Champignons are fairly common mushrooms. They are massively grown for use in the food industry, particularly in cooking. At their breeding entrepreneurs build their business, which brings good income. But experienced farmers prefer mushrooms grown at home. Read about it in the article.
What is part of the soil?
Is it possible to grow champignons at home? Of course, it is under the power of the farmer or the owner of a private farm without any experience. The main thing is to get knowledge of this issue and follow the instructions clearly. The most time-consuming process in the cultivation of mushrooms is the preparation of the soil. For a three-square-meter area of a mycelium, you will need 100 kilograms of vegetable ingredients, which include the following:
- Grains of cereals, you can use rye or wheat.
- Fallen leaves of plants.
- Plant from tomatoes or potatoes.
In addition, the composition of the soil should include:
- Horse or cow dung in the amount of half centner.
- Water – 300-400 liters.
- Urea and superphosphate in the amount of two kilograms of each.
- Gypsum – seven or eight, and chalk – five kilograms.
You can make another composition using bird droppings. Here are taken the other ingredients and their quantity:
- Litter and straw – by centner.
- Water – 300 liters.
- Gypsum, alabaster – as in the previous composition.
- Urea – two kilograms.
First you need to make a collar with the same dimensions (one and a half meters) in width, length and height. It is with this ratio of parameters that the burning will take place properly. The compost will mature within two to three weeks.
How to grow champignons at home? First you need to put them in the ground, which is prepared as follows: all components of plant origin and straw should be soaked for a day. At the same time, they and manure should be laid in layers, and the straw should be watered abundantly. Components contained in the collar should be thoroughly mixed and moistened once a week to ensure proper burning. At the first kneading, the crushed lime is added to the compost. The second time is superphosphate. Then mixing is carried out with the addition of crushed gypsum or alabaster. Each time after mixing, the resulting stack is covered with a film.
It should be borne in mind that in the process of preparing the soil, an unpleasant odor, similar to ammonia and carbon dioxide, will be emitted. Therefore, it is better to engage in cooking on the street. But this requires protection from sunlight and rain. If you organize the process in the room, it should be well ventilated.
How to grow mushrooms mushrooms at home? To do this, it is necessary to take into account the important points, without which this process is impossible. First of all, a compost supply is made, as it is necessary for growing mushrooms in large quantities. During its preparation, the temperature can reach from 53 to 70 o C. When the burning process is completed, the thermometer drops to 21-25 o C, and the unpleasant smell disappears. The finished soil has an elastic structure and brown color. It does not stick to hands, straw can be easily broken.
How to lay out the compost?
When the preparation of the soil is completed, proceed to another procedure – its installation. First you need to choose the capacity in which mushrooms will be grown. They can be shelving, wooden boxes, plastic containers, bags. Compost mass is decomposed into prepared containers with a layer, the height of which should not exceed 22 cm.
Types of mycelium
The seed of the fungi is called mycelium. It is grown at home or in laboratories. Mycelium is of two types:
- Compost – this type of seed is stored for a long time at zero temperature, about a year. On the area of one meter square will require 500 g of mycelium.
- Grain – this composition is more effective than the first. Sowing material of this species germinates better and gives great yields. Its consumption for the same area is less, only 330-350 g. But this mycelium has a significant drawback: a short shelf life. Only half a year its properties are preserved. Keep the seed in the refrigerator.
How to grow mushroom mycelium at home?
If champignons are grown for commercial purposes, planting material is better to buy. But some people are confused by the conditions in which it was grown, and therefore they do it on their own. To obtain the material, it is necessary to sow disputes or isolate it from the fruit bodies, and then place it in a specially prepared medium: wort agar. Its preparation is made according to the following technology:
- First you need to mix the beer wort (one liter) and agar-agar (20 g) with boiling water.
- After dissolving the ingredients, the composition is poured into tubes for a third of them. Then the containers are plugged with cotton swabs and placed for 30 minutes in an autoclave with a temperature of 101 ° C and 1.5 atmospheres.
- The tubes are placed not directly, but obliquely, so that no more than 3.5 cm is left before the traffic jams. Now it remains to wait until the wort hardens.
- After that, spores or a piece of the fruit body must be added to the tubes, while maintaining sterility.
- Containers should be kept in a thermostat or a dark room at a temperature of 24 ° C until they overgrow. After a couple of weeks the nutrient medium will be mastered by mycelium. This means that they are fully prepared for landing.
Usually, this composition is used by mushroom pickers for growing mycelium at home, although there are substitutes for it: agar with oats, carrot agar.
The technology of proper cultivation of mushrooms
Mushrooms at home can be grown using mycelium. To do this, you need to properly plant it, and in the room to correctly select the mode of temperature and humidity. Subject to these conditions, the first harvest can be obtained in a year.
If the planting material is grain mycelium, in the ground it is necessary to make grooves 30 cm deep and 50-60 cm wide. The distance between the pits should be 20 cm. In order for the temperature to normalize, you need to leave them for two or three days and only then lay the mycelium. Chess order is used to locate the body of the fungus.
If composting mycelium is used for planting mushrooms, the technology is different. The bottom of the small pits is covered with drainage. Compost is put on top, into which the mycelium is placed. After this, the planting material is closed by him. Subject to all the rules, taking into account the quality of mycelium, after seven days we can expect the emergence of new threads-branches.
After 21 days, you need to lay out wet soil on top of the beds 25-30 cm thick. If the layer is larger, the bodies of the fungi block, their germination will not happen soon.
In order to observe the temperature in the room where mushrooms are grown, it is necessary to temporarily install canopies or cover the ground with straw. If a white bloom appears on the compost, it means that it needs to be moistened. After watering the soil canopy or straw removed.
The first harvest will have to wait for long, only 45 days. It is necessary to collect mushrooms as soon as they mature, as the yield period is small, only three or four days. The next period of fruiting should be expected in three to four months. First-wave yields are the richest.
Champignons in bags
How to grow mushrooms mushrooms at home? There are many possibilities for this. At each yard there are farm buildings, basements. They are adapted for growing mushrooms. However, you can grow champignons at home in bags of polymeric materials. This method has been used in many countries for a long time. He allows to receive large volumes of a crop of mushrooms.
Bags can be made independently from a transparent polymer film of various capacities. For growing houses are more suitable 25-pound. But the main criterion for the choice of bags is convenience in the performance of mushroom cultivation. And to make it successful, you need to properly place the bags in the room. This is done in different ways, but the most common are the following:
- According to the principle of chess. With this method, the usable area is not used only by 10%.
- Parallel bag placement. In this case, the area loss is even greater – 20%.
This can be compensated by deep bags, in which more substrate is laid. And the space between unusual beds is used for air circulation. There are different options for growing champignons at home. If you do everything with the observance of technology, you can achieve an excellent result.
Harvest in bags
Mushroom picking time is the most pleasant time. Mushrooms ripen four months after planting the mycelium in the soil of the bag. When harvesting, you need to take the utmost care: you can not cut the mushrooms with a sharp blade or other object, they need to be twisted. After that, the mycelium is sprinkled with nutrient substrate and watered using a spray bottle. It will bear fruit for two weeks. During this period, mushrooms are harvested in two or three days. It is advisable to use fresh, not frozen champignons. Useful mushrooms with light plates inside the cap. If the mushrooms are old, they will have a brown color, as in these mushrooms accumulate toxic substances that can be poisoned.
The advantages of growing mushrooms in bags
These mushrooms are unpretentious, can grow in the garden in the open air or indoors. But experienced mushroom pickers prefer to grow them in bags, as this method has several advantages:
- Pests and various diseases do not extend to the whole area, because if the need arises, you can always remove a particular bag from the room.
- Due to the mobility of unusual beds in the form of bags, mushrooms can be grown seasonally and permanently.
- Bags when placing can be put in several tiers on special stands. So the area will be saved. This is especially important when growing indoors.
- The cost of bags made of polyethylene is lower than plastic containers. This is important when growing champignons in large volumes.
The disadvantage of this technology is the use of manual labor. But if the scale of cultivation is small, it is not burdensome.
Champignons in the basement
It is convenient to grow mushrooms in such a place, as there is a stable microclimate in the basement located underground. Here, labor costs for creating optimal conditions for cultivation of champignons are much less than, for example, in greenhouses. Growing champignons at home in the basement is easy, the main thing is to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions. During the incubation period, the air humidity should be 75%, not lower. If the basement is dry, a humidifier is used. It is important to know that spores are activated at a higher temperature – from 24 to 28 o C, and mushrooms germinate when it is lowered to 16 o C. The basement must meet the following requirements:
- Have walls of concrete.
- Wood cover is strictly prohibited. The floor must be concreted, in extreme cases – cemented.
- In the basement should be ventilation.
- In order for the mushrooms not to be damaged by insects that can enter the basement, the ventilation holes are covered with nets.
- Walls with a ceiling should be sanitized. For this you can use lime.
- If the basement is large, it should be divided into zones: for the incubation period and for the production of fruit bodies.
How to grow champignons at home in the country?
Growing mushrooms in this way is much more difficult than, for example, in the basement. Here the choice of a site for planting mycelium is of great importance. How to grow champignons at home? To do this, find a place that is always in the shade, and the ground never dries. A canopy is being constructed above the site or a darkened greenhouse is placed on this place. How are champignons grown at home (photos are presented in the article)? Mycelium is planted using standard technology. For mushrooms an important condition for growth is the correct temperature and humidity. These indicators should be maintained, especially the heat categorically do not tolerate mushrooms. Equally important is the choice of substrate. Nutrients in it should be contained in large quantities, and carbon dioxide – in small. The best option is the land that you need to bring in from the forest in advance.
Mushroom cultivation in the apartment
This method is suitable for those who do not have a cottage or garden. The main task for such cultivation of mushrooms is the creation of optimal conditions under which they will normally grow and bear fruit. An example of how to grow mushrooms at home, is presented below:
- The first thing to do is to isolate any room in the apartment for growing mushrooms from the rooms in which people live.
- Measure the humidity. It should be high, about 90%. If its readings are lower, you need to install a humidifier.
- To maintain the optimum temperature, the room is equipped with heaters and ventilation. With their help, temperature will be maintained. It should be borne in mind that the mycelium germinates at 20 o C, and fruiting bodies – at 15 o C.
- After preparation of the premises, the selected containers are filled with the substrate.
- Mycelium is planted in them, it is covered with a film on top, which must be removed after the appearance of mushrooms.
- The soil is constantly moistened, it should not be allowed to dry out.
- When the time comes, mushrooms should be collected.