Bronchitis in children is an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract, the most common. The vital activity of pathogens causes swelling of the bronchial membrane. As a result, their lumen is narrowed and bronchial patency is impaired. The nature of the disease is associated with the main symptoms of bronchitis in children.
The inflammatory process limits the functionality of the bronchial glands. In addition, under the influence of inflammation produces an excessive amount of thick secretion, which is sometimes very difficult to cough.
Viruses, microbes, toxins and allergic substances damage the cilia of the bronchial epithelium. This, in turn, leads to disruption of the process of self-purification and the accumulation of sputum. Products of inflammation irritate special cough receptors. A cough in case of bronchitis in a child helps to clear the bronchi, push through the mucus that has accumulated in the airways. But there are situations when the secret is very viscous and thick. Even the cough is not able to push it out.
Thus, the main symptoms of children’s bronchitis are coughing and sputum. If you look inside, you can see that the bronchial mucosa is inflamed, swollen, thickened, has a bright red color, a muddy secret (sometimes of a purulent appearance), and the lumen is significantly narrowed.
Causes of bronchitis in children
The main reason – the penetration of viruses. Infection enters the bronchi when breathing from the nasopharynx. It settles on the mucous membrane, multiplies in its cells and in the process of vital activity damages the mucous membrane. As a result, the defense systems of the respiratory tract suffer and excellent conditions are created for the infection to enter the body. Most often in children it is found viral bronchitis.
Another cause of the disease is a variety of bacteria. As a rule, bacterial bronchitis develops in children under one year old, in weakened, premature babies, children with weak immunity. Bacteria can cause more serious damage than viruses: they damage not only the mucosa, but also deep structures, tissues around the respiratory tract.
Bronchitis in a one-year-old child, children who have received many antibiotics may have a fungal nature. This is also a very serious disease that damages the deep bronchial tissue. Fortunately, it is rare.
In recent years, allergic bronchitis in children has been increasingly diagnosed. Their cause is allergic inflammation of the mucous membranes as a reaction to various antigens (dust, pollen, animal hair and
Possible development of toxic bronchitis. The cause of their occurrence is the action of air polluted with chemicals. Toxins can damage the lining of the respiratory tract. Sometimes the process is irreversible. Therefore, the effects of bronchitis in children of toxic nature are very heavy. One of them is the transition of the disease to the chronic form.
Predisposing to the development of bronchitis factors:
- cold and damp;
- under-treated nasopharyngeal infections;
- overcrowding in children’s groups, dormitories and
How to identify bronchitis in a child?
Since the main cause of the disease is associated with the penetration of viruses into the body, the first signs of bronchitis in children are the clinic of intoxication and the clinic of nasopharyngeal lesions. Moreover, the symptoms in toddlers and older children are somewhat different. To diagnose bronchitis, symptoms in infants should be as follows:
- lethargy and weakness;
- frequent crying;
- reddened neck;
- runny nose;
- dry, hacking, frequent, irritating cough;
- temperature rise.
Older children may notice tenderness in the chest and between the shoulder blades. Very high temperature in bronchitis in older children is diagnosed extremely rarely and indicates a complication of the disease or its bacterial nature.
After a few days of active treatment, the child begins to cough up transparent (with viral bronchitis) sputum or purulent (with bacterial bronchitis). Older children tolerate bronchitis relatively easily: their well-being suffers a little, and does not bother with shortness of breath.
How does bronchitis manifest in children of acute form?
The damaged mucous membrane of the bronchi in the acute form of the disease is gradually restored, sputum disappears, the cough decreases and the child recovers. The recovery process takes about two weeks. But prolonged bronchitis in a child, a disease with a complicated course, bronchitis in weakened children, in children with respiratory tract malformations associated with severe pathologies are often poorly treatable, it takes a long time and is difficult.
How to recognize bronchitis in a child with obstruction?
In preschool children, swelling of the mucous membranes can trigger breathing problems. There is an obstruction, the main symptom of which is shortness of breath in case of bronchitis in a child. Quite a dangerous condition, as possible complications in the form of spasms.
Severe shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air, a sharp breathing disorder are also possible with bronchiolitis. This is an inflammation of the bronchioles (the smallest bronchi). In such a situation, immediate hospitalization and medical assistance are required.
Bronchiolitis may develop in babies in the first months of life, weak and premature. The main symptoms of bronchitis in children of such severe form:
- severe shortness of breath;
- swelling of the chest;
- noisy breathing;
- blueness around the mouth, blue of the fingers;
- compulsive and dry cough and others.
At emergence of these signs it is necessary to see a doctor immediately.
Thus, the symptoms of bronchitis in children of any form are coughing and sputum.
Prevention of bronchitis in children
Protecting your child from viruses is very difficult. It is necessary to teach his body to independently resist aggressive external influences. Consequently, the prevention of bronchitis is a strengthening of the immune system. Procedures:
- frequent walks in the fresh air;
- airing and wet cleaning in the room where the child sleeps and plays (in the first year of life – daily);
- tempering procedures (wiping, sunbathing, washing with cool water, mandatory daily rinsing of the mouth and neck);
- maintaining nasal cavity cleanliness;
- breathing exercises (start small: blow a soap bubble, blow off the parachutes from a dandelion, inflate a balloon).