to teach the example of his own life, he taught to learn by improving his nature. He was the first in the history of mankind proclaimed the purpose of learning: the development of the natural abilities of man.
In the book “Conversations and Judgments”, the pupils of Confucius recorded his statements; they contain both philosophical understanding of life, and teacher’s advice. Confucius, by learning, understood the spiritual growth of any personality.
Some sayings of Confucius, which is already 2.5 thousand years old.
“Is there a word that could be guided all my life?” The teacher replied: “This is reciprocity.” – “What you do not wish for yourself, do not wish that to others”.
“Young people at home should be respectful of their parents, outside the house respectful of their elders, distinguished by caution and sincerity, abundant love for all, and come close to human beings.”
“Learning and not thinking – wasting time, thinking and not learning – is destructive.”
“If you cannot cultivate yourself, how can you improve other people?”
At the end of the epochs of ancient China IIv. before
School and education in ancient Egypt.
The first information about schooling in Egypt goes back to the 3rd millennium before
In ancient Egypt, as in other countries of the Ancient East, family education played a huge role. The relationship between a woman and a man in a family was built on a fairly humane and equal basis. Therefore, equal attention was paid to the education of boys and girls. For, in their beliefs, it was the children who could give their parents a new life after the fulfillment of the funeral rite. Schools arose in temples, palaces of kings and grandees. Basically, there were children of wealthy parents. In order to master the diploma, the student should memorize at least 700 hieroglyphs, distinguish between fluent, simplified and classical writing. As a result, the doctrine was supposed to master a business style for secular needs and a sacred (statutory) one for compiling religious texts. We taught eloquence (the first stage of training). Then in a number of schools they gave knowledge in mathematics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine, languages of other nations. A special place was occupied by the royal schools, where the children of the highest aristocracy studied together with the children (offspring) of the pharaohs and their relatives. In such schools, special attention was paid to translating the most ancient texts into the living language.
The purpose of training was to prepare for the profession, which traditionally involved family members (artisans, traders, musicians, scribes, doctors and
In Egypt, the centuries-old traditions illuminated the unconditional and absolute authority of the father and mentor. The disciple first had to learn to listen and obey. Physical punishment was considered natural and necessary. The school motto was the words recorded in one of the ancient papyrus: “The child has an ear on his back, you need to beat him so that he can hear.” To succeed, students had to sacrifice worldly joys.
3 (b) Education and school in ancient Greece.
Ancient Greece is a country consisting of a number of small slave-owning states (policies).
The most influential of them were Laconia with the main city of Sparta (authoritarian system of government) and Attica with the main city of Athens (republican government).
They defined the various educational systems Spartan and Athenian. Spartan education has developed both under the influence of climatic conditions, and in conjunction with the historical fate of the state, in a state of permanent warrior, with a huge number of slaves.
Sparta (VII – III centuries to
The purpose of the Spartan education was to prepare a strong, hardy, courageous warrior, a member of the military community. In Sparta, “almost all education and a host of laws are designed for war,” wrote Aristotle in Politics.
Up to 7 years, children were brought up in the family, but the state controlled the parents. Children were not swaddled, raised unpretentious in food, not afraid of the dark, not knowing self-will and crying.
From 7 to 30 years (7-15, 15-20, 20-30) people were constantly in the state guardianship system. The boys were gathered in the Agelles, where they were under the age of 18, this is the state system of upbringing (the boys lived and ate together, learned to endure hardships, to triumph over the enemy).
Physical hardening, the ability to endure hunger, thirst, and pain were acquired thanks to the appropriate conditions of life: the boy received a raincoat, slept on a mat made by himself, and obtained food for himself. The children were cut short and taught to walk barefoot. A great place in the preparation of a future warrior was given to military gymnastics exercises: throwing a disc and a spear, wrestling, hand-to-hand fighting, and running.
At the age of 14, every Spartan passed through agon, a public spanking in which students competed in patience and endurance. This competition was repeated later.
Physical education was complemented by singing and dancing, which were militant in nature and aroused courage. A special concern for upbringing was the schooling of laconicism, honesty, and purity of speech, combined with caustic wits. Literacy and reading taught in the minimum amount.
From the age of 18, young men became members of the military community, received the right to carry weapons, did military service, took part in raids and killings on suspicious rafts and slaves.
During the following years, military training and physical training did not stop, moral and ideological attitudes were strengthened.
The education of girls was aimed at preparing healthy and undemanding women who could reproduce offspring. They were as harsh and purposeful as men.
The girls competed in running, wrestling, throwing a disc and a spear in the same way as boys. (They kept the slaves in obedience when the men went to war).
Athenian education pursued other goals: “Most of all, we strive for citizens to be beautiful in soul and strong in body, for it is these people who live well together in peacetime and save the state during wartime.” (Lucian).
Up to 7 years, all freeborn children were brought up in the family, with them were the mother, the nurse, the uncle’s slave.
After 7 years, the girls remained in the family, accustomed to the household. The life of women in Athens was closed and concentrated in the female half of the house (the genek), and the boys began to attend paid schools (simultaneously or sequentially).
Musical (grammar, kifarista) (8-16 years) – which gave literary and musical education and some scientific knowledge. Schools were private and paid, general classes were led by teachers didaskaly (didasco – I teach, later didactics – the theory of learning). One of the slaves was escorted to the boys’ school, called a teacher (guide), Pais – a boy, Ogogain – to lead.
Palestine (13-14 years old) – Schools of pentathlon, running, jumping, wrestling, swimming, throwing a disc. Much attention was paid to the art of dance, in which they tried to convey the range of human experiences. Pupils participated in folk games and shows. Here, well-known citizens conducted conversations with children on moral issues.
Gymnasium (16-18 years). The most well-to-do young men studied in them, they improved in gymnastics, and mental training was held here. Adult men also came here to listen to a popular philosopher, share news, watch youth competitions – this was how free education of adults and teenagers was carried out.
Aethers (18–20 years old) are biennial military state organizations where young men were taught military affairs.
In the prevailing social conditions of Athenian life, success could be achieved only by mastering the art of the word, allowing to retain the understanding of the crowd. Sophists, wandering teachers, among whom were writers, philosophers, statesmen, were engaged in teaching this art. Sophists delivered exemplary speeches to the disciples and then forced the disciples, imitating them, to pronounce their own; there were frequent disputes. Just as in schools, sophists took a fee for their classes, any square could become an audience. Such studies were a kind of first form of higher education. The pinnacle of this form of learning was the method of Socrates (469-399 before
Along with the school, education in Athens was carried out by a broad system of out-of-school education, which had a great influence on everyone. This is the Athenian theater, and nation-wide games — Olympiads, and visual arts, and architecture — a whole system of cultural influences.
In ancient Greek science are the origins of many pedagogical ideas. In the teachings of the philosophers Socrates, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, the goals of upbringing are defined, its laws and principles are revealed, the principles on which upbringing and education are built. Many of the pedagogical ideas were further developed in science in the next centuries.
The pedagogical experience of ancient Greece is invaluable to humanity. Here are widely used means of physical education and hardening; proved the possibility of harmonious development; revealed the connection of the content of education, its means with the age of the child. The harmonious development of children through education still remains one of the most humane and noble ideas in pedagogy.
The following concepts were included in the science of education and education of youth from antiquity: “teacher, didactics, gymnasium, lyceum, school”.
During this period, the Olympic Games appear.
C) Education in ancient Rome.
Schools in ancient Rome were divided along property lines. (many traits) and the nobility of the origin of their students.
Elementary schools, private and paid, served a certain part of the poor and non-native free-born (playboy) population, taught reading, writing and counting, familiarizing themselves with the laws of the country.
In grammar schools, also private and paid, the sons of rich and noble families studied (boys went to school at the age of 11-12. Rich parents preferred to give their children primary education at home).
They taught the boys Latin and Greek, rhetoric (the art of eloquence), literature and history.
15 – year old young men, after passing a course of serious for that time humanitarian training, could in the future devote themselves to politics, to a court case.
In the last century of the Roman Republic (beginning and middle of the 1st century before
The most famous of the Roman teachers was Marx Fabius Quintillian. (42-118 g.
Quintilian theoretically substantiated and used in his practice the three methods of training and education that he considered most effective: imitation, training (theoretical instruction), exercise. He believed that the foundations of knowledge should be laid firmly and slowly.
In the school of Quintilian, the thoroughness of a broad general education was combined with a profound study of oratory.
D) The educational practice of the ancient Slavs
In the second century. before
One of the common, multifaceted and effective means of education was falclore, especially for children, which united all types of folk poetry. In ancient times, such an effective means of education arose as a game. A significant place in the educational practice of the Slavs was occupied by the pagan religion. The family was mainly engaged in raising the ancient Slavs. Up to 3-4 years old – children under the care of the mother, from 4-6 years old – in families of peasants and artisans, they did their best work at home. Children of the nobility were given to another family (“Kum before the godfathers instructed the mind”), from 7–14 (15) years – the girls under the guidance of the mother studied housekeeping, the teenage boys of the ordinary community members mastered labor skills, the children of the warriors from 12 years in the grids mastered the art of war.
Questions for self-control
1. What are the features of education in primitive society?
2. What was the reason for the development of schools and the improvement of education in slave states?
3. Identify the common and different in the ideals and practices of education and training in Sparta and Athens.
4. What are the progressive pedagogical ideas of ancient philosophers entered the fund of pedagogical science and found application in modern practice?
5. What was the ideal of upbringing and educational practice among the ancient Slavs?
4. History of Pedagogy / Ed.
6. Readings on the history of foreign pedagogy. – M., 1981. – 346 p.
7. Essays on the history of school and pedagogy abroad. – M., 1988. –
8. Life and history of antiquity. – M., 1988. – 270 p.
Topic 2. School and pedagogical thought in the Middle Ages
The socio-economic structure of the feudal society. The monopoly of the church on education. The development of church culture and the emergence of church schools (VI.). Typology of church schools, educational content and teaching methods. Levels of instruction in church schools of the early middle ages (elementary, intermediate, elevated). The dogmatic nature of learning.
The emergence of secular educational institutions (IX – XVI centuries.). City schools (magistrates, guild, guild) and their purpose. Apprenticeship system The emergence and development of universities in Western Europe. Universities as centers of medieval culture, education and science.
Education secular feudal lords. Knightly education system. Features of female education in the Middle Ages.
The contribution of medieval philosophers and theologians (P. Abelard,
Culture and science in the Renaissance (XIV – XVI centuries). A comprehensively developed, socially active person is the humanistic ideal of the era. The pedagogical triad of the Renaissance – classical education, physical development, civic education. Pedagogical ideas in the works of humanists and early utopian socialists (
Reformation and its policy in the field of education and upbringing. Jesuit education system in the period of the Counter Reformation.
1. The socio-economic structure of the feudal society. The monopoly of the church on education.
2. Education and education in Byzantium.
3. Church Schools in Western Europe.
4. The system of knightly education.
5. Secular education. The emergence of medieval universities. Guild, guild, city schools.
6. School and pedagogical thought of the Renaissance.
The Middle Ages – a huge historical layer, exciting more than twelve centuries. Within the framework of the Middle Ages, three periods are usually distinguished: V – X centuries. – Early Middle Ages, XI – XIII centuries. – developed or high Middle Ages and XIV – XVI centuries. later the Middle Ages, also called the Renaissance.
The beginning of the Middle Ages in Central, Western and Southern Europe is associated with the collapse of the Roman Empire (IV century). During this period, which began in the 5th century and was replaced by the slave-owning society that had outlived itself, comes a new way of life associated with the rise of feudal relations. All education and culture in this period is in the hands of the church and religious organizations: in Byzantium under the influence of Orthodox Christianity, in the Western European countries – the Catholic religion. Catholicism and Orthodoxy preached humility, patience, denial of earthly interests and needs for the salvation of the soul in the future afterlife. The teacher did not spare his students for mistakes, cruel corporal punishment was very common. They were approved by the church, which taught “that human nature is sinful,” and corporal punishment contributes to the salvation of the soul, expels the “devilish beginning.” The connection of medieval culture with the Christian religion, the need to use books in Latin in divine services, in Western Europe determined a peculiar type of school, the content of instruction in which was religious, the language became Latin; foreign to most European nations. In schools, severe discipline reigned, dogmatic, based on unconscious memorization of texts.
2. Education and education in Byzantium.
In 395, the Roman Empire collapsed into Western and Eastern (Byzantine). Byzantium existed for more than a thousand years, collapsed in 1453 under the blows of the Turkish conquerors. The level of education in medieval Byzantium was very significant and markedly exceeded the level of education in Western Europe. Social restrictions on education did not exist. A notable feature of social life was the high social status of educated people. “Education is the greatest of virtues,” says one of the imperial decrees. In Byzantium, unlike most medieval states, there was no monopoly of the church on education. The secular power in the person of the emperor dictated the conditions and course of development of school affairs.
There are several stages in the history of enlightenment and pedagogical thought of Byzantium. At the first stage (IV –IX), the influence of the ideology of early Christianity and the traditions of ancient education was noticeable. Stage IX – XII centuries. known as the highest rise of enlightenment. Its beginning is connected with the activity of Constantine VII of the Porphyrogenitus (913-959), new educational institutions were opened and various works of encyclopedic content appeared. Konstantin encouraged the work of educational scientists. But in the 12th and 15th centuries, enlightenment and pedagogical thought were in deep crisis. Many scientists left for Europe, took away the best works, works of the ancient world, which contributed to the spread of Byzantine culture, enlightenment in Europe.
In the medieval society two educational systems originated: religious and knightly, later appeared secular. Each of them had its own characteristics and envisaged a specific goal.
3. Church Schools in Western Europe.
Of great importance in the life of Western European countries was the Catholic Church. She held all the education in her hands. In medieval monasteries, books were written for the needs of worship, copyists were prepared, libraries and schools were created.
Earlier, monastic schools were formed. Some monasteries had internal and external schools: the first were boys, whom their parents gave to monasticism, and they lived in monasteries; in external schools, children of the inhabitants of this church parish (laity).
In the centers of the church administration, gradually, from the episcopal dormitories, where children were sent for education, cathedral or cathedral schools (schools at the bishop’s department) developed. In a number of places, these schools were divided into internal schools where pupils lived and external schools for children of lay people (as a rule, children of noblemen, less often – famous citizens) studied in external monastic and cathedral schools.
Monastic and cathedral schools, as a rule, had special premises intended for teaching; certain terms of training were not established. The teachers were clergymen who had acquired study skills.
When the churches in the parishes opened parish schools. Parish schools were located in a church building or in the apartment of the clergyman who took on the training of children. They taught them to read prayers in Latin and church singing, less often they learned to write. Often, students did not understand the meaning of what was read in their native language.
In the parish school, teaching continued for several years; along with the children, young men and even adults who decided to comprehend the “book wisdom” also studied. In the initial stage of training, the teacher read the material in an incomprehensible student Latin, and they repeated it out loud; where the students owned the letter, they wrote down the lesson on a waxed plaque, and then, learning by heart, erased it. Each student was called to the blackboard and had to repeat the memorized without hesitation.
The curriculum in monasteries and cathedral schools gradually began to expand, it included grammar, rhetoric and dialectics (the makings of religious philosophy), and in some they also taught arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. Thus, in part of the monastic and cathedral schools were given an increased education. Its content was the “network of free arts”. Taught theology, which was considered the crown of science.
The bulk of the people did not receive education in schools; children were raised by their parents in their daily work. In families and workshops artisans formed a system of apprenticeship.
4. Education secular feudal lords. In a different way, the sons of knights were brought up – “the gentlemen of the land and peasants”, who developed military-physical skills, feudal morality and piety, taught to behave in “high society”.
The content of knightly education consisted of “seven knightly virtues”: riding a horse, swimming, owning a spear, sword and shield, fencing, hunting, playing chess, the ability to compose and sing poetry.
The game of chess was considered as a means of instilling perseverance and the ability to correctly navigate. The ability to compose and sing poetry was necessary in order to shine in high society, glorify military exploits and serve the “lady of the heart.” Reading and writing were not obligatory for the knightly class (earls, dukes) in the early medieval period were usually illiterate. Religious “truths” were usually communicated to the children of knights by some kind of “spiritual father”, most often the chaplain of the castle.
Up to 7 years, the eldest sons of the feudal lords remained in their family; from the age of 7 they went to the castle to the superior feudal lord (overlord), where they performed the duties of the page when the overlord’s wife. From the age of 14, with the presentation of the sword, which was performed in a solemn atmosphere, until the age of 21 the young man consisted of a suzerain squire, learning to ride a horse, the ability to wield a weapon. He accompanied the suzerain on hikes and hunting, participated in knightly tournaments and
The younger sons of secular feudal lords remained at home, practiced “knightly virtues” and learned religion from the chaplain of the castle, less often reading and writing: some of them were sent to the bishop’s court and were preparing to take top church positions.
Girls of noble birth (daughters of secular feudal lords and other rich people) received a good education at women’s monasteries, underwent a special course of study (included prose, poetry, classical languages, singing, etc.), they were preparing to become secular ladies.
6. Secular education. The emergence of medieval universities. Guild, guild, city schools.
In the 12th century, universities began to appear at cathedrals and monasteries. They were based on the principles of autonomy and self-government, they chose the rector, had their own court, awarded scientific degrees and
The medieval university had 4 faculties: artistic (preparatory), performing the role of a secondary school, where they studied the “seven liberal arts” and at the end received a bachelor’s degree, and defended themselves before the members of the faculty of the “master of arts”. Then it was possible to continue education in theological, legal, medical, where the period of study was 6-7 years as well as at the preparatory stage and ended with a job protection for a doctor of science degree.
The student took the course in a strictly defined order: he listened to lectures, participated in disputes. The young man, coming to study at the university at the age of 13-14, was under the care of one professor for several years, and then attended the classes of other professors. The student received the right to be represented for the exam, having listened to a certain number of lectures and taking part in disputes.
There were a university at the expense of the church, student tuition fees and various donations. Universities usually were not dependent on city authorities: both the student and the universities themselves were distinguished by mobility and mobility. Not getting along with the authorities or being in the war zone, universities moved from one city to another. Universities gradually became the centers of the medieval, but it was still in the “diapers” of theology and was just beginning to get rid of them. During the Middle Ages, scholasticism was developed, which sought to reconcile, bring together science and theology, secular knowledge and the Christian faith, which became a universal philosophy and theology in the 11th and 15th centuries.
Scholasticism developed formal logical thinking. One of its prominent representatives was Thomas Aquinas (XIII century), whose works were the main sources in the study of theology in school. Over time, scholasticism turned into a formal, empty “science” of word discourse, but for many centuries it prevailed in learning.
Scholastic pundits led endless debates on the topic, for example, “is snow white or black?”, “Is fire hot or cold?” And others, spending weeks on them and reaching quarrels, and even fights.
In the 13th – 15th centuries, the population itself, as well as the city authorities, began to create shop guild (for artisan children), guild schools (for merchants’ children), which later united into city ones. Education in the first two went in their native language, in urban areas – also in Latin. In addition to reading, writing, counting, knowledge of a professional nature was given (at workshops of artisans). Similar places appeared for girls.
6. School and pedagogical thought in the Renaissance.
In European culture, a new view of the world and man, which differs from the medieval religious and dogmatic one, is gradually taking shape. The most advanced thinkers then proclaimed the ideas of humanism, and man was recognized then as the highest value on earth. An era called the Renaissance began, which meant the restoration of the lost values of the ancient world, a new discovery of ancient achievements.
This is the time of great inventions and discoveries, the development of culture, science and education. (typography in 1517, the discovery of America, the sea route to India, the emergence of Romanesque and Gothic styles in architecture, unsurpassed masterpieces of painting by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, the poetry of Petrarch and Daite, and many others. Other).
Originating in Italy, the ideas of the Renaissance penetrate first into France, then into other Western European countries. Educators, educators (humanists) of the Renaissance criticized the defects of education and identified a new humane principle of education Vittorino da Feltre (XV century.).
The educational institution, called “House of Joy”, which was led by this teacher, sought to develop “the mind, body and heart.” The main subjects of the program were classical languages (Latin, Greek), literature. We studied logic, mathematics, painting, music. Pupils practiced a lot physically (horse riding, running, wrestling, paramilitary games). Boys and girls were trained together, which was an innovation. There were no corporal punishments, order was maintained with the help of supervision and personal example of caregivers. Much attention was paid to religious education. The school was engaged in 80 students. These were the children of aristocrats and gifted children.
Francois Rabelais (1494-1553) – French writer, in his novel Gargantua and Pantagruel, criticizes the education of that time (giving up physical and mental stress generates laziness, illness, boredom) and represents the ideal of humanistic education, which is taking care of preparing for life strong physically educated and well-mannered person.
Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536) lived in Holland, in Paris, in England. In his satirical work, Praise of Foolishness, he ridiculed ignorance, vanity, and hypocrisy. Proclaiming the natural equality of people, in his pedagogical essays he stated the need to develop the activity and innate abilities of the child through work, he urged to take into account the strength and ability of the child to learn, to interest him in teaching.
Tomaso Campanella (1568-1639) – the Italian philosopher and thinker wrote the utopia-treatise “The City of the Sun” (1602), where he gave a sample of a society based on equality. The interpretation describes the pedagogical principles on which education is based: the study of the sciences, history, traditions and customs; classes in art, crafts, socially useful work; physical development through gymnastics, jogging, games.
Tomos Mor (1478–1535) is an English thinker, in his work “Utopia Island” or “The Golden Book is equally useful, kA and amusing, about the best structure of the state and about the new island Utopia” (1516). He set out his views on education. He considered the primary task of raising high morality, in the spirit of the morality that meets the interests of society and each person. Modesty, virtue, hard work, kindness – education, moral traits that distinguish the harmony of a developed person. Public schools are recognized to develop spiritual strength in students, providing an opportunity to engage in science and the arts, combining education with difficulty. You need to teach in your own language, you need to teach everyone: boys and girls.
So, the main ideas of humanist educators were: concern for the harmonious development of a child, based on his activity, striving for moral, physical, mental improvement of children, love for children, refusal from physical punishment, familiarization with work.
12. History of Pedagogy / Ed.
14. Readings on the history of foreign pedagogy. – M., 1981. –
15. Essays on the history of school and pedagogy abroad. – M., 1988. –
Topic 3. Education, school and pedagogical thought in ancient Russia from ancient times to the XVII century.
1. Education and learning from the ancient Slavs.
2. Education and training in Kievan Rus in the 10th – 13th centuries.
3. Educational activities of Euphrosyne of Polotsk, pedagogical heritage of Kirill Turovsky.
4. Pedagogical monuments of X – XII centuries.
5. Enlightenment, education in Russia in the XIV – XVI centuries.
1. Education and learning from the ancient Slavs.
Since ancient times, Slavs have lived in the heart of Europe, in the east of the continent. The cementing force of Slavism was, above all, the linguistic community.
The origin of the common Slavic tradition of learning dates back to the 7th – 9th centuries, when a new written Slavonic language (Old Slavic or Old Bulgarian) emerged. A special role in its creation was played by the brothers Cyril and Methodius (Byzantine enlighteners). This language was the same for Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moravia, was intended for "book teaching".
The first school, where teaching was conducted in the Slavic language, was opened by Cyril and Methodius in the capital of the Moravian principality Veligrad in 863. Learning was simpler and easier, something that was conducted in Western European schools in Latin, because the teaching was not a dead, but a living, spoken language. The disciples of Cyril and Methodius (Slavic scribes) settled throughout the Slavic world and created schools. A huge role in the development of upbringing and education in the medieval Slavic world was played by Christianity, the split into Orthodoxy and Catholicism. Eastern and southern Slavs were influenced by the Greek-Byzantine religious, cultural-educational tradition, the Western Slavs were influenced by the Roman Catholic, Western European tradition of education.
The raising of children by the Slavs was carried out primarily in the family. Parents, first of all, mothers, educated and home schooling "master of letters" teachers taught children at home. Such training was also called "schools of letters".
In VI – IX centuries. the Eastern Slavs have already identified this form of education as an apprenticeship (students lived in the family of an artisan, learned craft, read a little literacy, helped with the housework, acquired moral and religious qualities that corresponded to the spirit of the new family). The children of the military, warriors were trained in special houses, received military training. The children of the priests received intellectual training in the buildings and church churches workshops, were trained in pagan religion and writing. At first there was a pictographic sign letter, and from the ninth century, under the influence of the Byzantine alphabet (Cyrillic), the ancient Russian letter-letter alphabet began to take shape.
2. Education and training in Kievan Rus in the 10th – 13th centuries.
At the turn of the 8th – 9th centuries, the largest in Europe, the early feudal state Rus, was established with its center in Kiev (it lasted until the period of feudal fragmentation and the Mongol-Tatar conquest until the beginning of the 14th century). A powerful political union was created, uniting numerous tribes from the Carpathians to the Urals, from the black to the white seas, under the rule of the Kiev princes. In 988, on the initiative of Kievan prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich, the baptism of Rus took place. Together with Christianity, perceived from Byzantium, enlightenment and culture came. Paganism gradually began to collapse, churches appeared instead of shrines, priests were appointed. Schools were created at churches and monasteries. Vladimir S. opened the first school in Kiev "book teaching". Education at first was planted on top. School for Russia was a new phenomenon and was perceived with caution. But the princes and their entourage were interested in spreading the new religion. Schools had to contribute to this. Teaching religion and teaching faith were perceived as a single process. Education received mainly children of the ruling classes (warriors, clergy, princely environment, children of princes).
The chronicle of 1028 notes that in Russia there was a rapid flourishing of school affairs. In Novgorod, Prince Yaroslav the Wise opened schools. In the 11th century in Kiev, a school for girls was created in the convent, where they taught reading, writing, singing and sewing. By the 13th century, schools already existed in Vladimir, Chernigov, Polotsk, Turov and in many other cities. The content of education in ordinary schools: reading, writing, church singing, the basics of arithmetic.
At the court of Yaroslav the Wise there was an elevated school, where writers, chroniclers, scribes, translators, preachers, "scribes". An elevated school was opened at the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery to train monks and higher clergy. In high schools, studied grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, foreign languages, dialectics. Textbooks were translated from the Greek handwritten books. At the Kiev Sofia Cathedral by Yaroslav the Wise, the first library was created.
3. Educational activities of Euphrosyne of Polotsk, pedagogical heritage of Kirill Turovsky.
A major role in the development of writing in the Polotsk principality and in the neighboring places was played by Princess Padslav, known in history as Euphrosyne of Polotsk (1110? –
Cultural and educational activities of Euphrosyne of Polotsk manifested in other areas. So, she united around herself talented architects, painters and supported their innovative ideas. On her initiative, the Spassky Church was built in Polotsk, as well as a cathedral with the Mother of God Monastery founded there. The name of Euphrosyne of Polotsk is connected with the creation by the Polotsk master Lazar Boksha of the subscription cross for the Church of the Holy Savior.
Euphrosyne called on the princes of Kievan Rus to end the strife.
At the end of her life, she went on a long, dangerous journey to Palestine. In Jerusalem, she fell ill and died on May 23, 1173, when she was 53 years old. Her body was transported to Kiev and buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. For her educational activities, Euphrosyne of Polotsk was recognized as the holy guardian of the Polotsk land, and on June 5 they celebrate the Day of Remembrance for the heavenly intercessor for Belarus.
Another representative of the Belarusian Enlightenment of the 12th century was Kirila Turovsky (1130-1182), who was nicknamed the second Chrysostom for his skill and artistic word. He was a very educated person: his knowledge of grammar, dialectics, theology is obvious. Cyril deeply studied the Old and New Testaments and their numerous interpretations, which gave him the opportunity to compile serious theological comments himself. Even in childhood, the great enlightener mastered the Greek language. His father was a rich man and knew the cost of education, so he had to worry in advance that his son learned to read and write. Studied K. Turovsky in Turov,
With the arrival of Christianity from Byzantium, K. Turovsky immediately adopted a new faith.
In order to comprehend the wisdom of books, the enlightener became a novice in one of the monasteries, where he continued his education and self-education. There he decided to devote his life to a noble cause – to help people understand the meaning of their existence and promote moral and spiritual improvement of society. Over 13 years
Cyril believed that the most important moral quality is love, which elevates man above other living beings and purifies the soul. The most important manifestation of love is mercy. The enlightener united these two qualities in the concept of serving God, in which he saw the rationale for the existence and purpose of man.
K. Turovsky, as a teacher, was worried that literacy and education became the privilege of only certain classes. In this regard, he noticed that knowledge is needed by all people without exception.
Great pedagogical value had "Teachings" K. Turovsky about education in a person of positive qualities. His works along with "The teachings of Vladimir Monomakh" were of great importance in the development of pedagogical thought in Russia. Have
The speeches of K. Turovsky in front of a wide audience with speeches against human vices, with hints of high-ranking persons, had a great social and domestic importance.
The educator sought to induce his countrymen to the book and knowledge. In one of his teachings, he urged not to abandon reading books. He advised to read consciously, with "by reason".
K. Turovsky wrote one of the most remarkable works. "The parable of the human soul and body"what is also known as "Parable of the blind and chrome".
Not all the legacy of K. Turovsky reached us. There are 8 legends, 21 prayers, 2 canons to the death of Princess Olga. By right the parables of the enlightener excel.
K. Turovsky is a writer, speaker, educator and educator.
Elements of Byzantine culture transferred to the culture and education of Kievan Rus. The genre and style were borrowed from the Byzantines. "Lives of the Saints", teachings and sermons, where the ideals and education program were drawn.
As a sample of the teachings indicated "Izbornik Svyatoslav" (1076), whose material is taken from a number of religious sources. The teachings of the Byzantine John Chrysostom (344-407) were distributed. Excerpts and retelling of these teachings proved to be the basis of many collections with pedagogical orientation. "Zlatastruj", "Izmagrad", "Zlataust".
Pedagogical ideas of Zlatoust were developed by Kirill Turovsky (
Literacy in early medieval Russia was prevalent everywhere. This is evidenced by those found in various cities and dating back to 11th century, approximately 700 birch bark letters.
Family upbringing of children in this period was still built on the basis of folk traditions. The methods and techniques of family education were quite diverse, which was reflected in folk songs, fairy tales, parables, epics, riddles, rituals, games, holidays. The pedagogical thought, the school of Ancient Russia, originated in the interaction of Slavic pagan traditions and Eastern Christianity, retained their originality.
As a result of the invasion of the Mongol-Tatars (1237-1241), the level of education in Russia decreased. Decay has come "book teaching". Many monasteries – centers of enlightenment – were subjected to fire and sword. In 1240 Kiev was burned down the center of Ancient Russia. In many cities cultural values died, books burned, craftsmen, masters of literacy, scribes were hijacked. However, even in these difficult conditions, Russian culture and education continued to develop, especially in those principalities that were not destroyed. During this period, the profession of book scribes was held in high esteem. Books were sold not only in rich families, but also among ordinary people, which contributed to the spread of literacy.
5. Enlightenment, education in Russia in the XIV – XVI centuries.
Pedagogical thought of medieval Russia 14-16 centuries. was aimed primarily at the problems of education. Information about the program, ideals, forms of education contained in a number of written records: "Bee", "Domostroy", "Gennady’s Message" and etc.
The education of that time required to keep the child in "fear of god", obey mentors and elders. Severe discipline, systematic punishments, including physical ones, were recognized as the main methods of education. But many Russian patriotic enlighteners proclaimed the high idea of the initial equality of all people, were for humane treatment of man. (Epiphanius Slavinetsky, Semion Polotsky, Selivestr Medvedev, Karion Istomin and others.) Fyodor Kuritsin created a humanistic work "Writing about literacy"in which he formulated a number of interesting democratic ideas of anti-feudal and anti-church content. He was a member of the Moscow heretical circle. The heretical movement was then a political movement, its representatives were theological "heresy"where they scientifically explained a lot about human life, natural phenomena and
At the end of the 16th century, the first printed books of textbooks appeared in Russia – the alphabet. The founder of Russian book printing is Ivan Fedorov. In 1574, he published the famous primers, who had absorbed the experience of teaching, the masters of literacy of previous centuries. In the afterword to the primer, he outlined some methodological requirements for the use of these publications. The name of the epilogue – "Appeal to children and parents" – says that both children and parents could use the primer, and literacy training was viewed as a family matter.
The church was responsible for the religious education. The duties of the priests included teaching the basic dogmas of Christian doctrine, fostering respect for the church and secular authorities. But during this period, a huge part of the population remained in ignorance and illiteracy.
1. Essays on the history of school and pedagogical thought of the peoples of the USSR from ancient times to the 17th century – M., 1989. – 634 p.
5. History of Pedagogy / Ed.
7. Readings on the history of schools and pedagogy in Russia. – M., 1986. –
Theme 4. Education, school and pedagogical thought in Belarus from the IX to the XVIII century.
1. Characteristics of education and upbringing in the ancient Belarusian lands.
2. Formation of the Belarusian nationality, culture and education in the Principality of Lithuania.
3. Different types of schools, their features, the nature of training in them.
4. Educational activities and pedagogical ideas of the thinkers of Belarus of the Renaissance and Reformation.
1. Characteristics of education and upbringing in the ancient Belarusian lands.
The history of the pedagogical thought of Belarus is a reflection of the centuries-old life of the Belarusian people, their labor efforts, struggle, striving for social justice. The historical roots of folk pedagogy in Belarus go back to Ancient Russia, which includes up to the 13th century. there were also Belarusian tribes. The cultural level of the population living in the Belarusian territories was quite high (archaeological excavations testify to this). Contacts with Byzantium, Bulgaria and other European states contributed to the development of culture and education. Christianity and ethnopedagogy had a great influence on the development of culture, education, and pedagogical thought. Famous centers of political, cultural life, education of the ancient Belarusians were Polotsk, Turov, Pinsk, Minsk, Slonim. The main pedagogical monuments are: Turov and Polotsk Gospel, birch bark letters, Polotsk and Gorodenskaya school of architecture. Great importance in the development of writing and education in Belarus during this period was rendered by famous Belarusian enlighteners.
2. Formation of the Belarusian nationality, culture and education in the Principality of Lithuania.
After the collapse of Kievan Rus, the principalities of western Russia became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (second half of the 13th century – 1569). The capital of this principality was at first Novogrudok, and then approximately at the beginning of the 15th century. –Y Vilna For a long time this city has become an important cultural center for Lithuanian, Belarusian, and Polish peoples. During this period, the Belarusian nation is formed, the population has its own peculiarities of language and culture. These territories began to be called Belaya Rus, the old Belarusian language became the official language, formed on the basis of Old Russian, and Old Slavonic was used in the cultural-religious environment and in teaching (church books were written on it). In 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was united with the Polish kingdom and the state of the Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth (with administrative separation) was formed. From the moment of unification, the process of baking begins. In 1596, a religious union (union) was adopted, which aimed to unite the Catholic and Orthodox faith in the Uniata, the Vatican’s intention was to serve for the Belarusians, Lithuanians and Ukrainians a transitional religion from Orthodoxy to Catholicism, which led to a religious struggle between nations. Catholicism accepted only the feudal nobility; sermons in Latin were not familiar to the people. The struggle of confessions for the impact on the people developed and the school was used as a means of this influence.
3. Different types of schools, their features, the nature of training in them.
During this period, new types of schools appear, their content in training and education expands. With the support of the Polish authorities, Catholic monks are actively engaged in the creation of cathedral cathedral schools. Schools were opened in Polotsk, Vitebsk, Brest, Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev. In such schools, the content included: Latin reading, grammar, Polish, arithmetic, music, prayers. The native language is forbidden, it remained only in few Orthodox schools and in some Uniatskie.
Uniate schools – opened at monasteries, developed under the influence of the famous Catholic order – Bazlyansky, trained their preachers and mentors. Ordinary schools gave elementary elementary education, and in high schools they taught rhetoric, philosophy, theology, law (grades 5-6). Opened their schools and other Catholic orders: Bernardian, PR, Dominican, and many others.
Jesuit schools. The Catholic system of upbringing and education in the Republic of Poland was mainly represented by Jesuit schools (colleges). The Jesuit Order is the most powerful and militant in the Catholic religion. Motto – "end justifies the means." Schools were mainly intended for the ruling classes. The Vilna College was first opened in 1570, and in 1579 it became an academy. Later, schools were opened in Orsha, Brest, Grodno, Pinsk, Minsk and other cities. (see table)
Fraternal schools. The policy of exaggeration caused opposition to the Orthodox clergy. One of the forms of religious struggle was the emergence and development of fraternal organizations or communities among the Slavic peoples. The brotherhoods opened their schools (one of the first in Vilnius), where they raised young people in the spirit of the struggle against Catholic and Uniat creeds. Schools contributed to the formation of the national identity of the Belarusians. Fraternal schools have become an example of democratic school traditions. As evidenced by the statutes (which have come down to our time), these educational institutions were general educational and consistent. The status of students is not determined by their material condition, but by their studies and discipline. The brotherhood took upon itself the material costs of studying the poorest children, and the rich paid. Schools like Vilensk and Mogilev were free. The statutes of such schools also testify to the humanistic orientation of the upbringing of children and the high morality of teachers. The students had to show kindness, humility, obedience, purity of thoughts, and the teacher should be pious, wise, affectionate, in all be an example of good deeds. In these schools there was no physical punishment, but the discipline was strict, they used such methods of punishment as exclusion from school, reprimand, teaching, persuasion, example of a teacher. The content of the training was difficult: five languages (Greek, Latin, Old Slavonic, Polish, Belarusian), studied astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, music, religious literature, church regulations. The language of instruction was Old Slavonic. In the fraternal schools was born a new classroom system of teaching. Elements of this system appeared in the Vilna fraternal school, and then switched to others. Many of these rational elements were taken and became the basis of the pedagogical concept
4. Educational activities and pedagogical ideas of the thinkers of Belarus of the Renaissance and Reformation.
In the history of Belarus, the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. known as a period of significant revival of socio-political and cultural life, expansion of production. This period of Belarusian history coincided with the social movement in European countries, known as "Revival". Progressive ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation penetrated into Belarus. There is a noticeable development of education, the spread of writing, new philosophical, pedagogical, scientific ideas. This time is associated with the names of such prominent figures of Belarusian culture, education, science as Francisk Skorina, Nikolai Gusovsky, Simon Budny, Vasily Tyapinsky, Simeon Polotsky, Kazimir Lyschynsky, Zizanii brothers, etc. improvement of the society, development of the national language and culture, did a lot to promote this.
Francis Skaryna (until 1490 –
· The book as a means of education;
· Reliance on the native language;
· The value of labor education;
· Education of self-esteem;
· Formation "thorough man" – spiritual and moral personality;
· Focus on practical actions.
Skaryna laid the basic principles and methods of educating young people of his time.
Nikolai Gusovsky (1470? -1533?) Belarusian poet, humanist, educator, representative of the Novolatinsky school, an outstanding figure of Slavic culture. Born in the family of a hunter, educated in Vilna, Poland, Italy. In 1522 he wrote his best work "A song about the appearance, wildness of the bison and the hunt for it" (Song of a bison), where he outlined a multifaceted ideological and aesthetic, pedagogical and educational program. Preached patriotism and respect for the Slavic peoples. He wrote a poem "Victory over the Turks" and etc.
· Not minimizing the role of mental education, great attention was paid to labor education;
· With the aim of moral and ethical improvement of the society, increasing its education, he promoted the system of Latin European education;
· In education, he assigned a large role to communication with nature, art and science;
· Considered patriotic education important;
· Put the exercise method first;
· Considered the primary education of spirituality (strength of mind is more important than the strength of the body).
Simon Budny (ca. 1530-1593) (
He advocated the improvement of the education system of its forms and methods. By the recommendation of Budny, school directors and highly qualified teachers were appointed.
Pedagogical ideas of S. Budny.
· Opposed the Jesuit methods of education and training;
· Considered the basis of education labor;
· Considered the Bible a means of educating the people;
· Fought for the prosperity of the nation, for the development of its culture, for the identification and prosperity among the people;
· As a scientist, one of the first to turn to the history of languages, vocabulary, phonetics, morphology, and noticed the affinity between certain groups of languages.
In his writings, the ideas of humanism are strong, he believed that the teacher should develop the child’s feelings and mind and respect personal dignity. The teacher should take care of the spiritual and physical development of the student.
Budny’s teaching about education formed the basis of national pedagogical thought. His role in the development of radical religious and philosophical ideas in Eastern Europe and in the development of science and education in Belarus is enormous. Many of his writings were burned down by the Jesuits, and he was convicted as a heretic. Nowadays, 24 works by S. Budny are known (there were undoubtedly more of them). Some of them: "Catechism" (The first school textbook in the Belarusian language with the explanatory dictionary printed in Nesvizh, from Greek is the voice of the teachings.) "Justification of a sinful man before God" in Belarusian, "On the main works of the Christian faith", "About the power of the sword", translated bibles, wrote comments to the translation "New Testament", wrote in Belarusian, Polish, Latin (knew more than 10 languages.).
Vasily Nikolaevich Tyapinsky (Omelyanovich), (c. 1540 – c. 1603). The educator, the successor of the humanistic traditions of Skaryna and Budny, the participant of the reform-humanistic movement in Belarus. He was born to a gentry family in Polotschina, on the estate of Tyapino, not far from Lepel. In the estate, Tyapino organized a printing house, in which around 1580 he published the Gospel of Matthew, Mark, Luke in Church Slavonic and Belarusian. A manuscript has survived to the present day. "Foreword" ("Predmova") to the Gospel, which is the anthem of national patriotism. He worked as a teacher of brotherly schools.
· Education of patriotism (love for the motherland, language, customs, traditions);
· Enlightenment through a book;
· The primary importance of primary education (initial education for the poor);
attached great importance to military training and military education.
Brothers Zizania (Tstanovsky) birth years are unknown. Lavrenty Zizazany died after 1633 Humanist educator, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Russian people, writer, publicist, translator. Teacher fraternal schools in Lviv, Brest, Vilna. He worked as a home teacher in the houses of the princes. Since 1619 – translator and editor at the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Posted "Great Catechism", "Grammar of Slovyansk", "ABC", "Lexis", (a kind of first Slavic encyclopedia.). Together with his brother, Stefan Zizaniy also taught. Posted "Catechism", "The Tale of St. Cyril". These works were directed against Catholicism, Uniatism, and Orthodox officials who cared for the Polish king.
· Pedagogical ideas of the Zizaniev brothers.
· Meaningful learning;
· Practical application of knowledge in life (not only have a candle, but also try to make it burn.)
· The primary role of knowledge in the formation of personality;
· Considered important practical exercises in training and education;
· Attached great importance to the native language, rites and traditions in the upbringing of the younger generation.
Kazimir Lyschinsky (1634-1689). Born in Brest land in a noble family. He studied in Brest, continued his studies at the Vilna Jesuit College, and then at the Academy. Then, in his estate, Lyshchitsy opened a school where children of peasants and gentry, girls and boys studied together. Training and education was characterized by humanism, democracy. His school differed from others in its content and nature of training, since it was taught not by catechism, but on the basis of the real sciences about the laws of the development of nature and natural phenomena, about human life and his personality. Much attention was paid to the study of languages. For his atheistic views, which he outlined in the treatise "Oh not the existence of God ", for criticizing the Jesuits Lyschynsky was convicted and sentenced to death.
Simeon Polotsky (1629-1680) Samuel Gavrilovich Petrovsky-Sitniyanovich, received the name when he became a monk, and acquired his last name in Moscow. He was born in Polotsk, received his primary education there, and then studied in the Kiev fraternal collegium, in the Vilna Jesuit college. For several years he worked in Polotsk in the fraternal school. Divides his life into two periods: Russian and Belarusian. In 1660 with a group of his students went to Moscow to the Russian tsar with a request not to allow the Poles to
Pedagogical ideas of S. Polotsky.
Pedagogical ideas were formed under the influence of folk pedagogy, the practical work of fraternal schools, Western pedagogy.
· Parenting and environment, parents and teachers play a major role in shaping the child’s attitudes and habits.
· Purposefulness in education;
· The whole future life of a person and his behavior depend on the education received in childhood;
· A large role was given to books, the influence of art and literature on education;
· Talked about raising the professional level of teachers and teaching pedagogical knowledge of parents;
1. Anthology of pedagogical thought of the Byelorussian SSR. – M .: Pedagogy, 1986.
2. Asvet and pedagagichnaya dumka from Belarus. Sa international hours and 1917. – Mn .: People’s Light, 1985.
3. Anthology of pedagogical thought of the peoples of the USSR. – M., 1986.
Topic 5. School and pedagogy in Western Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.
1. Changes in the organization of education in the 17th and 18th centuries.
2. Activity and pedagogical views of Jan Amos Comenius.
3. School education in the 17th – 18th centuries. in England. The pedagogical views of John Locke.
4. The movement of the Enlightenment in France. Claude Adrian Helvetius, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
1. Elements of new social relations, other approaches to man, to upbringing and education were gradually born in the depths of feudalism from 14 to 17 century, as evidenced by the Renaissance and Reformation.
In anticipation of the New Age – 17, the beginning of the 18th century. – in the public sphere, the transition from theological to secular religious views is gradually taking place. The 17th century was a time of rationalism and individualism, expressed in the corresponding understanding of human nature and upbringing. During this period, the role of education increases, which is also reflected in pedagogical thought. New pedagogical thought sought to base its findings on the data of experimental studies. The role of natural-science, secular education became more and more obvious. A vivid example of the manifestation of these trends can serve as a number of thinkers.
2. Among the teachers of the beginning of the New time, a special place belongs to Jan Amos Komensky – 1592 – 1670.
The great Czech educator – humanist, philosopher Jan Amos Komensky was born on March 28, 1592 in the town of Nivnica: His father, Martin, was from Komna, where a wealthy family moved from Slovakia. From the name of the village and went the name Komensky. The father was a member of the community of “Czech (Bohemian) brothers.” The Czech brothers denied estate and property inequality, preached the rejection of violent struggle, supported Protestantism, and defended the right to national independence. – –
In 1604, a great misfortune struck Komensky: the epidemic claimed his entire family.
An orphaned teenager was taken to his relatives in the town of Strazhnice. The school of the community “Czech brothers” in Strazhnitsa, of which he became a student, enjoyed an excellent reputation. This school, like the others, was imbued with the same scholastic-dogmatic spirit, but the fraternal schools differed in that they were given the knowledge necessary for practical life, and labor training.
At the age of 16, Comenius entered the Latin school in the city of Prerov, where he successfully graduated. Here he discovered extensive talents and exceptional performance. Thanks to his brilliant abilities, the young man was sent at the expense of the community to the University of Gerborne.
After completing classes at the theological faculty of Gerbourne, Comenius traveled to Holland.
He completed his education at the famous University of Heidelberg. Before leaving for home, he bought N. Copernicus’s manuscript for the last money, “On the Appeals of the Heavenly Spheres,” and was forced to walk a thousand-kilometer way home. After returning to his homeland, Komensky assumed leadership of the school in Prerov, and later, he was appointed by the Protestant preacher community in the town of Fulnek, where he also supervised the fraternal school.
From this time on in the life of Comenius a new stage begins. He works at school with great enthusiasm, studies pedagogical works, improves his school. He becomes an assistant bishop, marries, he has two children. Peaceful and happy life.
But from 1612 for Komensky begins a period of wandering, loss and suffering, full of tragedy. One of the researchers of his work called Komensky’s life “mournful and heroic”. This year, the Protestants who were at the head of the Czech liberation struggle against the Austro-Hungarian Hapsburg Empire were defeated, Komensky’s life was in danger. In the fire of war his house burnt down with a rich library, and the plague claimed the lives of his wife and children. Komensky himself had to hide in the mountains and forests for several years. During these years, he does a lot to strengthen the fraternal community.
Soon, it was announced that Catholicism was becoming the official religion in the Czech Republic, and Protestants were asked to leave the country. Patriots homeland “Czech brothers” became refugees. More than a hundred communities of “Czech brothers” were in Poland, Prussia, Hungary.
From 1628 to 1656 Komensky and his community “Czech brothers” found shelter in the city of Leszno (Poland). During these years, Comenius became one of the leaders of the community, he was also elected rector of the gymnasium. His duties now include the management of the school in Leszno, and the care of students.
Here he wrote in 1628 in the Czech language the well-known “Mother’s School” book (published for the first time in 1657), which became very popular in the 19th century, and has since been reprinted many times.
Komensky glorified his name by creating the famous textbook “The Open Door to the Languages” (1631). This is a kind of children’s encyclopedia, which has made a real revolution in the teaching of languages; instead of dry and incomprehensible rules, it presented 100 short stories from various fields of knowledge in native and Latin languages.
The response to the book was very lively, it immediately began to translate into other languages. From everywhere came numerous congratulations. Book in the XVII and XVIII centuries. served as a Latin textbook in almost all European countries *.
While still at home, Komensky began to develop Didactics, which was intended for the Czech people. With the hope of ending it, he lived in difficult years, taking up again the work, which at first he thought to give the name “Czech Paradise”.
In 1632, in Leszno, Komensky completed his main pedagogical work, which he called “Great didactics”, containing a universal theory of teaching everyone to everything, written originally in Czech and only later published in translation into Latin.
He began to think about his new idea – the creation of “Pansophia” (pansophia – knowledge of everything, universal wisdom). The work plan was published, responses immediately fell down — this idea of encyclopedism was consonant with the needs of the era, discussions began among European thinkers; some did not agree with Komensky, others accepted his idea with approval. The main idea of Kamensky’s pansophia is the upbringing of a new highly moral person, a person of knowledge and labor.
Komensky is invited to different countries, his pansophical ideas and the desire to unite all Christian trends attracted the attention of prominent people of European countries. He accepted one of the invitations and, with the consent of the community, went to England, but here revolutionary unrest began among the population, and he did not dare to stay in the country. On behalf of Cardinal Richelieu, he was asked to continue his work on Pansophia in France. Comenius decides to go to Sweden, as the Swedes sympathized with the “Czech brothers” and provided them with material support.
In 1642 he settled in Sweden, he was offered food to take up the teaching of the Latin language and create his methodology.
Comenius took up the work, considering it secondary. The main thing for him was “Pansophia”, which, in his opinion, could help establish peace among nations. But the need forced to get down to business.
Komansky and his friends provided material support to a wealthy Dutch merchant. Komensky and his family settled in Elbing (on the Baltic Sea coast). For the period from 1642 to 1648 he prepared a number of works intended for practical use in schools, including the “Newest Method for Learning Languages”. In this paper, instead of the prevalence of memorization in schools of ready-made conclusions and rules, a new method of teaching is presented. It consists of the following: first, an example, and then a rule; the subject is the word parallel to it; free and meaningful learning.
It was not only new for that time, but in many ways it was untapped and new after years.
In 1648, the chief bishop of the Czech Brothers died, and Komensky was offered for this post. In the same year, Comenius was elected Bishop of the community and returned to Leszno.
Soon he was invited to Hungary, where the fraternity was provided with protection and assistance. With the consent of the community Comenius accepted the invitation. He went with his family to Hungary, where he was assigned to reorganize the school business in Sharosh-Patak according to his ideas. Here he wanted to create a “pansophical school”. And although he could not embody his ideas completely, he still changed a lot in school. Training in it was conducted according to his textbooks and in accordance with his didactic concept. In the course of the reorganization of school education, along with numerous other works, the Pan-School School and the World of Sensual Things in Pictures were written. It was the first textbook in which the principle of visualization is realized, learning by word is connected with objects, with a visual image. Since it was translated into many languages, it was used in various schools in Europe not only as a Latin textbook, but also as a native language.
In the years when Comenius was located in Hungary, he created about 10 original works, both methodical and general pedagogical. He even shifted his textbook, composing it in the form of a play, which the pupils enjoyed playing with pleasure.
Meanwhile, the situation of the community in Leszno has significantly deteriorated. To prevent the collapse of the community Komensky called from Hungary. However, Leszno in 1656 was in the center of military operations. The community of the “Czech brothers” fell apart, and Komensky, like the others, had to flee. His house burned down, and with it most of the books and manuscripts perished. Komensky found refuge in Amsterdam with the son of his former rich patron.
Since the beginning of the 60s. Komensky devoted most of his time and energy to the development of the problems of peace and cooperation among nations, the work of liberating the Czech Republic. But even in those years he wrote a number of works, some of which were published during his lifetime.
At the end of his life, Comenius would write: “My whole life was spent in wandering and I did not have a homeland, I never found a durable shelter anywhere.” In Amsterdam with him were his son and daughter. Comenius died on November 15, 1670 and was buried near Amsterdam.
THEORETICAL BASES OF PEDAGOGY YA KOMENSKY
In his numerous works: “Great didactics”, “Harbinger of universal wisdom”, “General advice on the correction of human affairs”, “Labyrinth of light and paradise of the heart”, “On the culture of natural talents”, etc. Comenius sets out his views on the world around, man, nature, human activity, human society, which formed the foundation of his pedagogical theory.
Comenius recognizes the divine origin of nature and man and attributes divine attributes to them. A man created by God in his own image and likeness possesses his qualities, and in him are laid exceptional and unlimited possibilities and makings. This statement of Comenius contains a new, advanced and bold view in comparison with the medieval (when a person was declared vicious and sinful from birth).
From birth, a person has no knowledge and ideas, his mind is “tabula rasa”,
So, the steps of knowledge:
generalization, abstraction, scientific knowledge;
comprehension, test practice, wisdom.
The principle of nature conformity Comenius laid the foundation for pedagogy. Nature is one, everything happens expediently in it, harmony and order reign, everything proceeds gradually, nature does not tolerate anything useless. As in nature everything happens in a natural way, the same should be the upbringing of man. Man himself is part of nature.
Man, being a part of nature, obeys its general laws and develops according to natural laws. Each period of a child’s life has its own natural laws. The upbringing of the child should go in accordance with his, the child, nature. “There is no need to bring something to a person from outside, but it is necessary to develop, find out what he has inherent in himself.”
As an analogy in the “Great didactic” Komensky often resorts to using examples from nature itself.
Kamensky was a true democrat, advocating that all people, rich and poor, have the opportunity to develop their natural abilities, to become harmonious personalities.
The needs of the people themselves determine the whole business of upbringing and education. “As long as we crave other people’s schools, books and talents, with one of them seeking to satisfy our hunger and thirst? Or, forever we will, like healthy beggars, beg other Soci-Nenitsa from other nations; books, dictation, notes; “Fragments and God knows what else?” said Komensky.
Democracy, humanism, nationality – the most important features of the pedagogical theory
Unlike didactics as a theory of learning, Komensky defines his “Great didactics” as the universal art of teaching everyone everything, teaching with true success, quickly, thoroughly, leading students to good morals and deep piety.
Komensky’s “great didactics” goes beyond the framework of the theory of learning, this, in fact, is all pedagogy, including both education and upbringing. This knowledge is necessary for parents and teachers, pupils and schools, the state and the church.
School, its purpose. Komensky calls the school a workshop of humanity, a workshop of humanism. Teaching children is more appropriate in schools and not in the family. “As for fishes, gardens should be designed, for trees — gardens, and for youth — schools.” The main purpose of the school is to spread universal wisdom. In the school of universal wisdom, everyone is taught everything that is needed for the present and future life. At school, young people are improved morally, so the school is a workshop of humanity and true humanity. These are institutions where students prepare for work, for life, these are “workshops of diligence”.
But in order for a school to become such a workshop, it should teach not only science, but also morality and piety. Scientific education at the same time improves the mind, language, human hands.
Comenius identified the specific principles that need to be considered when creating schools.
“We promise such a school arrangement, thanks to which:
1. Education should receive all the youth, with the exception of those whom God denied the mind.
2. The youth would be taught all that can make a person wise, virtuous, pious.
3. Education must be completed before maturity.
4. Education should occur very easily and gently, as if by itself – without beatings and severity or any kind of coercion.
5. The youth should receive education not apparent, but true, not superficial, but thorough.
6. Education should not require much effort, but should be extremely easy ”(“ Great didactics ”. Ch. XII. P. 2).
There must be an external order in education. The whole cycle of upbringing and education, of a person, according to Comenius’s plan, should be distributed over four periods of six years each.
Steps of the school system:
1) mother school – for childhood (up to 6 years);
2) school of the native language, elementary school – for adolescence (up to 12 years);
3) Latin school – for youth (under 18);
4) Academy – for maturity (up to 24 years).
Parent school should be in every home. For her, Comenius compiled the Maternal School Methodological Guide — a clear guide to how pious parents, in part, should take care of children, in part, with the help of nannies.
The second stage of the school system proposed by Komensky is a school of the mother tongue, which should be in every community.
In the school of the mother tongue, everyone needs to be taught what one cannot do in life: to be able to read a printed or handwritten text in the mother tongue, to be able to write, count, and make the simplest measurements; be able to sing. The child will learn the ethics described in the form of rules supported by examples, which he must learn to apply; should learn the most important historical facts and basic information about state and economic life. Children here will get acquainted with various crafts.
After the school of the native language, compulsory for all children, Komensky identified a Latin school, which should be in every city. Here, learning should also begin with the native language, then any other foreign languages, physics, geography, natural science, and mathematics. The traditional “seven free arts,” morality make up the program of the Latin school. Each of the six classes has its own name: grammatical, physical, mathematical, ethical, dialectical and rhetorical.
The most gifted of those completing a Latin school complete their education at the academy, which has the usual for that time three faculties: theological, legal and medical.
Training organization: A new solution proposed by Komensky for training organization. If at school, for centuries, the teacher studied individually with each student, the students came to study, at different times of the year, and stayed at the school for as long as they wanted, Komensky found a different form of organization of studies. This is a class-less system that suggests.
the constant composition of students of the same age;
conducting classes at a specific time on schedule;
simultaneous work of the teacher with the whole class in one subject.
Classes should be held daily for 4-6 hours, after each hour of a break. “In the pre-lunch hours, the mind, judgments, memory should be exercised, and in the afternoon, the hands, voice, style and gestures.”
You need to start learning in childhood: “the education of a person must begin in the spring,
Komensky recommends practicing only at school. “Nothing should be asked to go home, except in relation to entertainment.” Since the school is called an educational workshop, this is where the success in science should be achieved.
In the “Great didactic” four main general requirements for training are defined:
1. The success of learning is achieved, provided that you learn things before words; start learning from the simplest beginnings, reaching complex ones; learn from books intended for a given age
2. Ease of learning is achieved if learning begins at an early age; the teacher in teaching follows from the easier to the more difficult, from the more general to the more private; students are not overloaded with knowledge, moving forward slowly; studied in school is linked to life.
3. Thoroughness of learning assumes that students will engage in really useful things; the following will be based on the previous one; All study materials should be interconnected, and everything studied will be consolidated by gradual exercises.
4. The speed of learning is possible when everything is taught thoroughly, concisely and clearly; everything happens in an inseparable sequence, when today’s fixes yesterday, and one teacher leads classes in class with everyone.
One of the most important links in Comenius’s didactics is the didactic principles
based learning and teaching and which dictate the use in teaching specific techniques and methods. These are the following principles: visibility;
consistency and consistency; strength of learning material; independence and activity.
Visualization implies the learning of knowledge by students by observing objects and phenomena,
For clarity, it is recommended to use primarily real objects, organizing observation over them. When this is not possible, you need to offer students or a model, a copy of the subject, or a picture, a drawing with its image. So, the golden rule of didactics is visibility. Consistency and systematic. “The mind in the knowledge of things goes gradually,” therefore, “learning must be conducted consistently.”
This means that everything that follows in the training should be based on the previous one, connecting these parts by revealing the cause of the connections. Everything that is planned must be carried out in due time, because “in order to quickly get to where they want to go, it’s not so much necessary to run as to keep up”. Classes should be pre-thought out and planned for the long term.
It is necessary to observe in the training sequence, moving:
from the more general to the more particular;
from the lighter to the more difficult;
from the known to the unknown;
from closer to far.
Training material must be submitted in a strict system, rather than intermittently and occasionally. An example of such a presentation of material for training is given by Komensky in his textbooks.
The strength of learning material. This principle is not new in pedagogy, Confucius and the ancient Greeks considered it necessary to strive for the strength of the subject being studied in school, which requires constant exercises and repetitions. Hence the position known since ancient times: repetition is the mother of learning. But in the Middle Ages it was reduced to cramming and formalism, and the exercises had a mechanical character, resembling training.
Comenius considers the exercises useful when the material is understood by the student: “Only that which is well understood and thoroughly fixed by memory” is thoroughly introduced into the mind, “Nothing can be learned, except that which is well understood”. And it will be clear what went through the feelings: “For the mind, feelings are a guide to science.” Sensory cognition provides the strength of learning. Thus, in order to achieve the strength of knowledge, the teacher first of all needs to ensure the possibility of sensory perception.
The next condition that ensures the strength of learning is exercises in practical activity: “What needs to be done must be learned from practice.” At the same time, “the rules should support and reinforce the practice.”
To test how well the knowledge was acquired, the teacher should conduct public tests at the end of the school year, at which the most capable students would be determined at the competitions.
Independence and activity. Teaching youth does not mean to drive knowledge into the heads of students, but to reveal the ability to understand things. The school strives to teach the student to “look with someone else’s eyes”, “to think with someone else’s mind”. So, physics is taught without demonstrating experiments and deriving the laws of science on their basis, but by reading texts, which pupils then memorize. And according to Comenius, it is necessary that “each student learn everything himself, with his own feelings,” mull over himself and apply knowledge in practice. Everything that is studied must be accepted by the student as useful to him. “You will facilitate the student’s assimilation, if in everything that you wouldn’t teach him, you show him how it benefits …” (Ch. XVII. P. 44).
The student’s self-development develops when he is imbued with a serious love for the subject, and the teacher is to arouse this love. Since the “seeds of knowledge” are inherent in all people from birth, it remains only to encourage the student to independence and lead them.
THE MOST EXCELLENT POSITION UNDER THE SUN
The soul and heart of education is the teacher, the future depends on it; of the world. The “correction of human affairs on earth”, the development of the whole society depends on the upbringing of children. “The next century will be just the way future citizens brought up for it will be.” The position of the teacher is responsible and high; the well-being of every child and of all humanity depends on the teachers. Assessing the appointment, the role of teachers, Komensky writes: they are “placed in a high place of honor”, “they have been given an excellent position, above which nothing can be under the sun.” This should always be remembered by the teacher and treat your work with dignity and respect, “be careful not to value yourself too low”. The one who “considers himself a shame to be a teacher” runs away from school and finds another, more monetary, occupation for himself. And do not hold it.
The teacher, according to Komensky, is comparable with the gardener, obstetrician, shepherd, commander, and those schools that have such teachers are happy.
What qualities are inherent in a teacher who performs the noblest task entrusted to him?
First of all – the love of his work, which encourages the mentor of youth to look for what needs to be taught to all, constantly work and think about how to teach students to absorb science “without screaming, without violence, without disgust.” The teacher, Komensky writes, as a sculptor, tries with love to beautifully sculpture and paint “God’s images” – children, in order to give them “the greatest resemblance to the original.”
Diligence is the most important quality of a teacher, “whoever takes on the highest, must also know how to wake up at night and work and avoid feasts, luxury and everything that weakens the spirit.” Own education, breadth of knowledge and experience of the teacher are achieved by the greatest work that the teacher is busy all his life.
In order for the teacher to adequately perform honorary duties, he should endear himself to the students with a paternal and cordial attitude towards them, with friendliness and caress, an excellent knowledge of his science. Komensky advises the most diligent students to encourage praise, and kids can be treated for diligence with apples or nuts. Treating students with love, the teacher will easily win their hearts, and then they will want to be more in school than at home. He “must be not only the head of his pets, but also their friend.” In this case, the teacher will not only educate the children, but also educate them.
In the upbringing of humanity in children (and this is the purpose of the school – masterful humanity), for students, the example of a teacher whom they try to imitate is very important, children are “real monkeys; for whatever they see, it bothers them and they do the same. ” Therefore, it is not enough just to explain how to act in life, you need to show an exemplary example yourself, you need to “be careful not to look like those born Mercurias who only show with an outstretched hand where to go, but do not go themselves”. The teacher is a living example for students, he must be virtuous, because it is impossible to perceive virtue with the help of various pictures and models, only the example of teachers and affects children.
A bad example of a teacher is very harmful, because “seldom the proverb deceives:” What is pop, so is the parish. ” A teacher is bad – his students are also bad. “Teachers,” Komensky believes, “should take care to be for students in food and clothing a model of simplicity, in activity — an example of cheerfulness and hard work, in behavior — modesty and good behavior, in speeches — the art of conversation and silence, in a word, to be a model of prudence in private and public life. “
Such a teacher is the pride of the school and its students, valued by parents and will be able to adequately fulfill their position, above which there is no other under the sun.
Kamensky’s wise and humane pedagogy did not immediately find its embodiment. Some of his writings were recognized and widely spread during the life of the teacher, which made his name known. But the world soon forgot it, as he forgot his grave, and his writings, scattered and scattered around the world, pursued and hidden, were subjected to offensive attacks. So it was two hundred years.
XIX century. re-opened Comenius, and his thoughts not only spread around the world, but also found wide use. Komensky’s works were recognized as geniuses, and he himself was ranked among a number of the greatest thinkers of humanity. The interest in Comenius since then has not changed, each new generation of teachers finds in him wise thoughts and advice, and the school retains the best that was open to them and entered its life. After centuries of appreciating Comenius’s greatness, people recognized how right he was, wanting to use upbringing to transform life, to achieve universal harmony. The life of the pedagogical ideas of Comenius continues today. The world is bowing before a man who “never ceased to preach universal happiness and joy, and never tired of fighting for them.”
Main dates of life and activity
1592 – Jan Amos Comenius was born in Nivnitsa – Czech Republic.
1611-1614 – studying at universities.
1614–1620 – activities in Prerov and Fulnek,
1621-1628 – life outside the law.
1628-1641 – the first stay in Leszno.
1641-1648 – a trip to England and work for Sweden.