Herpes is an acute viral disease that is found in almost every organism in a latent state. Sometimes for some reason it can be aggravated. Carriers of the virus – more than 90% of the population of the planet. It is polytrophic and can affect any organ in the human body. Now known 8 varieties of herpes.
Who can get sick
Herpes are susceptible to both adults and children. Infection occurs most often from those already ill in the family. In children, primary herpes is mainly manifested, but in the first years of life, little babies are sick, as they have good immunity, which they get from their mother. The danger of herpes exacerbation may occur closer to 4 years, but by 5 and the child has already produced antibodies.
Types of Herpes
The most famous is the simplest, which is divided into two subtypes. When the first herpes on the body of a child manifests itself on the lip, the second is considered genital and causes diseases of the genital organs, sometimes affects the nervous system.
There are 8 known types of this virus. Among which 3 have not been studied so far, but they are all similar in structure and features. Herpes on the body of a child can be classified as chickenpox or cytomegalovirus – so the first two types appear.
Viruses 3-7 type
The third type at the first manifestation causes simple chickenpox, and in secondary infection shingles. Fourth, fifth and sixth often cause infectious mononucleosis. They are considered acute infectious diseases, which are characterized by the following symptoms:
- feverish state;
- enlarged lymph nodes, spleen and liver;
- atypical mononuclear cells in peripheral blood.
The sixth type causes roseola in children (spotted papular rash). They are mainly manifested in babies up to two years. The development of fever begins and the temperature rises, which decreases during the week. After that, small rashes appear on the skin, which turn pale when pressed. Herpes on the body of a child in the form of a rash spreads mainly on the trunk, neck, face and limbs.
The most common in the sixth type is cytomegalovirus, which babies become infected in early childhood. This usually happens in kindergarten or nursery. Transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with the patient. Children can also be infected in the intrauterine state. Saliva, blood and urine are the environment in which herpes lives. Cytomegalovirus usually occurs in healthy people without symptoms or they are insignificant and disappear quickly.
Herpes 6 and 7 types at the first infection in newborns cause exanthema. But only a specialist can make an accurate diagnosis.
It is established with the help of a general clinical picture and examination of smears, scrapings and imprints from the places affected by the virus. 12-day chicken embryos, infected cell cultures and experimental animals are used for detection. Identification of the virus is carried out using electron and light microscopy.
Evidence of the existence of a virus is the identification of its antigens in body cells and biological fluids. Antigens are determined by immunofluorescence methods with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Or with the help of ELISA analysis. New modern method of detecting herpes – ORC (polymerase chain reaction).
Primary herpes occurs after contact with the virus. It usually manifests itself in childhood and has intense clinical symptoms. The incubation period is several days, it can be up to two weeks. Characterize the virus bubbles in the inflamed area. Most often the child has herpes on the lip and on the nose.
It is very difficult for only born children, when, due to hematogenous dissemination, not only the internal organs, but also the nervous system can be damaged. Therefore, the treatment of herpes simplex in children should begin immediately after the diagnosis.
At the first infection, the manifestation of acute herpetic stomatitis is possible. The incubation period for this is from one to eight days. Herpes in children has the following symptoms: chills begin, fever rises, there is a headache, drowsiness and general malaise. In the mouth, on the lips, tongue, sometimes in the sky and tonsils appear groups of bubbles. They burst and form painful erosion. Lymph nodes grow, become painful. With a weak children’s immunity, the liver, spleen and other organs can be affected. In 25% of cases, the disease can even lead to death, if there is no proper treatment.
Acute herpes simplex
Recurrent herpes is distinguished by a lower intensity and duration of manifestations. Exacerbations occur one to three times a year. Can continue for several years, even decades. Sometimes it becomes chronic when the first rash has not yet passed, and new ones are already beginning. Usually they appear at the place where the virus has invaded, or on the mucous membrane. Usually, a child has cold sores, itching and tingling on the lip.
After the appearance of bubbles, their contents become cloudy. Rash is formed by single foci. The bubbles nest in groups, then burst, forming painful erosion with a reddish soft bottom and a moist surface. And most often, a rash appears on the face, genitals, buttocks, thighs, fingers, and in the area of the sacrum. If secondary infection occurs, the wound begins to fester, turning into an ulcer. Reddish-brown specks often remain in place of erosions and then disappear very slowly. So herpes in children. Treatment should be carried out before the onset of exacerbations.
The infection mainly enters through sexual contact. Infection occurs directly upon contact with a carrier or a person who is ill. Transmission can occur from a person who has no symptoms. Genital lesions with herpes may be absent and apparently not manifest. This is more characteristic of herpes simplex.
You can get sick by orogenital contact. Or through the use of someone else’s hygiene products. Basically, up to 30% of the infection occurs due to herpes simplex of the first type, and its relapses occur due to the infection caused by the second type.
Very high risk of infecting a child from an infected mother if she is sick before birth. If this happened in the first half of pregnancy, then the probability of infection of the baby will be low. If the mother is sick at the end of the gestation period, then the danger to the child increases. In some cases, viruses can cause fetal death. That is why spontaneous abortions (up to 30% for this reason) and late miscarriages (over 50%) occur.
Genital herpes in children has the following symptoms: small relapses up to 7 days, vesicles, ulcers and erosion. Their appearance is accompanied by burning, itching and pain in the genitals. In multifocal disease, the urethra and genitalia, anogenital regions and the rectum are affected.
There is a fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and in one third of the cases – herpetic urethritis. It can start suddenly. There is a slight tingling and burning sensation when urinating. Urethritis passes within two weeks, and relapses may have several years.
Genital herpes in children: treatment of the disease
The treatment is based on the available data and the severity of the disease. Most often used preperat "Acyclovir". Another name for this drug is "Zovirax". The application may be local and internal. But in any case, the drug is very effectively struggling with the disease.
This disease is considered viral, causes skin lesions in the form of rashes. It characterizes his intense pain syndrome. The causative agent is chickenpox or Zoster virus. If herpes zoster is found in children, treatment should begin as early as infancy. It is at this age that the greatest likelihood of infection. The disease in babies manifests itself as chickenpox, then just goes into a sleeping form. Children remain its carriers for life. But the virus does not manifest itself in any way with strong immunity.
It manifests itself in the form of bubble eruptions on the skin. Accompanied by pain and severe itching. It differs from herpes simplex in a wider area of affection and intensity of pain. Its causes may lie in a weak immunity. Often relapses occur. But the children who received the vaccine are almost not at risk of contracting this disease, unlike those who have had chickenpox. In the latter, the probability increases.
Symptoms of the disease: a slight fever, headache, chills and general malaise. Subsequently, pain and itching may occur in the nerve fibers. The intensity of the children is different. Duration no more than 5 days. In acute form, the disease can last up to three weeks. If complications arise, then even more than a month.
With the diagnosis "herpes zoster" in children, the treatment is as follows: drugs are mainly used "Famciclovir", "Valaciclovir" and "Acyclovir". Thanks to these drugs stops the reproduction of viral particles. The last of the above mentioned is more commonly used, since the first two drugs are not yet fully understood. The duration of treatment is about two weeks, but it depends on the severity of the disease. Also used analgesic analgesics and corticosteroids, which relieve pain, inflammation and itching.
In case of herpes disease in children, treatment should be accompanied by absolute dryness of the body. It is not allowed to bathe them, as rashes, which appeared, can not be steamed. To relieve pruritus using compresses with kalaminom. The damaged area should be as bare as possible and have as little contact with clothing as possible.
The causes of herpes in babies
First of all, it is infection during childbirth or penetration of the virus through the placenta (fetal development). A newborn may become infected after contact with family members and medical staff. The herpes simplex virus is transmitted very easily: through kisses, by airborne droplets, through towels, dishes and linens. Most often, it is “picked up” by the age of two. The main reasons can be called:
- weak immunity;
- unhealthy diet;
Symptoms of the disease in children
If there is herpes in children, treatment is provided for its own different types. Since a cold infection begins with a slight tingling and itching on the tongue and lips, redness and pain in the area where the infection develops. Then inflammation begins, bubbles appear with a clear liquid. They increase and break through. The released fluid contains many viral particles.
In place of bursting vesicles, an ulcer is formed, which begins to ache and itch. After on it the scab is formed. After 3 days the temperature drops. But with relapses, bubbles appear again in the same places. With low immunity, headache, loss of appetite, weakness, high fever.
In the second type of herpes simplex, if intrauterine infection has occurred, the first symptoms can be seen already two days after birth: fever and rash all over the body. At the same time, heart disease, diseases of the nervous system, liver and pancreas are often detected. After a few days jaundice may begin. The genitals are covered with ulcers and rashes. If you do not start immediate treatment, then there are convulsions, diathesis, the baby refuses to eat. After that, pneumonia develops and death is possible.
Treatment of children
Herpes in children than to treat? Antiviral drugs, interferons and immunostimulants are used for this. It is necessary to begin treatment at the first signs so that later no complications arise. Pediatric treatment is aimed at minimizing symptoms and suppressing viral activity. To do this, apply pills and ointments that relieve pain and itching. Need to drink plenty of fluids. At high temperatures, antipyretics are used. Herpes in children treatment (photo can be viewed in this article) has a long.
Immunostimulatory drugs help the child’s body to cope with the virus on its own and do not allow to damage all new areas and internal organs. If there is a herpes virus, treatment in children includes interferons – they help in the destruction of the virus and prevent its reproduction. Used as tablets or in the form of candles (inserted into the anus).
In order to avoid disease, personal hygiene must be observed and in no case should other people’s things be used. Need to avoid and communicate with sick people. In order to strengthen the immune system in a child, you need:
- autumn vitamin therapy;
- proper nutrition;
- use of drugs that stimulate the immune system in the winter.
Herpes on the nose of a child can be treated with ointment, which is put into the nose once or twice a day. It usually passes within 2-3 days. If the ointment is not used, the herpes in the nose can bother the child for a week. Of course, most of the cases of herpes occurring are considered safe. However, it is wiser to apply all possible measures for the speedy recovery of the child so that relapse does not develop.